Browsing by Subject "teollisuus"

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  • Ericson, R.E.; Ickes, B.W. (2000)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2000
    Published in Review of Economic Design vol 6, issue 2 (2001), pp. 185-214
    The Russian Economy has evolved into a hybrid form, a partially monetized quasi-market system that has been called the virtual economy.In the virtual economy, barter and non-monetary transactions play a key role in transferring value from productive activities to the loss-making sectors of the economy.We show how this transfer takes place, and how it can be consistent with the incentives of economic agents.We analyze a simple partial-equilibrium. model of the virtual economy, and show how it might prove an obstacle to industrial restructuring and hence marketizing transition.
  • Holm, Pasi; Honkapohja, Seppo; Koskela, Erkki (1990)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/1990
    The paper formulates a model of wage determination in accordance with the notion of a monopoly union determining wages after which the firm decides on employment. The novelty is to incorporate investment and capital decisions by firms. In the theoretical part the subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium and its comparative statics for wages, capital stock and employment are characterized in various cases.
  • Kurri, Samu (2007)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 81 ; 1
    Particularly since last year s reform of national accounts, it has been very difficult to estimate changes in the volume of industrial output.The present article introduces an alternative monthly indicator of industrial output calculated on the basis of publicly available material.The quarter-on-quarter changes derived with this indicator correspond on average more closely to the developments recorded in the national accounts than the volume index of industrial output calculated by Statistics Finland.The new indicator is available on the Bank of Finland website.
  • Pyle, William; Schoors, Koen (2011)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 33/2011
    Published in The Journal of Law & Economics, Vol. 58, No. 2 (May 2015), pp. 451-480 by Alexei Karas, William Pyle and Koen Schoors
    Russia's tremendous inter-regional variation in the pace of industrial land rights reform has meant that geography has helped determine the current tenure status of firms' production plots as much as any individual firm characteristics. By exploiting both this difference in the pace with which land reform has been carried out across Russia's federal subjects and a unique micro-level dataset, we present evidence strongly consistent with the proposition that more secure rights to land facilitate access to external financing. This finding is confirmed by other evidence from the survey that points to private land serving as an important source of collateral for Russian lenders and borrowers. JEL: 016, P25, P31, R14, R52 Keywords: industrial land, property rights, Russia, collateral
  • Crowley, Patrick M.; Schildt, Tony (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 33/2009
    Many indicators of business and growth cycles have been constructed by both private and public agencies and are now in use as monitoring devices of economic conditions and for forecasting purposes. As these indicators are largely composite constructs using other economic data, their frequency composition is likely different to that of the variables they are used as indicators for. In this paper we use the Hilbert-Huang transform, which comprises the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert spectrum, in order to analyse the frequency content of comparable OECD confidence indicators and national sentiment indicators for industrial production and consumption. We then compare these with the frequency content of both industrial production and real consumption growth data. The Hilbert-Huang methodology first uses a sifting process (EMD) to identify the embedded frequencies within a time series, and the changing nature of these embedded frequencies (IMFs) can then be analysed by estimating the instantaneous frequency (using the Hilbert spectrum). This methodology has several advantages over conventional spectral analysis: it handles non-stationary and non-linear processes, and it can cope with short data series. The aim of this paper is to decompose both indicator and actual economic variables to evaluate i) whether the number of IMFs are equivalent in both indicators and actual variables and ii) to see which frequencies are accounted for in indicators and which frequencies are not.
  • Crowley, Patrick M. (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2005
    Published in Journal of Economic Surveys, Volume 21, Issue 2, April 2007: 207-267
    Wavelet analysis, although used extensively in disciplines such as signal processing, engineering, medical sciences, physics and astronomy, has not yet fully entered the economics discipline. In this discussion paper, wavelet analysis is introduced in an intuitive manner, and the existing economics and finance literature that utilises wavelets is explored. Extensive examples of exploratory wavelet analysis are given, many using Canadian, US and Finnish industrial production data. Finally, potential future applications for wavelet analysis in economics are also discussed and explored. Keywords: statistical methodology, multiresolution analysis, wavelets, business cycles, economic growth. JEL classification numbers: C19, C65, C87, E32.
  • Pääkkönen, Jenni (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2009
    Published in Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Volume 10, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 1-13
    This paper discusses growth differentials of Chinese provinces geared to agricultural activities and those focusing on industrial production over three decades of economic reform. Following trade theory and endogenous growth theory, we suggest that the fundamental differences between regions arise from their resource allocations at the start of reforms. Thus, capital-abundant regions have tended to specialize in industrial production, while the labor-abundant regions have concentrated on labor-intensive pro- duction (agriculture). Many of China.s agricultural provinces suffer from oversupplies of labor, which has led large numbers of people to migrate within the country to work in non-farming sectors of economy. We show that provinces with high shares of industrial production (the industrial club) have converged, and that agricultural provinces shifting to industrial production have been catching up to initially industrialized provinces. Provinces that have stayed with an agricultural strategy (the agricultural club) show no evidence of convergence and appear to have been left behind in terms of economic development. JEL Classi.cation: O17, O40, O57. Keywords: Growth, Agriculture, Convergence.
