Browsing by Subject "valuuttakurssit"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 317
  • Bask, Mikael (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 25/2007
    Published in International Journal of Finance and Economics, Volume 19, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages 140-159
    The aim of this paper is to determine whether it would be desirable from the perspective of macroeconomic balance for central banks to take account of nominal exchange rate movements when framing monetary policy. The theoretical framework is a small, open DSGE economy that is closed by a Taylor rule for the monetary authority, and a determinate REE that is least-squares learnable is defined as a desirable outcome in the economy. When the policy rule contains contemporaneous data on the output gap and the CPI inflation rate, the monetary authority does not have to consider the exchange rate as long as there is sufficient inertia in policy-making. In fact, due to a parity condition on the international asset market, interest-rate smoothing and a response to changes in the nominal exchange rate are perfectly intersubstitutable in monetary policy. In other words, we give a rationale for the monetary authority to focus on the change in the nominal interest rate rather than its level in policy-making. Thus, we have a case for interest-rate smoothing. Keywords: determinacy, E-stability, foreign exchange, inertia, Taylor rule JEL classification numbers: E52, F31
  • Korhonen, Iikka (1997)
    This paper briefly examines the exchange rate arrangements of several of Eastern Europe's transition economies.Generally speaking, countries that have included some form of fixed exchange rate regime in their stabilization packages have been more successful in curbing inflation, and consequently reviving output. Further, while a fixed exchange rate is no panacea for economic problems, it can act as a credible nominal anchor in a comprehensive reform package.Such credibility, however, is contingent on the government's ability to implement a balanced budget. As transition progresses, fixed exchange rate regimes eventually become outmoded as they lack some of the flexibility and potency in conducting monetary policy central banks may require as the economy grows.To date, even the most advanced of the transition countries have balked at making this switch.A possible explanation may simply be inertia from past success of fixed exchange rates in reducing inflation and enhancing the credibility of such central banks.
  • Saarenheimo, Tuomas (1996)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 70 ; 2 ; February
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Nuutilainen, Riikka (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2016
    We estimate several monetary policy rules for Russia for the period 2003–2015. We find that the traditional Taylor rule describes the conduct of monetary policy in Russia reasonably well, whether coefficients are restricted to being the same or allowed to change over the sample period. We find that the Bank of Russia often overshot its inflation target and that extensive overshooting is associated with large depreciations of the ruble, testifying to the importance of the exchange rate in the conduct of monetary policy in Russia.
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Wachtel, Paul (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2005
    Published in Research in International Business and Finance Vol. 20, No. 2 (2006), pp. 215-226
    We assess the extent and speed of exchange rate pass-through in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).We do this in the framework of vector autoregressive regressions, utilising impulse functions and variance decompositions with monthly data that starts in 1999 in order to avoid periods of very high inflation and the Russian crisis.We find that exchange rate movements have a clear impact on price developments in the CIS countries.The speed of the pass-through is also fairly high: in most cases the full effect is transmitted into domestic prices in less than 12 months.Unlike in many other emerging market economies, an additional effect from US prices on to domestic prices is not significant.The extent of the exchange rate pass-through is usually much higher than in our benchmark group of emerging market countries.Variance decomposition shows that the relative share of exchange rates in explaining changes in domestic prices is higher in the CIS countries than in the benchmark group. Our results indicate that policy-makers in the CIS countries need to pay more attention to exchange rate movements than in many other emerging market countries.Key words: exchange rate pass-through, inflation, exchange rate regime, transition countries JEL: E31, E42, F31, F42
  • Chen, Yu-Fu; Funke, Michael; Glanemann, Nicole (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 21/2009
    Hong Kong's currency is pegged to the US dollar in a currency board arrangement. In autumn 2003, the Hong Kong dollar appreciated from close to 7.80 per US dollar to 7.70, as investors feared that the currency board would be abandoned. In the wake of this appreciation, the monetary authorities revamped the one-sided currency board mechanism into a symmetric two-sided system with a narrow exchange rate band. This paper reviews the characteristics of the new currency board arrangement and embeds a theoretical soft edge target zone model typifying many intermediate regimes, to explain the notable achievement of speculative peace and credibility since May 2005. JEL-Classification: C61, E42, F31, F32 Keywords: currency board arrangement, target zone model, credibility, Hong Kong
  • Woo, Wing Thye (2018)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 7/2018
    Our principal policy suggestion to China is that, because China’s economy in 2018 is very different from that in 1978, there should be more reciprocity in China’s trade and investment relations with the advanced economies. China should not only give national treatment in the near future to foreign firms but should also set up a mechanism to start easing up on foreign acquisition of Chinese firms in a manner that is consistent with China’s national security concerns. Our principal policy suggestion to the US is to stop equating strategic competition with economic competition. Strategic competition is normally a zero-sum game while economic competition is usually a zero-sum game in the short-run, but generally creates a win-win outcome in the long-run. National economic dynamism and economic resilience emerge from international economic competition and not from sheltering domestic high-tech firms permanently.
