Browsing by Subject "osakkeet"

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  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Hanousek, Jan (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2006
    This paper deals with the relationship between mass privatization and stock market development in transition economies.The link is investigated empirically using a panel of data that includes most transition countries.Our results confirm the hypothesis that mass privatization exerted a negative influence on stock market functioning over the short and medium term.Further, it appears that stock markets in countries with mass privatization were initially perceived as mere byproducts of the privatization process.Such stock markets typically not only failed in their core mission of providing capital for the corporate sector, but generated negative investor sentiment and did little to catalyze economic growth. JEL Classifications: G15, G28, P34 Keywords: privatization, mass privatization, emerging stock markets, stock market
  • Anatolyev, Stanislav (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2005
    Published in Research in International Business and Finance, Vol. 22, 2008: 56-67
    We study three aspects of the Russian stock market - factors influencing stock returns, integration of the stock market with world .financial markets, and market efficiency - from 1995 to present, putting emphasis on how these evolved over time.We .find many highly unstable relationships, and indeed, greater instability than that generated by financial crises alone.While most computed statistics exhibit constant ups and downs, there are recently clear tendencies in the development of the Russian stock market: a sharp rise in explainability of returns, an increased role of international financial markets, and a decrease in the profitability of trading. Key words: Russia, transition, stock returns, integration, efficiency. JEL codes: C22, F36, G14, G15
  • Vuorenmaa, Tommi A. (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 27/2005
    This paper investigates the dependence of average stock market volatility on the timescale or on the time interval used to measure price changes, which dependence is often referred to as the scaling law.Scaling factor, on the other hand, refers to the elasticity of the volatility measure with respect to the timescale.This paper studies, in particular, whether the scaling factor differs from the one in a simple random walk model and whether it has remained stable over time.It also explores possible underlying reasons for the observed behaviour of volatility in terms of heterogeneity of stock market players and periodicity of intraday volatility.The data consist of volatility series of Nokia Oyj at the Helsinki Stock Exchange at five minute frequency over the period from January 4, 1999 to December 30, 2002.The paper uses wavelet methods to decompose stock market volatility at different timescales.Wavelet methods are particularly well motivated in the present context due to their superior ability to describe local properties of times series.The results are, in general, consistent with multiscaling in Finnish stock markets.Furthermore, the scaling factor and the long-memory parameters of the volatility series are not constant over time, nor consistent with a random walk model.Interestingly, the evidence also suggests that, for a significant part, the behaviour of volatility is accounted for by an intraday volatility cycle referred to as the New York effect. Long-memory features emerge more clearly in the data over the period around the burst of the IT bubble and may, consequently, be an indication of irrational exuberance on the part of investors. Key words: long-memory, scaling, stock market, volatility, wavelets JEL classification numbers: C14, C22
  • Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Li, Lingxiang (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2014
    Published in Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2016: 217–260
    We study the impact of firms' abnormal business operations on their future crash risk in stock prices. Computed based on real earnings management (REM) models, firms' deviation in real operations from industry norms (DRO) is shown to be positively associated with their future crash risk. This association is incremental to that between discretionary accruals (DA) and crash risk found by prior studies. Moreover, after Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002, DRO's predictive power for crash risk strengthens substantially, while DA's predictive power essentially dissipates. These results are consistent with the prior finding that managers shift from accrual earnings management (AEM) to REM after SOX. We further develop a suspect-firm approach to capture firms' use of DRO for REM purposes. This analysis shows that REM-firms experience a significant increase in crash risk in the following year. These findings suggest that the impact of DRO on crash risk is at least partially through REM.
  • Finanssivalvonta; Markkina- ja menettelytapavalvonta, Sijoituspalvelut ja -tuotteet (2017)
    Finanssivalvonta lähetti 17.5.2016 aktiivista salkunhoitoa koskevan kyselyn niille rahastoyhtiöille, joilla on tuotevalikoimassa Suomeen rekisteröityjä osakerahastoja, joiden pääasiallinen sijoituskohde ovat suomalaiset osakkeet. Selvityksen kohderyhmä käsitti 15 rahastoyhtiötä. Selvityksen havaintoja arvioitaessa on tärkeää huomata, että kohderyhmään sisältyy erilaisella sijoituspolitiikalla toimivia rahastoja.
