Browsing by Subject "pankkitekniikka"

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  • Kokkola, Tom (1992)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/1992
    The aim of the survey was to compile a. comprehensive bibliography of relevant work that has been done in this area in recent years in different countries, particulary at central banks. I hope that it will be a guide to literature that will increase expertise in the area of national and international payment systems, and that it will support research and development related to payment instruments and systems. The bibliography is divided into two main sections. The first, including Parts I and II, is based on country and international institution. The other section (Part 111) is a bibliography by subject matler.
  • (1977)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 51 ; 5 ; May
  • Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu, Qiang; Koetter, Michael (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2012
    Published in Journal of Financial Research, Volume 35, Issue 4, December 2012: 521-552
    We investigate the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and nonprice loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants, and performance-pricing provisions) are more favorable, and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, audit committee structure, and other board characteristics influence bank loan prices. However, they do not consistently affect all nonprice loan terms except for audit committee independence. Our study provides strong evidence that banks tend to recognize the benefits of board monitoring in mitigating information risk ex ante and controlling agency risk ex post, and they reward higher quality boards with more favorable loan contract terms. JEL Classification: G21, G34
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Lozano-Vivas, Ana; Pastor, Jesús (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 24/2000
    Recent cross-country comparisons of bank efficiency have been based on pooled estimates of banks across countries and have typically assumed a common frontier and that differences in performance among banks are primarily due to disparities in certain country-specific aspects of banking technology.This paper argues that such comparisons of performance must take into account cross-country differences in economic conditions, demographics, and regulatory structures (environmental factors).Using a sample of banks from ten leading European countries, this paper provides detailed evaluations of the efficiency of banks in each country that operate both within and outside their own environments.The results indicate that adverse (advantageous) environmental conditions are a positive (negative) factor for the home banking industry and that technical efficiency is a significant deterrence to foreign competition.
  • Kokkola, Tom (1990)
    Finlands Banks diskussionsunderlag 10/1990
    Undersökningen granskar betalningssystemets uppbyggnad och utveckling, speciellt den tekniska utvecklingens, institutionella förhållandens och valörsammansättningens inverkan på den cirkulerande kontantpenningmängden och dess delkomponenter. De estimerade modellerna indikerar att användningen av betalningskort har minskat allmänhetens kontantpenningefterfrågan med ca. 25 procent, medan däremot sedelautomaterna och bankernas kontantmedelkrediter har ökat bankernas kassahållning med aver 130 procent. Den internationella jämförelsen indikerar att den tekniska utvecklingens inverkan på efterfrågan- under 1970- och 1980- talet varierar från land till land, samt att den i jämförelse med Finland·har varit t.o.m. dubbelt större i vissa länder.
  • Hatakka, Tuula (1997)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 19/1997
    Selvityksessä vertaillaan Suomen ja seitsemän muun EU-maan maksutapoja ja maksujenvälitysjärjestelmiä.Tarkoituksena on selvittää maksutapojen, pankkien jakeluverkkojen ja maksuliikkeen elektronisuuden maittaisia eroja.Selvityksen mukaan Suomen maksujärjestelmät ovat pisimmälle elektronisoituneet. Yksityishenkilöt maksavat Suomessa yleisesti laskuja itsepalveluperiaatteella tilisiirtoautomaattien ja kotipäätteiden välityksellä.Pankki- ja luottokorttiostojen osuus yksityisestä kulutuksesta on Suomessa suurin ja käteistä käytetään vähiten. Muissa vertailumaissa käytetään vielä yleisesti paperisia maksutoimeksiantoja, kuten sekkejä, jotka lähetetään pankkiin tai laskuttavalle yritykselle.Tosin sekkien käyttö on vähentynyt pankki- ja luottokorttiostojen yleistyessä.Pankit ovat karsineet konttoriverkostoaan ja pyrkineet lisäämään konekielisten yhteyksien hyväksikäyttöä.Laskujen maksu kotipäätteellä vähentää tilisiirtoautomaattien tarvetta Suomessa.Internet ja verkkopankit voivat lisätä tilisiirtoperusteisten maksutapojen merkitystä myös muualla EU:ssa.Pankkien välisen maksuliikkeen osuuden koko maksuliikkeestä havaittiin pienenevän.Tähän on vaikuttanut mm. pankkifuusiot, joiden myötä maksut liikkuvat enemmän pankkiryhmien sisällä.Maksujärjestelmien luotettavuus ja tehokkuus ovat tärkeitä, koska välitettyjen rahavirtojen arvo ylittää maiden BKT:n usein monikymmenkertaisesti. Avainsanat: maksuvälineet, tilisiirtojärjestelmät, Suomi, EU, pankkien jakeluverkko, elektronisoituminen
  • Andersén, Atso; Hyytinen, Ari; Snellman, Jussi (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 15/2000
