Browsing by Subject "retail payments"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Markkula, Tuomas; Takalo, Tuomas (2021)
    BoF Economics Review 8/2021
    Declining ATM numbers pose a challenge for competition policy and financial regulatory authorities. In this report we review the Finnish experience of regulating the competition in the ATM industry. To analyze the Finnish developments we extend the model of Kopsakangas-Savolainen and Takalo (2014), and draw on the existing literature and benchmarks from the selected other countries. We document how changes in the ATM market regulation and market structure has decoupled the ATM network size from the declining cash use in Finland. The Finnish regulation has almost exclusively focused on foreign fees, while in general it would be better to regulate interchange fees. If the optimal fee regulation is not feasible, the authorities could also consider quantity regulation.
  • Kemppainen, Kari (2017)
    Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems 1
    Digitalisation is shaping almost every sector of the economy, enabling new ways of doing things, not merely digitising old, often manual, processes. Numerous new digital payment applications have emerged in retail payment markets, but the underlying payment infrastructures have remained almost unchanged. However, it is expected that technological advances combined with increasing competition enhanced by regulatory changes will shape retail payment markets in the coming years. With this evolving new environment will come new requirements, most notably for the authorities responsible for safeguarding the security, reliability and efficiency of payments. To analyse this challenge, this paper first reviews the theoretical framework that can be applied in examining the development of retail payment markets. Based on this, it outlines possible policy actions for the authorities. Secondly, it assesses the roles of authorities in practice, focusing on their position as catalyst for development in the European and national payment landscapes. Finally, it draws policy conclusions, emphasising the importance of multi-stakeholder cooperation bodies involving both payment service users and providers as well as relevant authorities.