Browsing by Subject "vienti"

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  • Bank of Finland (2015)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2015
    Finland is a small open economy, where fluctuations in exports and imports have shaped the big picture of developments in the economy. A historical review of these developments suggests that the current situation provides no such conditions for rapid export growth supporting the economy as those seen in the earlier growth phases of economic history. Despite facing difficulties, the forest industry is still one of the pillars of Finnish exports alongside the machinery and metal industry.
  • Lindgren, Verner (1927)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 7 ; 7 ; July
  • Hickok, Susan (1977)
    Keskustelualoitteita. Discussion Papers 4/1977
    Presented here is a survey of Finland's export market shares development from 1960 until 1975. It's purpose is to serve as part of a broader analysis of Finland's export competitiveness. Specifically, here Finland's foreign trade performance is analysed in terms of the changes in its yearly export market shares. The development of these shares and some suggestions as to the factors affecting Finland's competitiveness are given. However, conclusions about which factors determine any specific change in competitiveness (such as relative production costs or changes in production capacity) must be approached very cautiously as many factors are always in action at any given time.
  • Solitander, Axel (1932)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 12 ; 12 ; December
  • Bank of Finland (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2019
    Uncertainty in the global economy poses a substantial risk to the Finnish growth outlook. In 2019, growth in the main export markets has been slower than previously expected, and uncertainty factors may cause further slower-than-expected developments. If materialised, the risks would particularly affect the exports of a small open economy such as Finland. This alternative scenario analyses the transmission of a temporary dip in Finnish export demand to different segments of the economy. The alternative scenario has been prepared using the Bank of Finland’s dynamic general equilibrium model Aino.
  • Bank of Finland (2017)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2017
    Finland's recent brisk economic growth is largely a consequence of the upswing in the global economy. The external environment has always played a decisive role in shaping Finland’s GDP and, in particular, export growth. Changes in the external environment are, however, always surrounded by a high degree of uncertainty.
  • Cheung, Yin-Wong; Chinn, Menzie D.; Qian, XingWang (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2012
    Published in Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 31, Issue 8, 2012, Pages 2127-2146
    We find that Chinese trade flows respond to economic activity and relative prices -- as represented by a trade weighted exchange rate -- but the relationships are not always precisely or robustly estimated. Chinese exports are generally well-behaved, rising with foreign GDP and decreasing as the Chinese renminbi (RMB) appreciates. However, the estimated income elasticity is sensitive to the treatment of time trends. Estimates of aggregate imports are more problematic. In many cases, Chinese aggregate imports actually rise in response to a RMB depreciation and decline with Chinese GDP. This is true even after accounting for the fact a substantial share of imports are subsequently incorporated into Chinese exports. We find that some of these counter-intuitive results are mitigated when we disaggregate the trade flows by customs type, commodity type, and the type of firm undertaking the transactions. However, for imports, we only obtain more reasonable estimates of elasticities when we allow for different import intensities for different components of aggregate demand (specifically, consumption versus investment), or when we include a relative productivity variable. Keywords: China, imports, exports, real exchange rate JEL: F14, F41
  • Newby, Elisa (2013)
    Euro & talous. Rahapolitiikka ja kansainvälinen talous 4
    Arvonlisäykseen perustuva ulkomaankaupan tilastointi jäljittää jokaisen maan ja sektorin tuottaman arvonlisäyksen tuotantoprosessin eri vaiheissa. Uusi OECD:n ja WTO:n laatima tietokanta antaa päätalousalueiden kauppavirtojen epätasapainosta sekä tuonnin ja viennin välisestä riippuvuudesta erilaisen kuvan kuin perinteiset tullitilastot. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan myös euroalueen kauppataseiden epätasapainoa arvonlisäysperusteisesti. Arvonlisäykseen perustuvat tilastot eivät korvaa perinteisiä bruttopohjaisia ulkomaankauppatilastoja, mutta tarjoavat vaihtoehtoisen tavan tarkastella ulkomaankaupan merkitystä etenkin sellaisten maiden kannalta, jotka ovat integroituneet globaaleihin arvoketjuihin.
  • Suomen Pankki (2016)
    Euro & talous 1/2016
    Autoteollisuuden vaikutus bruttokansantuotteeseen ja työllisyyteen on EU:ssa suurin Saksassa ja joissain itäisen Keski-Euroopan maissa. Näissä maissa autoteollisuuteen kohdistuvalla sokilla voi olla tuntuvia vaikutuksia kansantalouden kannalta. Autoteollisuuden osuus EU:n tavaranviennistä on noin 10 %.