  • Ripatti, Kirsi (2002)
    Suomen Pankki. Rahoitusmarkkinaraportti Syksy
    Osakekaupankäynnin toimitusvarmuus on hyvällä tasolla. HEXClear otetaan käyttöön ensi vuonna. Konsolidointikehityksen tuloksena syntynyt kaksi merkittävää markkinapaikkaa: Deutsche Börse ja Euronext. HEXin Baltia-yhteistyö laajenee.
  • Ripatti, Kirsi (2003)
    Suomen Pankki. Rahoitusmarkkinaraportti Kevät
    HEXin osakekaupankäynnin uusi selvitysjärjestelmä HEXClear otetaan käyttöön syksyllä. Kymmenen uutta maata ja niiden arvopaperi-infrastruktuuria ovat liittymässä Euroopan unioniin. Vaikeasta markkinatilanteesta huolimatta lukuisia rakennemuutoksia on vireillä niin Euroopassa kuin globaalissakin ympäristössä.
  • Pesonen, Hanna (1998)
    This paper examines the driving forces in stock market fluctuations in Russia.We found no evidence of a causal relationship running from the emerging stock markets of Asia to Russia.Instead, US and Japanese share price movements seem to have strong implications for Russian share prices. Keywords: Russia, stock markets, causality testing
  • Crowley, Patrick M.; Habibdoust, Amir (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 34/2013
    This paper aims to examine the relationship between exchange rate movements and the stock return of firms at different time horizons by employing wavelet analysis. In particular, we use the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) to decompose the exchange rate movement and the US firm's stock return over the period January 2006 to July 2012. The results reveal that at longer horizons not only does the number of firms which are exposed to exchange rate volatility increase but also the degree of exchange rate exposure increases. What is more, the sensitivity to exchange rate volatility is stronger at longer horizons for importing firms than for exporting firms, which shows an asymmetry in the usage of hedging strategies between importers and exporters. Key words: Discrete Wavelet analysis, Exchange Rate Volatility, Hedging strategy JEL Classification: C32, F31, F23
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Keppo, Jussi (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2014
    The global financial crisis of 2007-2008 has given rise to new regulatory initiatives to put restrictions on the size and term of bankers' pay. We revisit the question whether these regulations are justified, both theoretically and empirically. We model bonuses as a series of sequential call options on profits and show that they provide the higher risk-taking incentives the shorter is the time between the payment points. However, using data on CEO bonuses at the end of 2006 and our model, we find no robust relationship between risk-taking incentives and US banks' stock returns during the global financial crisis. The crisis returns are related negatively to leverage and positively to the market to book equity ratio. Our findings suggest that regulating leverage would be more effective than regulating bankers' compensation. Keywords: Banking, bonuses, regulation, compensation
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 13/2003
    In most countries, banks' equity holdings in firms that borrow from then are rather small.In light of the theoretical literature, this is somewhat surprising.For example, according to agency cost models, allowing banks to hold equity would seem to alleviate firms' asset substitution moral hazard problem associated with debt financing.This idea is formalised in John, John, and Saunders in a model where banks are modeled as passive investors and bank loans are the only source of outside finance for firms.In this paper, we argue that this alleged benefit of banks' equity holding is small or non-existent when banks are modeled explicitly as active monitors and firms have access also to market finance.Key words: banks' equity holdings, firms' capital structure, social welfare JEL classification numbers: D82, G32
  • Taipalus, Katja (Edita Prima, 2006)
    Suomen Pankki. E 35
    Tests for unit roots in log dividend yields, which are consistent with 'rational bubbles' in stock prices, are conducted for the SP500 and Finnish stock market indexes.In addition to the traditional unit root tests, we split the data into 10-year segments and use frequency domain analysis to test for the presence of unit roots in the dividend yield data.The results strongly suggest the existence of bubbles in both the US and Finnish markets.Finally we develop a novel dividend yield-based method to track periods when stock prices divert their fundamental levels. This indicator produces promising results, as it seems to have some forecasting ability concerning booms and busts in the stock markets. Key words: equity price, bubble, rolling ADF
  • Lehtoranta, Antti (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2014
    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), I document that childhood experience of father's job loss decreases the propensity to own stocks as an adult. If this experience takes place at the age of 5–10 years, the probability of owning stocks decreases by 2.9 percentage points in a sample with mean stock market participation rate of 17%. This finding is robust to alternative definitions of age ranges and controlling for random unobserved effects. I also find an effect of similar magnitude in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data. Keywords: stock market participation, personal experience, job loss
  • Chow, Gregory C.; Liu, Changjiang; Niu, Linlin (2011)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 16/2011
    Published in Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 39, Issue 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 577-583
    We estimate a time-varying regression model to study the relationship between returns in the Shanghai and New York stock markets, with possible inclusion of lagged returns. The parameters of the regressions reveal that the effect of the current stock return for New York on that for Shanghai steadily increases after the 1997 Asian financial crisis and turns significantly and persistently positive after 2002, when China entered WTO. The effect of the current return for Shanghai on New York also becomes significantly positive and increasing after 2002. The upward trend has been interrupted during the recent global financial crisis, but reaches the level of about 0.4 to 0.5 in 2010 for both markets. Our results show that China's stock market has become more and more integrated into the world market in the past twenty years, with interruptions occurring during the recent global economic downturn.