  • Bask, Mikael (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2006
    Published in European Financial Management, 14, No. 1, 2008, Pages 99-117
    It is demonstrated in this paper that adaptive learning in least squares sense may be incapable to reduce, in a satisfactory way, the number of attainable equilibria in a rational expectations model.The model investigated, as an illustration, is the monetary approach to exchange rate determination that is augmented with technical trading in the currency market in the form of moving averages since it is the most commonly used technique according to questionnaire surveys.Because of technical trading in foreign exchange, the current exchange rate is dependent on jmax lags of the exchange rate, and the model has, therefore jmax + 1 nonbubble rational expectations equilibria (REE), where most of them are adaptively learnable.However, by assuming that a solution to the model should have a solution to a nested model as its limit, it is possible to single out a unique equilibrium among the adaptively learnable equilibria that is economically meaningful.Key words: asset pricing, heterogenous agents, least squares learnability, rational expectations equilibria and technical trading JEL classification numbers: C62, F31, G12
  • Hämäläinen, Heikki T.; Vehmas, Maritta (1996)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 70 ; 8 ; August
  • Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Slacik, Tomás (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2007
    Published in Economics of Transition, Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 123-141
    We propose exploiting the term structure of relative interest rates to obtain estimates of changes in the timing of a currency crisis as perceived by market participants.Our indicator can be used to evaluate the relative probability of a crisis occurring in one week as compared to a crisis happening after one week but in less than a month.We give empirical evidence that the indicator performs well for two important currency crises in Eastern Europe: the crisis in the Czech Republic in 1997 and the Russian crisis in 1998. Keywords: Currency crisis, term structure of interest rates, transition economies. JEL classi.cation: F31, F34, E43.
  • Ahlstedt, Monica (1998)
    Suomen Pankki. E 11
    This study uses GARCH modelling to estimate and forecast conditional variances and covariances of returns calculated from a set of financial market series: twelve markka exchange rates, twelve corresponding shortterm euro interest rates and the Finnish short-term interest rate, the Finnish long-term interest rate, the Finnish all-share index and real estate prices. The variances are specified through univariate estimation and the analysis is then extended to a portfolio of assets by presenting and applying two alternative methods for covariance modelling.The first method is based on the assumption of identical autocorrelation structure for variances and covariances.The other method is based on the assumption of constant correlation.Both methods are flexible and enable the extension of the analysis to a large number of return series. The study then derives a forecast function from the models estimated from pooled data for variances and covariances of exchange rates and interest rates and from individual data for the other rates, in the form of a weighted moving average of past squared residuals.GARCH forecasts for the variances of individual return series as well as portfolios are compared in an ex post context, on the one hand, to two alternative forecasts based on piecewise homoscedastic variance models and, on the other, to actual data on squared returns. The empirical results in the study show that the estimated variance-covariance models display a high degree of similarity both across the variables and across subsamples (ie across exchange rate regimes); GARCH(1,1) seems to represent the underlying conditional variance process fairly well.In terms of persistence in the variance processes, which is nearly IGARCH(l,1), the estimated models are also remarkably similar both for the individual variables and for pooled data.Hence parsimony suggests using an integrated process to represent volatility in the sample.The study also argues that the estimated GARCH models represent a methodological and empirical improvement over those estimates typically used eg in value-at-risk calculations. Keywords: time-dependent volatility, GARCH estimation, value-at-risk models
  • Bask, Mikael (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 6/2006
    Published in International Journal of Finance and Economics, Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2009: 64-84
