Browsing by Subject "vakavaraisuus"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 262
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Peura, Samu (2001)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita; Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 15/2001
    The rating-sensitive capital charges on credit risks under the new Basel Accord are likely to increase the volatility of minimum capital requirements, which may force banks to hold larger capital cushions in excess of minimum requirements.We analyse this claim on the basis of numerical simulations on hypothetical bank portfolios, in which the bank's choice of capital cushion is assumed to satisfy a value-at-risk-type constraint.The results suggest that the size of the cushion depends on the bank's credit portfolio risk and its chosen approach for calculating the minimum capital requirement.Although the more ratings-sensitive internal ratings based approach imposes lower minimum capital requirements on sufficiently high-quality credit portfolios than does the standardised approach, this capital relief is countered by the need for larger relative cushions under the former approach.The results imply that the cushions induced by greater rating sensitivity may influence both banks' choices between proposed approaches for calculating capital requirements as well as the aggregate level of post-reform bank capital.Hence these cushions should be given due consideration in the final calibration of the Basel risk weights. Key words: new Basel Capital Accord, credit risk, internal ratings, value-at-risk
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (2012)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 2
    The recommendations of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision provide authorities with a high degree of discretion in the identification of domestic systemically important banks and in setting the capital buffers required of them.
  • Arala, Mika (2018)
    Valvottavien taloudellinen tila ja riskit 30.6.2018
  • Mayes, David G. (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 4/2004
    Published in Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Special Issue), January 2005: 161-181
    In the light of the inequity of the way losses from bank insolvencies and their avoidance through intervention by the authorities have been distributed over creditors, depositors, owners and the population at large in transition and emerging economies, this paper explores a number of regulatory reforms that would alter the balance between seeking to avoid insolvency and lowering the costs of insolvency should it occur.In particular it considers whether a lex specialis for dealing with banks that are in trouble through prompt corrective action and if necessary resolving them if their net worth falls to zero, at little or no cost to the taxpayer can be applied in the institutional framework of transition and emerging economies. Key words: insolvency, banks, transition, emerging economies JEL classification numbers: K23, G21, O16, G28, E53
  • Haajanen, Jyrki (2015)
    Euro & talous 2/2015
    Riskipainojen avulla määritellään, kuinka paljon pankilla täytyy vähintään olla omia varoja suhteessa luottojensa määrään, jotta pankki kykenee kattamaan niihin liittyvän luottotappioriskin. Pankin valitsemalla riskipainojen laskentamenetelmällä voi olla merkittävä vaikutus pääomavaatimuksiin ja viime kädessä luottojen hintaan. Asuntoluottojen riskipainolaskennan yhtenäistäminen tukisi pankkien tasavertaista kilpailua.
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 29/2009
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, Volume 41, Numbers 1-2, 2012: 37-49
    We consider the impact of mandatory information disclosure on bank safety in a spatial model of banking competition in which a bank s probability of success depends on the quality of its risk measurement and management systems. Under Basel II capital requirements, this quality is either fully or partially disclosed to market participants by the Pillar 3 disclosures. We show that, under stringent Pillar 3 disclosure requirements, banks equilibrium probability of success and total welfare may be higher under a simple Basel II standardized approach than under the more sophisticated internal ratings-based (IRB) approach.
  • Finanssivalvonta; Finansinspektionen; Financial Supervisory Authority (2011)
    Finanssivalvonta. Pankki- ja vakuutussektorien vakavaraisuus 2
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (2006)
    Suomen Pankki. Rahoitusmarkkinaraportti 1
    EU:n vakavaraisuusdirektiivi antaa monessa maassa toimivan pankkiryhmän ryhmätason valvojalle vahvemman aseman kuin Baselin pankkivalvontakomitean vakavaraisuussuositus Basel II.
