Browsing by Subject "taloudellinen integraatio"

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  • Herrala, Risto (2018)
    Bank of Finland Bulletin. Blog
    While the Caucasian and Central Asian (CCA) regions host ethnically and culturally diverse populations, and are difficult to traverse due to the challenging geography, the countries have a long history of political and economic integration. Much of the region was ruled by Timur in the 14th to 16th centuries and, after being separated by Persian invasion in Caucasus and Chinese invasion in Central Asia, the Russian invasion in the 1700’s brought the two again under a shared rule. Subsequently, the CCA became part of the Soviet Union, and the national borders of today were to a large extent drawn during that era as the borders of the Soviet national republics.
  • Niemi, Riku (2016)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 1/2016
    Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus established the Eurasian Customs Union in 2010. Five years later, it became the Eurasian Economic Union. External tariffs have been harmonised and some internal trade barriers have been tackled. Most notably, internal border controls had been abolished by July 2011. This policy brief brings together facts and data on recent changes in trade-related institutions, trade barriers and trade flows across the internal and external borders of the Union. Trade barriers and flows are analysed at the level of product categories. The purpose is to identify the countries and sectors where the greatest trade creation or diversion is likely to have taken place and whether notable changes can be observed.
  • Aizenman, Joshua (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2015
    Published in Pacific Economic Review, Volume 20, Issue 3, pages 444–460, August 2015.
    ​This paper provides an overview of Chinese financial and trade integration in recent decades, and the challenges facing China in the coming years. China had been a prime example of export-led growth, benefiting from learning by doing, and by adopting foreign know-how, supported by a complex industrial policy. While the resultant growth has been spectacular, it comes with hidden but growing costs and distortions. The Chinese export-led growth path has been challenged by its own success, and the Global Financial Crisis forced China toward rebalancing, which is a work in progress. Reflecting on the internationalization of the CNY, one expects the rapid accelerating of the commercial internationalization of the CNY. In contrast, there are no clear-cut reasons to rush with the full CNY financial internationalization: The gains from CNY financial internationalization are overrated. Publication keywords: export led growth, CNY internationalization, mercantilism, financial integration, FDI
  • Funke, Michael; Zhong, Doudou (2020)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2020
    The political hyperglobalisation trilemma asserts that a government cannot simultaneously opt for deep international integration, national sovereignty and democratic politics, but rather is constrained to choosing two of the three at most. This paper presents a new and comprehensive cross-country panel dataset operationalising the multifaceted three vertices of the trilemma. After an explorative data analysis, we employ panel error-correction techniques to uncover the mutual interdependencies among the variables in the system. The econometric evidence supports the existence of a long‐run relationship between economic integration, national sovereignty and democratic politics as postulated in the political globalisation trilemma.
  • Suomen Pankki (2008)
    1/2008
    "Pääkirjoitus Luottorajoitukset, talouden sokit ja asuntojen hintakehitys: näkökohtia limittäisten sukupolvien mallista Analyysi pankkien likviditeettinäkymien, luottoriskien valvonnan ja talletuspakojen välisestä suhteesta Venäjän ja Kiinan taloudellinen integraatio"
  • Suomen Pankki (2013)
    Tutkimustiedote 3/2012
    Pääkirjoitus: Selittääkö etsintäkitka merkittävästi makrotalouden sopeutumisdynamiikkaa 1 Etsintäkitkat ja koko talouden dynamiikka 2 Konferenssi Euroopan taloudellisesta integraatiosta 10 Tapahtumia 12 Tuoreita Suomen Pankin tutkimusjulkaisuja 13