  • Rautava, Jouko; Nuutilainen, Riikka; Norring, Anni; Korhonen, Iikka; Kallio, Jyrki (2015)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 11/2015
    Joulukuussa järjestetyn BOFIT Kiina-tietoiskun viisi esitystä käsittelivät Kiinan taloutta ja yhteiskuntaa monesta eri näkökulmasta. Tähän julkaisuun on koottu esitysten keskeinen sisältö artikkeleina. Ensimmäinen artikkeli käsittelee Kiinan talouskehitystä aivan viime aikoina. Toisessa artikkelissa käydään läpi Kiinan taloustilastoinnin ongelmia ja joitakin vaihtoehtoisia talousindikaattoreita. Kolmannen osan aiheena on mm. Kiinan ja Suomen välinen kauppa sekä sijoitukset. Neljännessä artikkelissa käydään läpi Kiinan rahoitusmarkkinoiden ja pääomaliikkeiden vapauttamista. Viides esitys käsittelee Kiinan kommunistisen puolueen roolia sisä- ja ulkopolitiikassa. Hakusanat: Kiina, talouskehitys, bruttokansantuote, vienti, tuonti, pankkijärjestelmä, sisäpolitiikka, ulkopolitiikka. Kaikki esitykset ovat nähtävissä osoitteessa:
  • Garcia-Herrero, Alicia; Koivu, Tuuli (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 6/2007
    Published in Economie Internationale, Volume 116, Issue 4, 2008, Pages 53-92 as China's exchange rate policy and asian trade
    This paper shows empirically that China's trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the real effective exchange rate of the renminbi, although the size of the surplus is such that exchange rate policy alone will be unable to address the imbalance. One of the main reasons why the reduction in the trade surplus is limited is that Chinese imports are reduced with a real appreciation of the renminbi.By estimating bilateral import equations, we find that it is imports from other Southeast Asian countries which fall.This result reflects the vertical integration of Southeast Asia with China through the 'Asian production network'.We find, in turn, that imports from Germany - which serve China's domestic demand - behave as one would expect, ie they increase with renminbi real appreciation.All in all, our results raise concerns on the impact of renminbi appreciation on Southeast Asia even if regional currencies do not follow the renminbi's upward trajectory. Keywords: China, trade, exports, real exchange rate JEL classification: F1, F14
  • Knight, John; Wang, Wei (2011)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2011
    Published in The World Economy, Vol. 34, Issue 9, pp. 1476-1506, September 2011
    In recent years China has experienced two forms of extreme macroeconomic imbalance: an expenditure imbalance in the sense of very high investment and very low consumption, giving rise to rapid capital accumulation; and an imbalance between expenditure and pro-duction, producing external imbalance, i.e. a huge surplus on the current account of the balance of payments. Both imbalances imply a low rate of time discount by both govern-ment and society: consumption in the present is forgone in favour of consumption in the future. The paper examines how these imbalances came about, and goes on to consider whether they can be sustained and how they might be redressed. There is no evidence that the rapid capital accumulation has reduced the rate of profit on capital and thus the incen-tive to invest. However, persistent external imbalance poses a threat to investment if it ge-nerates excess liquidity and asset bubbles. The current account surplus rose remarkably in the years 2004-7. This was associated with exogenous increases in competiveness and in saving, both attributable to the economic reform policies. On current policies, the surplus is likely to rise again once the world economy recovers from its recession. This poses three sorts of problems, each of which is examined in turn: difficulties for macroeconomic stabi-lization policies; risk of capital loss on the foreign exchange holdings; and the threat of re-taliation by China's trading partners. A combination of internal and external policies will be required to redress the imbalance. Keywords: China; investment; consumption; current account; exchange rate; external im-balance; macroeconomic imbalance. JEL Classification: E21; E22; E61; F32; F41; F51.
  • Garcia-Herrero, Alicia; Xia, Le (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 12/2013
    Published in Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics, Volume 22, Issue 4, 2015 p. 368-383 as RMB Bilateral Swap Agreements: how China chooses its partners?
