Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers (1988- )


The Bank of Finland Discussion Paper series publishes academic research by economists in the Research Unit and the Bank more broadly, as well as by visiting scholars. The topics are relevant from the point of view of the Bank's strategic aims and contribute to the Bank's research focus on the interplay between and stability of the financial markets and the macroeconomy. Not all Discussion Papers for the years 1989–1994 are available electronically.

Recent Submissions

  • Schmöller, Michaela (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2019
    I propose a two-sector endogenous growth model with heterogeneous sectoral productivity and sector-specific, nonlinear hiring costs to analyse the link between sectoral resource allocation, low productivity growth and stagnant real wages. My results suggest that an upward shift in the labor supply, triggered for instance by a labor market reform, as among others implemented in Germany in 2003-2005, is beneficial in the long-run as it raises growth of technology, labor productivity and real wages. I show, however, that in the immediate phase following the labor supply shock, labor productivity and real wages stagnate as employment gains are initially disproportionally allocated to low-productivity sectors, limiting the capacity for technology growth and depressing real wages and productivity. I demonstrate that due to the learning-by-doing growth externality in the high-productivity sector the competitive equilibrium is ineffcient as firms fail to internalize the effect of their labor allocation on aggregate growth. Subsidies to high-productivity sector production can alleviate welfare losses along the transition path.
  • Laine, Olli-Matti (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2019
    This study applies a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of the European Central Bank’s second series of targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTRO-II) on bank lending. Effects on corporate loans, loans for house purchase and loans for consumption are analysed separately. The results indicate that TLTRO-II increased lending to non-financial corporations. The cumulative effect of TLTRO-II on participating banks’ corporate lending is estimated to be about 30 per cent. The estimated effects for house purchase and consumption loans are positive, but statistically insignificant.
  • Kauko, Karlo; Tölö, Eero (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 6/2019
    The trend deviation of the Credit-to-GDP ratio (“Basel gap”) is a widely used early warning indicator of banking crises. It is calculated with the one-sided Hodrick-Prescott filter using an extremely large value of the smoothing parameter λ. We recalibrate the smoothing parameter with panel data covering almost one and a half centuries and 15 countries. The optimal λ is found to be much lower than previously suggested. The 2008 crisis does not dominate the results. The long sample almost eliminates filter initialisation problems.
  • Lubik, Thomas A.; Matthes, Christian; Verona, Fabio (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 5/2019
    We study the behavior of key macroeconomic variables in the time and frequency domain. For this purpose, we decompose U.S. time series into various frequency components. This allows us to identify a set of stylized facts: GDP growth is largely a high-frequency phenomenon whereby inflation and nominal interest rates are characterized largely by low-frequency components. In contrast, unemployment is a medium-term phenomenon. We use these decompositions jointly in a structural VAR where we identify monetary policy shocks using a sign restriction approach. We find that monetary policy shocks affect these key variables in a broadly similar manner across all frequency bands. Finally, we assess the ability of standard DSGE models to replicate these findings. While the models generally capture low-frequency movements via stochastic trends and business cycle fluctuations through various frictions they fail at capturing the medium-term cycle.
  • Tuuli, Saara (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2019
    This paper investigates the impact of the model-based approach to bank capital regulation (i.e. the Internal Ratings Based Approach; IRBA) on firms' access to finance. A difference-in-differences methodology is used given that the IRBA, introduced as part of Basel II, was adopted by different banks in different times. The results suggest that firms indirectly affected by the new regulation via their main bank adopting the IRBA faced a 6-7 percentage point higher probability of facing a deterioration in their access to finance. When the sample is adjusted for the demand for credit, this estimate increases to 12-13 percentage points. The impact is found to come via increases in the cost of credit and to a smaller extent, reductions in the volume or size of loans. Around three-quarters of the effect is attributed to the sensitivity of the IRBA capital requirements to economic conditions, with adopting banks also found to specialize in low-risk lending.