Browsing by Subject "pandemiat"

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  • Bank of Finland (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2020
    The global economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March 2020. The health crisis and the lockdown measures necessary to contain the epidemic led to an exceptionally sudden and sharp decline in output worldwide in the first half of the year. In 2020 as a whole, the global economy is expected to contract by about 4–6%, and the euro area economy by about 8–10%. The euro area economy would seem to be diving a little deeper this year than the United States, but the pace of recovery is very uncertain for both. China saw the most difficult phase of the epidemic and thus the sharpest economic contraction in the first quarter of 2020. China’s recovery has been facilitated by the production and export of remote work equipment and protective equipment for the coronavirus disease. The pandemic shock has had a dampening effect on inflation. Unemployment is on the rise, but the euro area has avoided sudden mass unemployment through furloughs and government aid.
  • Bank of Finland (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2021
    Payments are changing. In the same way that technological progress influences so many of the day-to-day activities of households and businesses, it affects how we make payments. The coronavirus pandemic has irreversibly changed how we live during the past year and has accelerated many long-brewing developments. The future of payments may arrive sooner than anticipated just one year ago.
  • Bank of Finland (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2020
    The worldwide economic crisis caused by the corona pandemic peaked in March 2020. In the early part of the year both output and consumption contracted suddenly and strongly; in other words, goods and services were both produced and consumed considerably less than before. The global economy is forecast to contract in the current year by around 4–6%, and the euro area economy by around 8–10%. Prior to the corona crisis, in 2019 the economy grew 2.9% globally, and 1.3% in the euro area. In the current year, the euro area economy would appear to be diving slightly deeper than the US economy, but the pace of recovery for both is very uncertain. Unemployment is growing, but in the euro area sudden mass unemployment has been avoided through the deployment of furloughs and various support measures.
  • Tiililä, Nea (2020)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Koronakriisillä on mittavat vaikutukset Afrikan valtioihin. Itse taudin leviäminen alueella on ollut ennakoitua vähäisempää, mutta taloudelliset vaikutukset ovat sitäkin kauaskantoisempia. Alueen pitkä talouskasvun kausi on päättynyt ja Afrikka päätyy ensimmäiseen taantumaan 25 vuoteen. Maanosan valtioiden elvytysvara jää kauaksi kehittyneistä maista. Kriisin vaikutukset heijastuvat ennen kaikkea heikoimmassa asemassa oleviin ruuansaannin, koulutuksen ja välttämättömän terveydenhuollon heikentyessä.
  • Kärkkäinen, Samu; Viertola, Hannu (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2021
    The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lockdown measures have imposed severe constraints on the consumption opportunities of households, and demand has especially collapsed in a number of service industries. Households have accumulated a significant amount of savings since early 2020 due to the shortfall in consumption caused by the pandemic. The release of these savings into private consumption or housing demand over the next few years may result in economic growth proving much stronger than anticipated in the baseline forecast.
  • Bank of Finland (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 6/2020
    During the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, fiscal policy has been deployed to support households and businesses hit by the crisis. At the same time, fiscal stimulus has been stepped up to bolster economic recovery. After the crisis, once the economy has returned to a sustainable growth path, the upward trend in the public debt-to-GDP ratio must be halted and fiscal space rebuilt. Changing the course of the public finances will require broad consensus on long-term objectives, clear short-term interim targets, and concrete measures over the coming years. With the coinciding rise in age-related expenditure, rebalancing the public finances will be difficult.
  • Bank of Finland (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2021
    COVID-19 is accelerating the payment revolution 3 Future of payments at hand 6 COVID-19 pandemic causing permanent change in payment habits 13 Payment and settlement systems subject to oversight 30
  • Bank of Finland (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2020
    Monetary policy is supporting economic recovery — but the outlook for employment remains weak 3 A fragile recovery from the pandemic crisis has begun 6 Corona crisis has increased the risk of stagnation in the euro area 46
  • Bank of Finland (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2020
    Editorial: Regulation has strengthened the financial system’s resilience 3 Financial stability assessment: Pandemic demonstrates necessity of risk buffers 6 Coronavirus shock will further weaken bank profitability in the euro area 19 Banks must be able to finance firms and withstand loan losses amid the coronavirus pandemic 24 Nordic countries are vulnerable to housing market risks aggravated by the coronavirus pandemic 35
  • Miettinen, Paavo; Saada, Adam; Tiililä, Nea; Vauhkonen, Jukka (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2020
    Stricter capital requirements since the global financial crisis have improved the ability of banks to lend and absorb losses in a crisis situation like the coronavirus pandemic. A robust lending capacity is now needed to finance fundamentally sound Finnish companies with liquidity needs. It must be ensured that banks are well-capitalised to withstand future loan losses.
  • Ru, Hong; Yang, Endong; Zou, Kunru (2020)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2020
    This paper documents a strong delayed response to COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus in countries that did not encounter the SARS disease in 2003. The SARS outbreak was caused by a similar virus, SARS-CoV-1. Individuals in countries that developed SARS infections in 2003 search more intensively for COVID-19-related information on Google during the first outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, in late January 2020. Governments in countries that have not experienced SARS respond significantly slower in implementing containment measures to combat COVID-19 than countries that have experienced SARS. Furthermore, the timely responses of individuals and governments are more pronounced in countries that reported deaths caused by SARS, which left deeper imprints. Consequently, COVID-19 case numbers and mortalities have been substantially higher in countries that did not experience SARS deaths. Our findings suggest that the imprint of the early experience of similar viruses is a fundamental mechanism underlying timely responses to COVID-19.