  • Malkamäki, Markku (1992)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/1992
    This paper examines the sensitivity of tests of the Sharpe-Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to different estimation methods and asset return samples in a thin European asset market, i.e. the Finnish asset market. A time-varying-parameter model is introduced as an altemative to the static market model. We run a regression over a pooled data set in addition to the second-pass Fama-McBeth regressions. Our tests are carried out with four asset specific samples. In every case, cross-sectional OLS estimation of the betas leads to the rejection of the mean-variance efficiency of the market index. The price of market risk is statistically significant, but negative. Our tests on the time-varying betas indicate just the opposite. We are. not able to reject the mean-variance efficiency of the market index in any of the samples. The price of market risk is positive and statistically significant for the stock return data set that most closely resemble the normal distribution.
  • Malkamäki, Markku (1992)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 31/1992
    This paper studies the driving forces of predictable variation in Finnish stock returns. The dynamics of Ferson and Harvey's (1991) methodology are extended and applied within the Sharpe-Lintner CAPM. We find that market risk is conditionally priced in the thin Finnish stock market. Most of the predictable variation of stock returns is attributed to the time-varying risk premium, which supports the hypothesis of rational behavior by Finnish investors in setting stock prices. However, the conditional residual term accounted for a larger part of the predictable variation of the stock returns than is found in the US market.
  • Jokipii, Terhi; Lucey, Brian (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 15/2006
    Published in Economic Systems, 31,1, 2007: 71-96
    Making use of ten years of daily data, this paper examines whether banking sector co-movements between the three largest Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) can be attributed to contagion or to interdependence. Our tests based on simple unadjusted correlation analysis uncover evidence of contagion between all pairs of countries. Adjusting for market volatility during turmoil, however, produces different results. We then find contagion from the Czech Republic to Hungary during this time, but all other cross-market co-movements are rather attributable rather to strong cross-market linkages. In addition, we construct a set of dummy variables to try to capture the impact of macroeconomic news on these markets. Controlling for own-country fundamentals, we discover that the correlations diminish between the Czech Republic and Poland, but that coefficients for all pairs remain substantial and significant. Finally, we address the problem of simultaneous equations, omitted variables and heteroskedasticity, and adjust our data accordingly. We confirm our previous findings. Our tests provide evidence in favour of parameter instability, again signifying the existence of contagion arising from problems in the Czech Republic affecting Hungary during much of 1996.
  • Myller, Marko (2010)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 1
    The fragmentation of cash equity trading continues in Europe. Some of the multilateral trading facilities now play a major role alongside traditional stock exchanges.
  • Kasanen, Juha (1999)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 73 ; 1
  • Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, Rocco; Hasan, Iftekhar (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2009
    Published in Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, Issue 11, November 2012: 1628-1635
    In today s global economy, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a core component of corporate strategy. Due in part to financial scandals, losses, and the diminished reputation of the affected listed companies, CRS is emerging as a crucial instrument for minimizing conflicts with stakeholders. While corporations are busy adopting and enhancing CSR practices, there is (beyond a very few notable exceptions) no established empirical research on its impact and relevance for the capital market. Our paper investigates this issue by tracing market reactions to corporate entry into and exit from the Domini 400 Social Index (a recognized CSR benchmark) between 1990 and 2004. Our paper highlights two main findings: i) a significant upward trend in absolute values of abnormal returns, irrespective of the event (entry/exit vis-à-vis the index) type; and ii) a significant negative effect on abnormal returns after announcement from the Domini index. The latter effect continues to persist even after controlling for concurring financial distress shocks and stock market seasonality.