Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers (1989- )

 

Keskustelualoitesarjassa julkaistaan akateemisia tutkimuksia teemoista, jotka ovat keskeisiä Suomen Pankin strategisten tavoitteiden kannalta ja vastaavat painopistealuetta makrotalouden ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden vuorovaikutus ja vakaus. Tekijät ovat tutkimusyksikön tai muiden yksikköjen ekonomisteja tai vierailevia tutkijoita. Keskustelualoitteet ilmestyvät nykyään englanniksi. Vuosien 1989-1994 kaikkia keskustelualoitteita ei ole saatavilla elektronisina.

Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Gallegati, Marco; Giri, Federico; Fratianni, Michele (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2019
    How long is the long run in the relationship between money growth and inflation? How important are high inflation episodes for the unit slope finding in the quantity theory of money? To answer these questions we study the relationship between excess money growth and inflation over time and across frequencies using annual data from 1871 to 2013 for several developed countries. Wavelet-based exploratory analysis shows the existence of a close stable relationship between excess money growth and inflation only over longer time horizons, i.e. periods greater than 16 and 24 years, with money growth mostly leading. When we investigate the sensitivity of the unit slope finding to inflation episodes using a scale-based panel data approach we find that low-frequency regression coefficients estimated over variable-length subsamples before and after WWII are largely affected by high inflation episodes. Taken together the results that inflationary upsurges affect regression coefficients but not the closeness of the long-run relationship call for a qualification of the Quantity Theory of Money and suggests that policymakers should not lose interest on monetary developments.
  • Battaglia, Francesca; Buchanan, Bonnie G.; Fiordelisi, Franco; Ricci, Ornella (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 26/2018
    The 2008 global financial crisis highlights the importance of securitization and crash risk. Yet there is a dearth of papers exploring the link between securitization and crash risk. We analyze 7,096 securitization deals made by large European listed banks between 2000 and 2017. Our paper provides evidence that bank risk declines in the year of the securitization and increases in the following year. We also show that this effect is driven by low-risk securitization deals. We use a dynamic panel data approach to establish a causal relationship and control the robustness of our results by using different tail risk measures (such as crash risk, value at risk, and expected shortfall). We also show that the risk reduction effect is weaker in crisis periods relative to normal times. Our findings have policy implications as regulators attempt to revive European securitization markets.
  • Tölö, Eero; Miettinen, Paavo (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 25/2018
    We examine bank capital shocks using a recent new approach based on non-normal errors in vector autoregressive models. Using a sample of 14 European economies over January 2004 through March 2018 we identify two distinct classes of bank capital shocks, capital tightening shocks, and bank profitability shocks. We find that both bank capital shocks frequently lead to changes in lending volume and interest rates for new loans. In contrast to some recent similar studies, we find less evidence for impact on production. Bank capital shocks have further effects on the substitution between the bank and market-based financing and on credit allocation across different borrower sectors. Policymakers may find these results useful when considering counter-cyclical adjustments to the bank capital requirements.
  • Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta; Viren, Matti (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/2018
    In this paper, we examine how professional forecasters’ expectations and expectation uncertainty have reacted to the ECB’s interest rate decisions and non-conventional monetary policy measures during the period 1999-2017. The analysis makes use of a conventional dif-in-dif type set up with different time series tools. The results indicate that expectations have been sensitive to policy actions, but all forecasters’ reactions do not seem to follow the basic predictions of a standard New Keynesian model. Also the relationship between inflation and output forecasts does not seem to follow a Phillips curve type relationship. Moreover, short- and long term reactions to policy are often weakly related and of different sign. Interestingly, subjective forecast uncertainty measures are very sensitive to policy measures. Thus, there seems to be much heterogeneity in forecasters’ reactions to most policy decisions. All uncertainty measures, including long-term inflation uncertainty, have increased over time. This has to be taken into account when considering the anchoring of inflation expectations to the inflation target.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Sekhposyan, Tatevik (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2018
    The relative performance of forecasting models changes over time. This empirical observation raises two questions: is the relative performance itself predictable? If so, can it be exploited to improve forecast accuracy? We address these questions by evaluating the predictive ability of a wide range of economic variables for two key US macroeconomic aggregates, industrial production and inflation, relative to simple benchmarks. We find that business indicators, financial conditions, uncertainty as well as measures of past relative performance are generally useful for explaining the relative forecasting performance of the models. We further conduct a pseudo-real-time forecasting exercise, where we use the information about the conditional performance for model selection and model averaging. The newly proposed strategies deliver sizable improvements over competitive benchmark models and commonly used combination schemes. Gains are larger when model selection and averaging are based on financial conditions as well as past performance measured at the forecast origin date.