    The aim of this paper is to analyse the announcement effects on exchange rate movements using the basic asset pricing model, where currency trade is partly determined by technical trading in the form of moving averages since it is the most commonly used technique according to questionnaire surveys.Specifically, the announcement and implementation of temporary as well as permanent monetary policy are analysed, where the exchange rate model developed is summarised in a linear difference equation in current exogenous fundamentals, a large number of lags of the endogenous exchange rate and time-t dating of exchange rate expectations. However, since there are a large number of rational expectations equilibria, continuity is proposed as a selection criterion among the equilibria, meaning that the parameter for the time-t - 1 exchange rate should have the limit 0 when there is no technical trading to have an economically meaningful equilibrium.It turns out that there is a unique rational expectations equilibrium that satisfy the continuity criterion, and focusing on this equilibrium, it is shown that the exchange rate is much more sensitive to changes in money supply than when technical trading is absent in currency trade.This result is important since it sheds light on the so-called exchange rate disconnect puzzle in international finance.Key words: asset pricing, exchange rate disconnect puzzle, heterogeneous agents, least squares learnability, monetary policy and technical trading. JEL classification numbers: E51, E52, F31, G12
  • Cheung, Yin-Wong; Chinn, Menzie D.; Qian, XingWang (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2012
    Published in Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 31, Issue 8, 2012, Pages 2127-2146
    We find that Chinese trade flows respond to economic activity and relative prices -- as represented by a trade weighted exchange rate -- but the relationships are not always precisely or robustly estimated. Chinese exports are generally well-behaved, rising with foreign GDP and decreasing as the Chinese renminbi (RMB) appreciates. However, the estimated income elasticity is sensitive to the treatment of time trends. Estimates of aggregate imports are more problematic. In many cases, Chinese aggregate imports actually rise in response to a RMB depreciation and decline with Chinese GDP. This is true even after accounting for the fact a substantial share of imports are subsequently incorporated into Chinese exports. We find that some of these counter-intuitive results are mitigated when we disaggregate the trade flows by customs type, commodity type, and the type of firm undertaking the transactions. However, for imports, we only obtain more reasonable estimates of elasticities when we allow for different import intensities for different components of aggregate demand (specifically, consumption versus investment), or when we include a relative productivity variable. Keywords: China, imports, exports, real exchange rate JEL: F14, F41
  • Égert, Balázs (2004)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 1/2004
    The ambition of this paper is to provide a thorough overview of equilibrium exchange rates in the acceding countries of Central and Eastern Europe.Therefore, theoretical models of equilibrium exchange rates are reviewed first and presented in a structured way.Subsequently, the existing body of the empirical literature aimed at investigating real exchange rate determination and possible misalignments is analyzed in a systematic manner.Finally, an attempt is made to sum up where we stand at the moment and what the major shortcomings of the approaches currently used in the literature are.
  • Crowley, Patrick M.; Habibdoust, Amir (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 34/2013
    This paper aims to examine the relationship between exchange rate movements and the stock return of firms at different time horizons by employing wavelet analysis. In particular, we use the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) to decompose the exchange rate movement and the US firm's stock return over the period January 2006 to July 2012. The results reveal that at longer horizons not only does the number of firms which are exposed to exchange rate volatility increase but also the degree of exchange rate exposure increases. What is more, the sensitivity to exchange rate volatility is stronger at longer horizons for importing firms than for exporting firms, which shows an asymmetry in the usage of hedging strategies between importers and exporters. Key words: Discrete Wavelet analysis, Exchange Rate Volatility, Hedging strategy JEL Classification: C32, F31, F23
  • Willman, Alpo (1987)
    Tutkimusyksikkö. Monistettuja tutkimuksia 16/1987
    We show that if domestic and foreign bonds are imperfect substitutes for each other and the exchange rate is fixed, then, unlike under the perfect substitutability assumption, uncertainty about monetary policy reactions affects the timing of balance-of-payments crises.