    In this paper we discuss recent developments in the Finnish banking sector.Our specific aim is to examine whether and to what extent recent developments in Finland are broadly in line with the trends common to banking sectors in Europe and also worldwide. We focus on developments in banks' profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and the market structure of the banking sector.In addition, technological developments are surveyed.As regards consolidation, the Finnish banking sector is a trendsetter.The emphasis in structural development has moved to cross-border banking and bankassurance.On the other hand, it turns out that it is quite hard to track some of the trends that are believed to characterize European banking sectors using Finnish data.For instance, disintermediation has thus far been moderate in Finland, as the role of banks as providers of financing to households and companies is still significant and generally shows no signs of diminishing.Tougher competition in lending does not seem to have reduced Finnish banks' profitability, which was at a record high in 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The Finnish banks have fully recovered from the banking crisis of the early 1990s.Improved profitability is largely due to enhanced efficiency as well as recent favourable economic performance.The banking sector has experienced a rapid process of consolidation during the 1990s and currently banks are in the middle of a period of intensive launching of new technology-based products.It can be argued that as a result of developments in the 1990s, the Finnish banking sector is among the most profitable and efficient in Europe. Key words: Banks, financial system, stability
  • Vesala, Jukka (2000)
    Suomen Pankki. E 20
    The study analyses the effects on banking competition of the changes in banking delivery and information collection technologies and of the rivalry from outside the traditional banking sector.Key implications for monetary, regulatory and competition policies are also addressed. Evidence is provided that liberalization increased banking competition in Europe.In a mostly deregulated environment, technology is argued to be of major importance for competition, The study argues against the prevalent spatial modelling of banking competition due to the difficulty of representing remote access and nonbank activity.Instead, a novel two-stage model (delivery capacity, then loan and deposit pricing decisions) is developed based on multidimensional differentiation theory.According to the results, benefits that clients derive from branch or ATM proximity, additional outlets, or superior service quality can maintain pricing power for banks.Technological development reduces these benefits and generates a permanent increase in competition.The optimal sizes of branch and ATM networks decline.Network cooperation reduces network sizes, but is not necessarily harmful, as price competition is stimulated. An empirical implementation of the model is presented for the Finnish loan and deposit markets.Banks' pricing power is found to be entirely due to their branch network differentiation and size in the loan markets, and to exist mainly in household lending.In contrast, price coordination was found to likely characterize deposit pricing.The ability to distinguish differentiation from collusion is a new contribution.Banks' pricing advantages were found to be diminishing in all lending and especially deposit-taking activities, following the technological development, which indicates reduced significance of branches for clients. Technological development, growing nonbank activity, deepening capital markets and weakening price coordination are found to enhance the efficiency of monetary policy transmission into lending (and deposit) rates.The results are relevant for the common euro area monetary policy, since they show the dependence of the transmission on particular structural and competitive conditions of the banking system.Finally, deregulation of deposit interest rates insulates loan rates from changes in deposit rates and, contrary to what is often argued, does not make loans more costly. Key words: banking competition, technological change, delivery networks, monetary policy efficiency, competition policy
  • Ahonen, Jukka (1996)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 70 ; 11 ; November
  • Sõrg, Mart (1990)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 21/1990
    Tämä tutkimus on Suomen Pankin tutkimusosastolla kolme kuukautta kestäneen tutustumis- ja työvierailuni yksi tulos. Pyrkimykseni on siinä kuvata Viron käynnissä olevan rahatalouden uudistuksen alkuvaiheita ja ennakoida sen tulevaa kehitystä. Koska käytettävissäni on ollut lähinnä vain Suo.men Pankissa saatavissa ollut aineisto, en ole voinut kaikkialla nojautua alkuperäislähteisiin enkä myöskään aivan uusimpiin tilastotietoihin. Tiettyä varauksellisuutta arviooni aiheutuu mYös Neuvostoliiton taloutta koskevien tietojen epämääräisyydestä ja mahdollisesta poliittisesta sävyttyneisyydestä.
  • Leinonen, Harry (2001)
    EURO & TALOUS 2
    Pankeilla on vähittäismaksujärjestelmien kehittämisessä kolme merkittävää haastetta: pankkien ja asiakkaiden järjestelmien integrointi, uuden tekniikan hyödyntäminen järjestelmien tehostamiseksi ja pankkijärjestelmien kansainvälinen standardointi ja 1 integrointi.
  • Milne, Alistair (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2005
    The developed world exhibits substantial but poorly understood differences in the efficiency and quality of low-value payment services.This paper compares payments arrangements in the UK, Norway, Sweden, and Finland, and discusses the impact of network effects on incentives to adopt new payments technology.A model is presented, in which private benefits for investment in shared inter-bank payments infrastructure are weak.In contrast, due to 'account externalities', there are strong incentives for investment in intra-bank payment systems.These two features, distinguishing bank payments from other network industries, can help explain some of the observed cross country differences in payments arrangements. Key words: network effects, incentives, payment technology, externalities JEL classification numbers: G21, L14