Browsing by Subject "valtiot (alueelliset kokonaisuudet)"

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  • Kaaresvirta, Juuso; Laakkonen, Helinä (2021)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 5/2021
    China became the world’s largest lender to emerging and developing economies over the past decade. At the same time, concerns on the debt sustainability of many of these countries have grown. Some countries have found themselves struggling to repay their loans and China has had to renegotiate debt restructurings bilaterally. As covid-19 pandemic hit many of the borrowers hard in 2020, China committed with all other G20 countries to the Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI) to temporarily suspend official bilateral debt payment of 73 beneficiary countries. While China’s overseas lending remain opaque, there is little evidence that China intentionally practices “debt-trap diplomacy.”
  • Huang, Shumin (1993)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/1993
    This empirical investigation aims to identify the economic factors that determine a country's creditworthiness. Published country risk ratings are used as direct creditworthy measurement and logit analysis is applied in the present work. The pooled data includes observations of 34 sample countries for the period from 1980 to 1989. Different from earlier country risk studies which have focused only on developing country's rescheduling cases, this research also pays attention to industrial countries in order to seek the common determinants for both LDCs and DCs. Five macroeconomic ratios have been found significant in affecting country creditworthiness. In addition, this work suggests that these five basic indicators have both progressive and joint effects on creditworthiness. That is, the empirical results show that quadratic model is better than the generally assumed linear model.
  • Kiviniemi, Arttu (2019)
    Valtiovastuut muodostavat merkittävän riskikeskittymän euroalueen pankeissa ..2 Vakavaraisuussääntely sivuuttaa monelta osin valtiolainoihin liittyvät riskit ..4 Valtiovastuiden vakavaraisuuskäsittelyä koskevat muutosehdotukset ..6 Valtiovastuiden keskittyneisyyteen perustuvien riskipainolisien vakavaraisuusvaikutus jäisi todennäköisesti maltilliseksi ..9 Yhteenveto ..11
  • Bank of Finland (2018)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 1/2018
    One aim of Banking Union is to weaken the feedback loop between banks and their sovereigns so that increases in banks’ credit risk would no longer be reflected in sovereign credit risk and, conversely, banks’ financing costs would no longer be driven by their sovereign's creditworthiness. Currently, for banks and sovereigns alike, credit risk insurance costs much less than during the crisis. Although the bank-sovereign nexus has weakened, the feedback loop cannot be considered to be broken.
  • Karjanlahti, Kristiina; Tiililä, Nea (2021)
    Bank of Finland Bulletin. Analysis
    The shock of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated deterioration in the economic outlook has exacerbated solvency concerns and increased the risks of debt restructurings in low-income countries (LICs). Financing conditions for many LICs still remain tight while the external financing needs are increasing. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that LICs would need a total of $450 billion in investments in the medium-term to respond the COVID-19 crisis and to accelerate growth to reach the pre-pandemic convergence path with advanced economies. How to fill the vast financing gap in LICs is a central on-going discussion in the international fora. A solution will require a combination of international and domestic measures to increase the availability of external financing, enhance domestic revenue mobilization and address debt sustainability issues.