Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers (1989- )

 

Keskustelualoitesarjassa julkaistaan akateemisia tutkimuksia teemoista, jotka ovat keskeisiä Suomen Pankin strategisten tavoitteiden kannalta ja vastaavat painopistealuetta makrotalouden ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden vuorovaikutus ja vakaus. Tekijät ovat tutkimusyksikön tai muiden yksikköjen ekonomisteja tai vierailevia tutkijoita. Keskustelualoitteet ilmestyvät nykyään englanniksi. Vuosien 1989-1994 kaikkia keskustelualoitteita ei ole saatavilla elektronisina.

Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Tukiainen, Janne; Takalo, Tuomas; Hulkkonen, Topi (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 15/2018
    We exploit a regression discontinuity design to provide causal evidence of the relative age effect (RAE) on a long-run adult age outcome: Political selection. We find strong evidence of the RAE in politics in Finland. However, the effect is heterogeneous: We find that male candidates born early in the calendar year have a significantly higher probability of getting elected to the parliament but no similar RAE applies to female candidates nor to municipal elections. Moreover, this effect only takes place in the most competitive parliamentary districts and is present only for some parties. We also find that in all the groups where the RAE does not exist, early-born candidates are under-represented suggesting attrition of talent in the candidate placement. Overall, our results show that seemingly artificial cutoffs imposed by the government have persistent consequences even on the selection to the highest positions of power within a society.
  • Baumeister, Christiane; Hamilton, James D. (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2018
    Reporting point estimates and error bands for structural vector autoregressions that are only set identified is a very common practice. However, unless the researcher is persuaded on the basis of prior information that some parameter values are more plausible than others, this common practice has no formal justification. When the role and reliability of prior information is defended, Bayesian posterior probabilities can be used to form an inference that incorporates doubts about the identifying assumptions. We illustrate how prior information can be used about both structural coefficients and the impacts of shocks, and propose a new distribution, which we call the asymmetric t distribution, for incorporating prior beliefs about the signs of equilibrium impacts in a nondogmatic way. We apply these methods to a three-variable macroeconomic model and conclude that monetary policy shocks were not the major driver of output, inflation, or interest rates during the Great Moderation.
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Tunaru, Radu; Vioto, Davide (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2018
    This paper contains a testing framework for the reliability of systemic risk measurement of banks, using the three leading market-based measures of systemic risk. We test whether the difference within the same category and across dfferent categories of systemic risk of individual banks is signifcant. We find that in general the systemic risk categories defined by the Financial Stability Board are dfferent from those constructed in a full pairwise comparison approach based on the market measures. Moreover, these dfferences were more pronounced during episodes of high market turbulence.To account for model risk we introduce a more robust ranking method based on nonparametric confidence intervals. We show that there is a large number of banks with overlapping confidence intervals of their market-based systemic risk measures.Further, similarity measures indicate that the scoring based rankings are not perfectly aligned with rankings produced by market based systemic risk measures.
  • Anttila, Juho (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 12/2018
    I estimate the effects of conventional and unconventional monetary policy in the euro area by using a factor-augmented vector autoregression.I complement the standard monetary policy analysis using the short rate with models where the shadow rates by Kortela (2016) and Wu and Xia (2017) are used as proxies for unconventional monetary policy. I quantify the effects of unanticipated monetary policy shocks using impulse response functions, forecast-error variance decompositions, and counterfactual simulations. The results indicate that unconventional monetary policy shocks have similar, expansionary effects on the economy as conventional monetary policy shocks.
  • Ristolainen, Kim (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 11/2018
    The recent financial crises have brought into focus questions regarding the quality of banks' assets. We study the patterns in banks reserving for and reporting of loan losses in the EU before and after implementation of the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM). We find that banks that 1) have less tier 1 capital, 2) are smaller, 3) are less liquid and 4) have smaller net interest margins either report relatively smaller loan loss reserves or less loan losses, even after including various controls. This supports the hypothesis that financially weaker banks may have a larger incentive to engage in balance sheet window dressing. We further find that the SSM has reduced but not eliminated the under-reserving and under-reporting bias. In addition, there has been a separate positive effect on the overall proportion of nonperforming loans (NPLs) that are realised as losses among the banks that have been under direct supervision by the SSM since implementation of the SSM.