Recent Submissions

  • Kortela, Tomi; Nelimarkka, Jaakko (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2020
    Since the Great Recession, the main evolution in monetary policy has been its attempts to affect the medium and the long-term interest rates with instruments other than the policy rate. Consequently, measuring the stance of monetary policy by a single interest rate becomes problematic. This study explores the macroeconomic effects of conventional and unconventional policy measures in the euro area in a unified framework. We identify simultaneously three monetary policy shocks that influence different parts of the yield curve. These shocks reflect various aspects of actions and communications of the European Central Bank in conventional and unconventional monetary policy periods. According to the results, conventional interest rate policy, forward guidance and quantitative easing have asymmetric output and price responses.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2020
    We assess the benefits of using frequency-domain information for active portfolio management. To do so, we forecast the bond risk premium and equity risk premium using a methodology that isolates frequencies (of the predictors) with the highest predictive power. The resulting forecasts are more accurate than those of traditional forecasting methods for both asset classes. When used in the context of active portfolio management, the forecasts based on frequency-domain information lead to better portfolio performances than when using the original time series of the predictors. It produces higher information ratio (0.57 vs 0.45), higher CER gains (1.12% vs 0.81%), and lower maximum drawdown (19.1% vs 19.6%).
  • Hamano, Masashige; Pappadà, Francesco (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2020
    This paper revisits the case for exible vs. fixed exchange rate regime in a two-country model with firm heterogeneity and nominal wage rigidity under incomplete financial markets. Dampening nominal exchange rate fluctuations simultaneously stabilizes the firm turnover in the export market. When firms are homogeneous and low productive, the fixed exchange rate regime dominates the flexible one because it reduces the fluctuations in labor demand arising from entry and exit of exporters following a demand shock. We also show that an alternative regulation policy in the export market does not rule out the possible adoption of a managed floating regime.
  • Kauko, Karlo (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 25/2019
    Benford’s law states that the leading significant digits in real-world data sets, provided the data span several orders of magnitude, are not normally uniformly distributed. Deviations from this law may indicate human intervention, even fraud. The data on Chinese banks’ non-performing loans has sometimes deviated from Benford’s law. Up to 2012, the frequency of ones as leading significant digits was lower than predicted by Benford’s law. Surprisingly, the number of ones well exceeded the expected level for large and government-owned banks during 2015–2018.
  • Pancrazi, Roberto; Seoane, Hernán D.; Vukotic, Marija (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 25/2019
    We examine the welfare effects of bailouts in economies exposed to sovereign default risk. When a government of a small open economy requests a bailout from an international financial institution, it receives a non-defaultable loan of size G that comes with imposed debt limits. The government endogenously asks for the bailout during recessions and repays it when the economy recovers. Hence, the bailout acts as an imperfect state contingent asset that makes the economy better off. The bailout duration is endogenous and increases with its size. The bailout size creates non-trivial tradeoffs between receiving a larger amount of relatively cheap resources precisely in times of need on the one hand, and facing longer-lasting financial constraints and accumulated interest payments, on the other hand. We characterize and quantify these tradeoffs and document that welfare gains of bailouts are hump-shaped in the size of bailout loans.