Vertaisarvioidut artikkelit – Peer-Reviewed Articles (2018- )


The collection contains information about peer-reviewed articles published in academic journals by Bank of Finland researchers and research fellows. Most of the articles are available on the journal’s website and the repository contains only the metadata and link to the article.

Recent Submissions

  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Vihriälä, Vesa; Virolainen, Kimmo; Westman, Hanna (2020)
    Nordic Economic Policy Review
    The global financial crisis has led to extensive regulatory reforms around the globe. The bail-in rules introduced in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive are an essential part of the new bank crisis management landscape in Europe. The paper seeks to clarify their implications and applicability in three ways. First, we provide a concise overview of the issues involved based on recent – mainly theoretical – literature. Second, we describe the key features of the European resolution framework. Third, we discuss the implications of the bail-in approach for crisis management in the Nordic context.
  • Tölö, Eero (2020)
    Journal of Financial Stability August
    BoF 14/2019
    We consider predicting systemic financial crises one to five years ahead using recurrent neural networks. We evaluate the prediction performance with the Jórda-Schularick-Taylor dataset, which includes the crisis dates and annual macroeconomic series of 17 countries over the period 1870−2016. Previous literature has found that simple neural net architectures are useful and outperform the traditional logistic regression model in predicting systemic financial crises. We show that such predictions can be significantly improved by making use of the Long-Short Term Memory (RNN-LSTM) and the Gated Recurrent Unit (RNN-GRU) neural nets. Behind the success is the recurrent networks’ ability to make more robust predictions from the time series data. The results remain robust after extensive sensitivity analysis.
  • Duru, Augustine; Hasan, Iftekhar; Song, Liang; Zhao, Yijiang (2020)
    Accounting and Business Research 3
    We construct measures of accounting regulations and enforcement mechanisms that are specific to a country's banking industry. Using a sample of major banks in 37 economies, we find that the informativeness of banks’ financial statements, measured by the value relevance of earnings and common equity, is higher in countries with stricter bank accounting regulations and countries with stronger enforcement. These findings suggest that superior bank accounting and enforcement mechanisms enhance the informativeness of banks’ financial statements. In addition, we find that the effects of bank accounting regulations are more pronounced in countries with stronger enforcement in the banking industry, suggesting that enforcement is complementary to bank accounting regulations in achieving higher value relevance of financial statements. Our study has important policy implications for bank regulators.
  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Ongena, Steven (2019)
    Journal of Financial Economics 2
    Bank of Finland Discussion Paper 18/2018 "Democratic development and credit"
    Does democratization reduce the cost of credit? Using global syndicated loan data from 1984 to 2014, we find that democratization has a sizable negative effect on loan spreads: a 1-point increase in the zero-to-ten Polity IV index of democracy shaves at least 19 basis points off spreads, but likely more. Reversals to autocracy hike spreads more strongly. Our findings are robust to the comprehensive inclusion of relevant controls, to the instrumentation with regional waves of democratization, and to a battery of other sensitivity tests. We thus highlight the lower cost of loans as one relevant mechanism through which democratization can affect economic development.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Kostova, Gergana L.; Ben Naceur, Sami (2020)
    Asia-Pacific Journal of Financial Studies 2
    This paper tests how capital markets value the international diversification of banks in good and in bad economic times by investigating changes in domestic and foreign sovereign debt ratings before and during the European sovereign debt crisis. Tracing 320 European banks in 29 countries and 226 credit rating announcements for European sovereigns between 1 January 2001 and 15 August 2012, we show that the market values banks with access to foreign funds. Despite occasional adverse effects immediately following negative news regarding sovereign credit rating changes, international diversification was found to be beneficial to European banks, especially during periods of distress.