Tutkimukset

Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Campos, Nauro F.; Jarko, Fidrmuc; Iikka, Korhonen (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 28/2017
    This paper offers a first systematic evaluation of the evidence on the effects of currency unions on the synchronisation of economic activity. Focusing on Europe, we construct a database of about 3,000 business cycle synchronisation coefficients as well as their design and estimation characteristics. We find that: (1) synchronisation increased from about 0.4 before the introduction of the euro in 1999 to 0.6 afterwards; (2) this increase occurred in both euro and non-euro countries (larger in former); (3) there is evidence of country-specific publication bias; (4) our difference-in-differences estimates suggest the euro accounted for approximately half of the observed increase in synchronisation.
  • Huberman, Gur; Leshno, Jacob D.; Moallemi, Ciamac (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 27/2017
    Owned by nobody and controlled by an almost immutable protocol the Bitcoin payment system is a platform with two main constituencies: users and profit seeking miners who maintain the system's infrastructure. The paper seeks to understand the economics of the system: How does the system raise revenue to pay for its infrastructure? How are usage fees determined? How much infrastructure is deployed? What are the implications of changing parameters in the protocol? A simplified economic model that captures the system's properties answers these questions. Transaction fees and infrastructure level are determined in an equilibrium of a congestion queueing game derived from the system's limited throughput. The system eliminates dead-weight loss from monopoly, but introduces other inefficiencies and requires congestion to raise revenue and fund infrastructure. We explore the future potential of such systems and provide design suggestions.
  • Verona, Fabio (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 26/2017
    The empirical performance of the Q theory of investment can be significantly improved by simultaneously considering the time- and the frequency-varying features of the investment-Q relationship. Using continuous wavelet tools, I assess the investment-Q sensitivity at different frequencies and its evolution over time, as well as the interaction of the financial cycle with the Q theory. The results show that there is a positive, stable medium-to-long-run relationship between investment and Q that begins after a positive, stable long-run relationship between credit and Q materializes. In such case, credit leads and slowly fuels the stock price boom.
  • Knüpfer, Samuli; Rantapuska, Elias; Sarvimäki, Matti (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 25/2017
    The returns individuals earn on financial wealth correlate positively across generations. We establish this result by analyzing the full population of household investors in Finland. The correlation extends to both historical and expected returns and the intergenerational spread in returns implies sizeable differences in wealth accumulation over time. Asset holdings reveal that returns correlate mostly because family members choose the same securities. An instrument using non-overlapping peer groups and a natural experiment based on mergers allow us to address causality. We find causal influence not only from parents to children but also in the opposite direction. Our findings have implications for understanding wealth inequality and portfolio heterogeneity.
  • Miao, Meng; Guanjie, Niu; Noe, Thomas (2017)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 13/2017
    This paper considers lending to finance projects in a setting where repayment enforcement appears impossible. The loan was illegal and thus legally unenforceable. Creditors were incapable of applying private coercion to force repayment. Borrowers lacked both collateral and reputation capital. Project cash flows were unobservable. The projects were the acquisition of Imperial administrative posts by scholars in nineteenth century Qing China. The lending mechanism was the “trusted-assistant loan.” Our model of trusted-assistant lending shows that it is a renegotiation-proof implementation of efficient state dependent financing. Empirical analysis of officials’ diaries and bank records shows that the employment of trusted-assistant lending and the performance of trusted-assistant loans conforms roughly with the model’s predictions.