    This paper analyzes empirically what determines the choice of countries signing an RMB-denominated Bilateral Swap Agreement (BSA) with China. The gravity motif is predominant (both in terms of country size and distance from China) but so is the trade motif, in terms of both exports to China and the existence of an FTA with China. Institutional soundness also matters since countries with better government and less corruption are more likely to sign an RMB-denominated BSA. This contravenes the view that China has used RMB BSAs as a soft power tool in more corrupted countries. However, the fact that China has a preference for countries with a default history and a closed capital account calls for caution. Keywords: RMB internationalization, bilateral swap agreements. JEL: F33, F36, F42
  • Goel, Rajeev K.; Korhonen, Iikka (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2009
    Published in Economic Systems 35 (2011) 109-124 as "Exports and Cross-National Corruption: A Disaggregated Examination"
    This research examines the connection between a country's export structure and corruption, incorporating disaggregated data on exports for a recent time period over a large set of nations. We ask whether various types of exports (e.g. agricultural, mineral, manufacturing and fuel) exert similar influences on corruption across nations. Our results suggest that corruption decreases as nations attain prosperity, as economic and political freedoms increase, and with a larger government size. Ceteris paribus, transition countries are also found to be more corrupt. Ethnic and linguistic fractionalizations exert opposite influences on corruption, while religious fractionalization does not seem to matter. Although the effects of ore and manufacturing exports are statistically insignificant, agricultural and fuel exports affect corruption significantly. Our findings for fuel exports support previous research, as well as uniquely demonstrate that the impact of fuel exports is sensitive to the prevailing corruption level. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications. Keywords: corruption, exports, resource curse, government JEL codes: H11, K42, O13
  • Oomes, Nienke; Kalcheva, Katerina (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2007
    In this paper, we assess whether recent economic developments in Russia are symptomatic of Dutch Disease.We first provide a brief review of the literature on Dutch Disease and the natural resource curse.We then discuss the symptoms of Dutch Disease, which include (1) real exchange rate appreciation; (2) slower manufacturing growth; (3) faster service sector growth; and (4) higher overall wages.We test these predictions for Russia while carefully controlling for other factors that could have led to similar symptoms.We conclude that, while Russia has all of the symptoms, the diagnosis of Dutch Disease remains to be confirmed. JEL Classification Numbers: F30, P28, Q30 Key words: Dutch disease, real exchange rate, resource curse, Russia, oil, transition
  • Larna, Kaarlo (1967)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 41 ; 6 ; June
  • Mehrotra, Aaron; Rautava, Jouko (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2007
    Published in Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2008, pp. 225-239
    This paper evaluates the usefulness of business sentiment indicators for forecasting developments in the Chinese real economy.We use data on diffusion indices collected by the People's Bank of China for forecasting industrial production, retail sales and exports.Our bivariate vector autoregressive models, each composed of one diffusion index and one real sector variable, generally outperform univariate AR models in forecasting one to four quarters ahead.Similarly, principal components analysis, combining information from various diffusion indices, leads to enhanced forecasting performance.Our results indicate that Chinese business sentiment indicators convey useful information about current and future developments in the real economy.They also suggest that the official data provide a fairly accurate picture of the Chinese economy. Keywords: forecasting, diffusion index, VAR, China. JEL: E32, E37, P27
  • Égert, Balázs; Leonard, Carol S. (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2007
    Published in Open Economies Review, Volume 19, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 147-165
    In this paper we explore the evidence that would establish that Dutch disease is at work in, or poses a threat to, the Kazakh economy.Assessing the mechanism by which fluctuations in the price of oil can damage non-oil manufacturing-and thus long-term growth prospects in an economy that relies heavily on oil production-we find that non-oil manufacturing has so far been spared the perverse effects of oil price increases from 1996 to 2005.The real exchange rate in the open sector has appreciated over the last couple of years, largely due to the appreciation of the nominal exchange rate.We analyze to what extent this appreciation is linked to movements in oil prices and oil revenues.Econometric evidence from the monetary model of the exchange rate and a variety of real exchange rate models show that the rise in the price of oil and in oil revenues might be linked to an appreciation of the U.S. dollar exchange rate of the oil and non-oil sectors.But appreciation is mainly limited to the real effective exchange rate for oil sector and is statistically insignificant for non-oil manufacturing.Key words: price level, inflation, Balassa-Samuelson, tradables, house prices, regulated prices, Europe, transition JEL codes: E43, E50, E52, C22, G21, O52
  • Orjasniemi, Seppo; Viertola, Hannu (2015)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2015
    The decline in exports has been the most important factor behind the contraction in GDP since 2008. The impact of this decline is also felt in sectors that traditionally focus on the domestic market, as the production of intermediate inputs for exports ties up a considerable amount of resources. Exports have had a significant indirect impact on employment. The overall drop in employment has, however, remained moderate, as employment has been sustained by domestic demand.
  • Riipinen, Toni (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 12/2003
    This work considers effects of energy market liberalisation in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU).Our analysis is based on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model called the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP).This specialised model makes it possible to evaluate effects in a general equilibrium set-up. Energy market reforms are widely discussed in the literature, but the use of CGE models has been limited.In the main part of the paper, we perform two experiments.The first is a benchmark liberalisation experiment in which all government taxes and subsidies are removed.The second is an attempt to simulate an increase in the export capacity of energy commodities into the European markets.In general, we find that liberalisation of FSU energy markets would increase welfare in the EU countries, while in the FSU welfare would decrease.This result is mainly due to the terms of trade effect, as export prices of FSU countries decrease. Keywords: energy, computable general equilibrium models, former Soviet Union, welfare analysis