Browsing by Subject "sijoittajansuoja"

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  • Tanninen, Tytti (2021)
    Finanssivalvonta. Blogi 2/2021
    Virtuaalivaluutta bitcoinin arvo ylitti ensimmäistä kertaa 20 000 dollaria joulukuun 2020 puolivälissä. Jo kahdessa viikossa eli vuodenvaihteessa 2021 ylittyi 30 000 dollarin ja tästä viikon päästä 40 000 dollarin raja. Bitcoinin arvo siis nousi korkeammalle kuin koskaan ja vielä tuplasi tämän arvon vain kolmen viikon aikana. Arvonnousun on esitetty johtuvan esimerkiksi koronan aiheuttamasta epäluottamuksesta perinteisempiin sijoituskohteisiin tai maksupalveluyritys PayPalin ilmoituksesta laajentaa Yhdysvaltain liiketoimintaansa virtuaalivaluuttojen myynti-, osto- ja säilytyspalveluihin. On myös todennäköistä, että runsas uutisointi arvonnoususta on vaikuttanut vauhdikkaaseen arvonkehitykseen. Bitcoin muodostaa ylivoimaisesti suurimman osan virtuaalivaluuttamarkkinoiden arvosta.
  • Choi, Sungho; Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2010
    The impact of cross-border bank M&As on bank risk remains an open question. Though geographically diversifying bank M&As have the potential to reduce the risk of bank insolvency, they also have the potential to increase that risk due to the increase in risk-taking incentives for bank managers and stockholders following these transactions. This paper empirically investigates whether cross-border bank M&As increase or decrease the risk of acquiring banks as captured by changes in acquirers yield spreads. The paper also investigates how differences in the institutional environments between bidder and target countries affect changes in yield spreads following M&A announcements. The study finds that bondholders, in general, perceive cross-border bank M&As as risk-increasing activities, unlike domestic bank mergers. Specifically, on average, yield spreads increase by 4.13 basis points following the announcement of cross-border M&As. This study also finds that these yield spreads are significantly affected by the differences in investor-protection and deposit-insurance environments between the transacting countries. However, the study does not find that the regulatory and supervisory environment in the home countries of the transacting parties significantly affects the changes in yield spreads. The overall evidence suggests that regulators should judge the relative environment in both the home and the host countries in evaluating the associated risks of an active multinational financial institution and in setting the sufficiency of the banks reserve positions.
  • Brada, Josef C.; Chen, Chunda; Jia, Jingyi; Kutan, Ali M. (2020)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2020
    Using event study methodology, we investigate whether bilateral investment protection treaties afford protection to foreign investors. Examining arbitral decisions for firms from six countries shows that firms that received awards from arbitrators gained in market value by as much as 3%. Per dollar awarded, firms gained over $20 in market value. Thus, we conclude that the system of arbitration does afford significant benefits to firms that can demonstrate that they have been injured by host governments who violated the terms of the relevant investor protection treaty. We also find some evidence that arbitral decisions are anticipated by stock markets.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 17/2003
    Published in International Review Of Law And Economics, 28 , pp. 113-122
    We study the effects of investor protection on the availability of external finance, entrepreneurship, and creation of new firms in an equilibrium search model of private capital markets.In addition to search frictions, we examine contract frictions, specifically interim and ex post moral hazard problems stemming from entrepreneurs' possibilities to expropriate financiers.In our model, the government chooses the level of investor protection that determines the transferability of match surplus between entrepreneurs and financiers.The results indicate that anything that increases (decreases) entrepreneurship also increases (decreases) the creation of start-ups.The effect of investor protection on the creation of start-ups thus hinges on the relative importance of various search and contract frictions.Only when investor protection has a sufficiently large impact on the ex post moral hazard problem relative to the interim moral hazard does strengthening investor protection enhance start-up creation.We also find that search frictions dilute the beneficial effect of investor protection and that contract frictions modify the standard Hosios condition for efficiency. Key words: investor protection, start-up financing, private equity market, entrepreneurship, corporate finance JEL classification numbers: E50, G21, G24