  • Kostiainen, Seppo (1980)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 54 ; 12 ; December
  • Jalas, Kari (1970)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 44 ; 6 ; June
  • Strengell, Göran (1972)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 46 ; 11 ; November
  • Kaitila, Esa (1948)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 22 ; 11-12 ; November-December
  • Solanko, Laura (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2006
    During the Soviet period industrial firms not only formed the backbone of the economy but also directly provided a wide range of benefits to their municipalities.Firms were in charge of supplying a great variety of social services, such as housing, medical care and day care.The need to divest at least some of these functions was generally accepted already in the early 1990s.Industrial firms' engagement in the provision of infrastructure services, such as heating, electricity and road upkeep has to date received much less attention.Using a unique dataset of 404 large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in 40 regions of Russia, this paper examines public infrastructure provision by Russian industrial enterprises.We find that, first, to a large degree engagement in infrastructure provision - as proxied by district heating production - is a Soviet legacy.Second, firms providing district heating to users outside their plant area are more likely to have close relations with the local public sector along many other dimensions. Keywords: Russia, infrastructure, firm performance JEL Codes: P31, P35 (Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions), H54
  • Laurila, Eino H. (1951)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 25 ; 3-4 ; March-April
  • Levón, Martti (1930)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 10 ; 5 ; May
  • Oomes, Nienke; Kalcheva, Katerina (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2007
    In this paper, we assess whether recent economic developments in Russia are symptomatic of Dutch Disease.We first provide a brief review of the literature on Dutch Disease and the natural resource curse.We then discuss the symptoms of Dutch Disease, which include (1) real exchange rate appreciation; (2) slower manufacturing growth; (3) faster service sector growth; and (4) higher overall wages.We test these predictions for Russia while carefully controlling for other factors that could have led to similar symptoms.We conclude that, while Russia has all of the symptoms, the diagnosis of Dutch Disease remains to be confirmed. JEL Classification Numbers: F30, P28, Q30 Key words: Dutch disease, real exchange rate, resource curse, Russia, oil, transition
  • Égert, Balázs (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2009
    This study seeks to determine the extent to which countries of the former Soviet Union are "infected" by the Dutch Disease. We take a detailed look at the functioning of the trans-mission mechanism of the Dutch Disease, i.e. the chains that run from commodity prices to real output in manufacturing. We complement this with two econometric exercises. First, we estimate nominal and real exchange rate models to see whether commodity prices are correlated with the exchange rate. Second, we run growth equations to analyse the possible effects of commodity prices and the dependency of economic growth on natural resources. Key words: Dutch disease, commodity prices, exchange rate, Commonwealth of Independent States. JEL Codes: E31, E32, F31, Q33
  • Wang, Jiao; Mayes, David; Wan, Guanghua (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 18/2005
    Using a CGE model (PRCGEM) updated to 2002, the paper explores how WTO membership could affect earnings in 40 industries across 31 regions (and 8 regional blocks) of China during the period 2002 2007.Taking into account labour movement between regions within China, the direct contribution of WTO membership to overall economic growth and development is predicted to be small, with a rise in real GDP of only 6.48% short term and 5.6% long term. However, structural economic change and the WTO shock should increase regional output, especially in the established coastal economies.Regional labour movement is found to increase 69.2% at the completion of economic structural reforms.A slight decrease in the Gini coefficient for income inequality is also anticipated. Keywords: Applied CGE modelling, China, WTO, labour movement, inequality JEL classification: C68, O18, R12, R23
  • Koskenkylä, Heikki; Pyyhtiä, Ilmo (1974)
    Suomen Pankki. Yleistajuiset selvitykset. A 38
  • Solanko, Laura (2006)
    Suomen Pankki. E 36
    This study comprises an introductory section and three essays analysing Russia's economic transition from the early 1990s up to the present.The papers present a combination of both theoretical and empirical analysis on some of the key issues Russia has faced during its somewhat troublesome transformation from state-controlled command economy to market-based economy. The first essay analyses fiscal competition for mobile capital between identical regions in a transition country.A standard tax competition framework is extended to account for two features of a transition economy: the presence of two sectors, old and new, which differ in productivity; and a non-benevolent regional decision-maker.It is shown that in very early phase of transition, when the old sector clearly dominates, consumers in a transition economy may be better off in a competitive equilibrium. Decision-makers, on the other hand, will prefer to coordinate their fiscal policies. The second essay uses annual data for 1992- 2003 to examine income dispersion and convergence across 76 Russian regions.Wide disparities in income levels have indeed emerged during the transition period.Dispersion has increased most among the initially better-off regions, whereas for the initially poorer regions no clear trend of divergence or convergence could be established.Further, some albeit not highly robust evidence was found of both unconditional and conditional convergence, especially among the initially richer regions.Finally, it is observed that there is much less evidence of convergence after the economic crisis of 1998. The third essay analyses industrial firms' engagement in provision of infrastructure services, such as heating, electricity and road maintenance.Using a unique dataset of 404 large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in 40 regions of Russia, the essay examines public infrastructure provision by Russian industrial enterprises. It is found that to a large degree engagement in infrastructure provision, as proxied by district heating production, is a Soviet legacy.Secondly, firms providing district heating to users outside their plant area are more likely to have close and multidimensional relations with the local public sector. Key words: Russia, transition, regional issues, tax competition, infrastructure
  • Kinnunen, Jyri; Martikainen, Minna (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 30/2015
    ​In this paper, we explore a relation between expected returns and idiosyncratic risk. As in many emerging markets, investors in the Russian stock market cannot fully diversify their portfolios due to transaction costs, information gathering and processing costs, and short-comings in investor protection. This implies that investors demand a premium for idiosyncratic risk – unique asset-specific risk plays a role in investment decisions. We estimate the price of idiosyncratic risk using MIDAS regressions and a cross-section of Russian industry portfolios. We find that idiosyncratic risk commands an economically and statistically significant risk premium. The results remain unaffected after controlling for global pricing factors and short-term return reversal.