  • Kuusterä, Antti; Tarkka, Juha (Otava, 2012)
    6 Acknowledgements 9 Turn of an era 18 Bank of Finland in the war years 36 Wartime financial markets 50 Foreign relations and foreign exchange 81 After the war 94 Banknote clipping 102 Finland joins the international monetary system 133 Seeking a monetary policy line 168 The Finnish monetary policy model 189 Politicians and bankers 198 From general strike to devaluation 219 Modernising the currency act 236 Indexing in banking 242 From devaluation to devaluation: monetary policy with a convertible markka 269 The OKO affair: Bank of Finland as the guardian of stability 280 Reform of banking legislation 295 The Institute for Economic Research and the emergence of incomes policy 307 From reconstruction to industrialisation 325 Bank of Finland turns to restructuring policy 346 Quest for stability in an unstable world 370 Inflation takes off 391 “A national emergency” 403 Changing tools of monetary policy
  • Sokolov, Vladimir (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2010
    Published in Review of International Economics, 2012, Vol. 20, No. 4, Pages 707–722
    This paper examines the impacts of the 2005 shift in Russian exchange rate policies from single-currency to bi-currency basket targeting on domestic interest rates and sovereign risk premium dynamics. The policy shift disconnected domestic interest rates from US dollar-denominated interest rates, replacing them with a growing positive relationship with the dual-currency basket (USD-EUR) adopted by the Central Bank of Russia, as well as a synthetic interest rate composed of the US dollar LIBOR and the euro LIBOR. The paper also considers the insulating properties of Russian basket targeting policies during the recent global liquidity crisis. I present evidence that the Russian MosIBOR rate was negatively related to the US dollar LIBOR rate and positively related to the synthetic USD-EUR rate during the "decoupling" stage of the crisis. Even with the steep quantitative easing of the US Fed during this period, the finding suggests the Russian money market was more in sync with ! the monetary policies of the euro area. The central conclusion here is that, in conditions of managed floating exchange rate policies and liberalized capital accounts, the relationship between a country's domestic interest rates and their foreign counterparts depends on the de facto operating target of the central bank of this country, whether it is a single currency or a basket. JEL classification: F31, F33 Keywords: exchange rate policy; basket targeting; sovereign CDS; decoupling
  • Rahn, Jörg (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2003
    We apply BEER and PEER approaches to calculate real equilibrium exchange rates for five EU accession countries in central and east Europe.Bilateral nominal equilibrium exchange rates against the euro are obtained through algebraic transformation of the results. Panel cointegration techniques are used to check the adequacy of the empirical model.The results reveal substantial overvaluations of the real exchange rate in several EU accession countries. Overvaluation is even higher when these exchange rates are expressed in nominal terms against the euro. Keywords: real exchange rates, equilibrium exchange rates, transition economies, panel cointegration JEL Classification: F31, F41, C23
  • Garcia-Herrero, Alicia; Koivu, Tuuli (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 6/2007
    Published in Economie Internationale, Volume 116, Issue 4, 2008, Pages 53-92 as China's exchange rate policy and asian trade
    This paper shows empirically that China's trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the real effective exchange rate of the renminbi, although the size of the surplus is such that exchange rate policy alone will be unable to address the imbalance. One of the main reasons why the reduction in the trade surplus is limited is that Chinese imports are reduced with a real appreciation of the renminbi.By estimating bilateral import equations, we find that it is imports from other Southeast Asian countries which fall.This result reflects the vertical integration of Southeast Asia with China through the 'Asian production network'.We find, in turn, that imports from Germany - which serve China's domestic demand - behave as one would expect, ie they increase with renminbi real appreciation.All in all, our results raise concerns on the impact of renminbi appreciation on Southeast Asia even if regional currencies do not follow the renminbi's upward trajectory. Keywords: China, trade, exports, real exchange rate JEL classification: F1, F14