  • Kiviniemi, Arttu; Lyly, Teemu; Halme, Tomi (2017)
    Valvottavien taloudellinen tila ja riskit 31.12.2017
    Basel III -uudistukset lisäävät standardimenetelmien riskiperusteisuutta ja rajoittavat sisäisten mallien avulla saavutettuja pääomahyötyjä Uudistusten taustalla riskipainotettujen erien perusteeton vaihtelu Luottoriskin standardimenetelmän riskiperusteisuutta kohennetaan ja sisäisten mallien käyttöä rajoitetaan Operatiivisen riskin uusi standardimenetelmä korvaa kaikki nykyiset laskentamenetelmät – sisäisten mallien käyttömahdollisuus poistetaan vastuun arvonoikaisuriskin osalta Globaalin rahoitusjärjestelmän kannalta merkittävien pankkien omavaraisuusastevaadetta kiristetään Sisäisten mallien avulla saavutettu pääomavaateen kevennys enintään 27,5 prosenttia suhteessa standardimenetelmiin Uudistukset voimaan vuonna 2022 – riskipainotettujen erien alarajan voimaansaattamiselle viiden vuoden siirtymäjakso Uudistusten vaikutukset eurooppalaisen pankkisektorin pääomavaateisiin globaalia keskitasoa suuremmat Basel III -uudistusten vaikutus Suomen pankkisektorin vakavaraisuuteen voimakkaampi kuin EU-alueella keskimäärin Uusien standardien arvioidaan heikentävän Suomen pankkisektorin ydinvakavaraisuussuhdetta 3,9 prosenttiyksiköllä Muiden uudistusten kuin RWA-lattian kokonaisvaikutus vähäinen RWA-lattia vaikuttaa voimakkaimmin IRB-menetelmää soveltaviin pankkeihin, joilla on paljon yritys- tai asuntoluottoja Suomen pankkisektorin vakavaraisuus pysyy uudistuksista huolimatta vahvana
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (2010)
    EURO & TALOUS 3
    Baselin pankkivalvontakomitean valmisteleman laajan kokonaisuudistuksen tavoite on korjata finanssikriisin paljastamia vakavia puutteita pankkien sääntelyssä. Pankeilta vaaditaan vastaisuudessa huomattavasti nykyistä enemmän korkealaatuisia omia varoja suojaamaan pankkeja ja veronmaksajia pankkien tappioilta. Pankeille asetetaan myös uusia pääomapuskuri- ja maksuvalmiusvaatimuksia. Pankkien velkaantumista rajoitetaan uudella vaatimuksella vähimmäisomavaraisuusasteesta.
  • Helenius, Jyri (2021)
    Finanssivalvonta. Blogi 10/2021
    Baselin pankkivalvontakomitean suosituksilla varmistetaan, että pankkisääntely säilyy riittävän yhdenmukaisena globaaleilla pankkimarkkinoilla. Jos EU:ssa ei noudateta Baselin komiteassa yhdessä sovittuja suosituksia, on vaarana, että muissakin maissa (esim. USA:ssa tai Isossa-Britanniassa) livetään suositusten noudattamisesta. Tällöin vaarana on, että ajaudutaan kilpailuun, jossa eri maat löysentävät pankkien vakavaraisuussääntöjä antaakseen (lyhyen aikavälin) kilpailuetua omille pankeilleen. Finanssikriisien taloudelliset ja inhimilliset kustannukset ovat niin suuria, että tällaiseen kierteeseen emme saa joutua.
  • Mälkönen, Ville (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 10/2004
    Published in Journal of International Banking Regulation, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2004: 1-20
    A topical concern in public-policy debate is that the current capital adequacy regulation designed for stand-alone financial institutions exhibits several weaknesses due to the emergence of large financial institutions combining several activities under common control.This paper addresses these concerns using a theoretical framework derived from the economic literature.I will first describe the possible causes of the emergence of financial conglomerates, proceed to consider the theoretical background for the regulation of financial institutions, especially insurance and banking companies, and, finally, examine the limitations of the current regulatory framework in controlling the risks in financial conglomerates.My conclusions provide little support for the view that the regulatory approach should be modified towards a more consolidated one (ie harmonization).Key words: banking, capital adequacy regulation, insurance, financial conglomerates JEL classification numbers: G21, G22, G28
  • Ronkainen, Vesa; Koskinen, Lasse; Koskela, Laura (2008)
    In the EU the supervision of the insurance industry is expected to step into the new Solvency II framework within some years. The new framework will mean a fundamental update for both valuation and solvency requirements. Instead of just offering a standard formula for calculating the solvency capital requirement, in Solvency II insurance companies will be encouraged to develop internal models that are expected to be able to assess numerous effects which would not be easily quantified using the “one fits all” standard approach. However, to develop an internal model that will satisfy the approval criteria is a major project, during which the model builders and implementers will be faced with serious challenges.