  • Koskinen, Kimmo (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2020
    Expectations of a deteriorating economic outlook increased the risks to banks’ operating environment even before the coronavirus pandemic spread to Europe. At the end of 2019, banks’ return on equity was 5.2%, compared with 6.2% a year earlier. While some banks were experiencing profitability challenges already prior to the outbreak of the pandemic, profitability also differs greatly between countries, bank business models and individual banks. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, banks’ income development will further deteriorate, and it is likely to fall well below banks’ imputed cost of equity. The effects of the pandemic are widely reflected in the stock prices of European banks (Euro Stoxx Banks Index), which have fallen by 40% since the beginning of 2020.
  • Sintonen, Meri; Takala, Kari; Hellqvist, Matti; Liikanen, Jenni (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2021
    The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated changes in the use of payment methods in Finland. Nearly half of Finns have reduced their use of cash during the pandemic, and most believe that their use of cash has decreased permanently. Contactless and mobile payments as well as online shopping had already grown in popularity, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic people have begun to use them more widely. Nevertheless, even today cash remains an important means of payment for many people, and it still serves as a fall-back in the event of disruptions to electronic payments.
  • Borisova, Ekaterina; Ivanov, Denis (2021)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 09/2021
    In this study, we use random assignment of vignettes that feature optimistic and pessimistic scenarios with respect to vaccine safety and efficacy on a sample of roughly 1,600 Russians in order to gauge public support for anti-pandemic measures under various scenarios. Negative information on vaccine safety and efficacy reduces support for the anti-pandemic measures among individuals who fear Covid-19 and were initially supportive of government restrictions. These individuals tend to be old, and therefore vulnerable to Covid-19, and politically active. This loss of support is strongest for economically costly measures such as banning of large gatherings and the shuttering of non-essential businesses. Mask-wearing, which involves only minor costs, finds broad acceptance. We interpret the reactions in light of adaptation, fatigue over Covid-19 restrictions, and fatalism. The political consequences of non-pharmaceutical measures to deal with a pandemic include loss of public support over time, erosion of trust in government, and political backlash.
  • Ambrocio, Gene; Juselius, Mikael (2020)
    BoF Economics Review 2/2020
    The main problem facing policymakers during the corona virus pandemic is how to mitigate its humanitarian and economic costs. Doing so invariably involves trading off some costs against others as well as short-term against longer-term consequences. We provide an overview of economic literature that is relevant for understanding these trade-offs in the context of the current pandemic. We also discuss a range of fiscal measures that can be adopted with the aim of achieving the preferred trade-offs at lowest cost.
  • Rehn, Olli (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2020
    The lockdown measures introduced to contain the global health crisis posed by the coronavirus pandemic led to a sharp contraction in economic activity during the second quarter of 2020. The world economy has already entered a fragile recovery, but one that will take a long time.
  • Nykänen, Marja (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2020
    The resilience of banks, firms, and households is being put to the test as the Finnish economy and the economies of its important trading partners experience a sharp contraction. However, financial institutions' solvency and liquidity positions have been strengthened significantly since the global financial crisis, and borrowers are in many respects on sounder footing than they were before the financial crisis or during the Finnish banking and economic crisis of the early 1990s. Strong capital adequacy ensures that banks are better equipped to lend to households and firms. A well-functioning banking sector together with government relief measures will bolster the economy's outset for growth after the crisis.
  • Rehn, Olli (2021)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Olemme jälleen vedenjakajalla koronakriisissä. Kun tätä epäilemättä monien hermoihin käyvää pandemiaa on jouduttu elämään jo yli vuoden verran, on taisteluväsymyksen viimeaikainen lisääntyminen ymmärrettävää. Kyllähän tämä tilanne meitä kaikkia turhauttaa.
  • Herrala, Niko; Kontulainen, Jarmo (2020)
    Euro & talous 1/2020
    Koronapandemia iski talouteen ja rahoitusmarkkinoille nopeasti ja monin paikoin ennennäkemättömällä voimalla. EKP:n rahapolitiikka oli jo ennen koronapandemiaa erittäin kevyttä. EKP tarttui kuitenkin nopeasti uusiin toimiin talouden ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden vakauttamiseksi, jotta kriisi ei syvene. Näin ehkäistään pitkäaikaisia haitallisia vaikutuksia talouteen. Rahapoliittisten toimien ohella tarvitaan myös finanssipoliittisia toimia, joihin onkin ryhdytty kaikkialla maailmassa. Kun finanssi- ja rahapolitiikka toimivat rinnakkain, talous elpyy mahdollisimman nopeasti.
  • Rehn, Olli (2021)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Maailmantalouden elpyminen globaalista terveys- ja talouskriisistä on vahvistumassa. Tällä viikolla pidettyjä Kansainvälisen valuuttarahaston (IMF) ja Maailmanpankin virtuaalisia kevätkokouksia hallitsi kuitenkin elpymisnäkymien kasvava eriytyminen ja epätahtisuus. Iso joukko köyhimpiä kehitysmaita ja keskituloisia kehittyviä talouksia uhkaa jäädä jälkeen globaalilla elpymispolulla.