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Rainio, Elina; Takalo, Tuomas (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2010
    Published in Economics of Transition, Volume 21(3) 2013, 509-551 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecot.12020
    A sweeping and protracted reform of corporate law took place in Finland in the 1970s. The reform brought significant improvements to investor protection and, similar to the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act, tightened disclosure rules at the cost of increasing the work load in corporate reporting. We find that the Finnish stock market generally reacts negatively to news of tightened disclosure rules and increased work loads, whereas news of delays in implementation of reform were largely positive. This raises the question of whether strengthening investor protection by requiring greater transparency necessarily promotes the development of financial markets. It also serves to remind that the implementation costs of reforms should not be overlooked.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Kuosa, Iikka; Takalo, Tuomas (2002)
    Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 8/2002
    Published in European Journal of Law and Economics, 16, 2003: 59-89
    Although it is widely acknowledged that the benefits of corporate governance reform could be substantial, systematic evidence on such reforms is scant.We both document and evaluate a contemporary corporate governance reform by constructing 18 measures of shareholder and creditor protection for Finland for the period 1980-2000.The measures reveal that shareholder protection has been strengthened whereas creditor protection has been weakened.We also demonstrate how the reform is consistent with a reorganisation of the Finnish financial market in which a bank-centred financial system shifted from relationship-based debt finance towards increasing dominance by the stock market.We find evidence that the development of shareholder protection has been a driver of the reorganisation, whereas the changes in creditor protection have mirrored market developments. Key words: corporate finance, financial intermediation, corporate governance JEL classification numbers: E50, G2 1, G24, G32
  • Rainio, Elina (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2006
    Viimeaikaisten law and finance -tutkimusten mukaan yritysten ohjausjärjestelmien uudistamiseen ja sijoittajan suojan kohentamiseen tähtäävä lainsäädännön kehittäminen vaikuttaa suotuisasti rahoitusmarkkinoiden toimintaan ja kehitykseen. Suomessa osakeyhtiölaki on perinteisesti ollut keskeisessä asemassa yritystoiminnan ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden sääntelyssä, mutta sen konkreettisia vaikutuksia rahoitusmarkkinoiden toimintaan ei ole aikaisemmin tutkittu kattavasti.Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten vuoden 1980 osakeyhtiölakiuudistus vaikutti sijoittajan suojaan ja yritysten osakkeiden arvoon.Tutkimus osoittaa, että käytetyillä mittareilla mitattuna vuoden 1980 lakimuutos paransi sekä osakesijoittajien että velkojien oikeuksia, mutta velkojien suoja parani huomattavasti enemmän kuin osakkeenomistajien suoja.Vaikutuksia yritysten arvoon on tutkittu selvittämällä, miten lakimuutokseen liittyvät uutiset vaikuttivat osakkeiden tuottoon 1970-luvun aikana.Useiden uutisten tapauksessa markkinoille tuleva uusi informaatio ei vaikuta merkitsevästi osakkeiden tuottoon.Lakimuutokseen ei liittynyt suuria yllätyksiä, koska informaation välittyminen pienillä, suljetuilla rahoitusmarkkinoilla oli tehokasta.Asiasanat: osakeyhtiölaki, rahoitusmarkkinat, sijoittajan suoja, uutiset, yritysten ohjausjärjestelmät JEL classification numbers: G14, G32, G38
  • Parkkonen, Jarmo (2018)
    Finanssivalvonta. Blogi 25.1.2018
    Vuoden alussa tuli voimaan kaksi sijoituspalveluihin huomattavasti vaikuttavaa eurooppalaista sääntelymuutosta: PRIIP-asetus ja MiFID2-sääntely. Niiden alkuperä on finanssikriisin yhteydessä havaituissa sijoittajansuojan merkittävissä puutteissa.