  • Haajanen, Jyrki (2007)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 1
    Performance of the largest US banks continues to improve. Banks' income has remained good and the number of nonperforming loans remains exceptionally low. Banks' capital adequacy is also good.
  • Manninen, Otso; Tiililä, Nea (2020)
    Bank of Finland Bulletin. Analysis
    The need for sustainable finance has grown because of the urgency to mitigate climate change. One proposal to encourage sustainable finance is the Green Supporting Factor, which would make it less costly for entities in the financial sector to finance environmentally sustainable investments. However, it is not clear how well this would incentivise companies in the real economy to ‘greenify’ their investments. Furthermore, the uncertainties and potential adverse effects of the Green Supporting Factor make it an alternative all the less appealing.
  • Kauko, Karlo (2012)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 1
    Capital adequacy requirements imposed on banks may amplify cyclical fluctuations by forcing banks to cut lending in a downturn. One solution would be to tighten capital requirements in an upswing and to ease them in a downswing. A countercyclical capital buffer regime will be introduced in, for instance, the EU as part of the new Capital Requirements Directive. It is difficult to put forward a simple principle according to which additional capital requirements should be imposed. The proposal that has gained the most attention may perhaps not be suitable for an economy like Finland that is sensitive to economic fluctuations.
  • Kauko, Karlo (2012)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin. Financial stability 2
    Banks have been found to step up their credit supply in a cyclical upswing and to cut it back in a downswing. This tends to both amplify cyclical fluctuations and increase the threat of banking crises. According to the relevant draft directive, in order to ease this procyclicality problem, authorities could tighten the capital adequacy requirement in response to an overly fast credit stock growth. Internationally proposed criteria for setting an additional capital requirement may not perhaps be suitable for a country like Finland that is sensitive to economic fluctuations.
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Kiema, Ilkka; Vesala, Timo (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 17/2010
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, August 2014, Volume 46, Issue 1: 55-76 ; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10693-013-0169-z
    We show how banks excessive risk-taking, stemming from informational asymmetries in loan markets, can lead to an excessive output loss when a recession starts. Risk-based capital requirements can alleviate the output loss by reducing excessive risk-taking in normal times. Model simulations suggest that the differentiation of risk-weights in the Basel framework might be further increased in order to take full advantage of the allocational effects of capital requirements. Our analysis also provides a new rationale for the countercyclical elements of capital requirements. Keywords: bank regulation, Basel III, capital requirements, credit risk, crises, procyclicality JEL classification numbers: D41, D82, G14, G21, G28
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Kiema, Ilkka; Vesala, Timo (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2009
    Although beneficial allocational effects have been a central motivator for the Basel II capital adequacy reform, the interaction of these effects with Basel II's procyclical impact has been less discussed. In this paper, we investigate the effect of capital requirements on the allocation of credit and its interaction with procyclicality, and compare Basel I and Basel II type capital requirements. We consider competitive credit markets where entrepreneurs of varying ability can apply for loans for one-period investment projects of two different risk types. The risk of a project further depends on the state of the economy, modelled as a two-state Markov process. In this type of setting, excessive risk taking typically arises because higher-type borrowers cross-subsidize lower-type borrowers via a pricing regime based on average success rates. We find that risk-based capital requirements (such as Basel II) alleviate the cross-subsidization effect and can be chosen so as to implement first-best allocation. This implies that the ensuing reduction in the proportion of high-risk investments may mitigate the procyclical effect of Basel II on economic activity. Moreover, we find that optimal risk-based capital requirements should be set lower in recessions than in normal times. Our simulations show that when measured by either cumulative output or output variation, Basel II type capital requirements may actual be slightly less procyclical than flat capital requirements. The biggest reduction in procyclicality is however achieved with optimal risk-based capital requirements which are considerably higher than Basel II requirements and which are adjusted downwards in recession periods. Keywords: Basel II, bank regulation, capital requirements, credit risk, procyclicality JEL classification numbers: D41, D82, G14, G21, G28
  • Nykänen, Marja (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 1/2021
    Household behaviour and business activity continue to be very much influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The prospects for the economic environment returning to a state of normalcy are improving, however, as vaccine rollouts gather pace in Finland and abroad. The Finnish economy has held up better than feared in the worst-case scenarios envisaged one year ago, and the financial system has continued to function well. The economy's better-than-expected performance can be attributed especially to the policy measures put in place domestically and in the euro area, and to the ability of households and businesses to adjust to the emergency conditions.