Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers (1989- )


Keskustelualoitesarjassa julkaistaan akateemisia tutkimuksia teemoista, jotka ovat keskeisiä Suomen Pankin strategisten tavoitteiden kannalta ja vastaavat painopistealuetta makrotalouden ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden vuorovaikutus ja vakaus. Tekijät ovat tutkimusyksikön tai muiden yksikköjen ekonomisteja tai vierailevia tutkijoita. Keskustelualoitteet ilmestyvät nykyään englanniksi. Vuosien 1989-1994 kaikkia keskustelualoitteita ei ole saatavilla elektronisina.

Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Kauko, Karlo; Tölö, Eero (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 6/2019
    The trend deviation of the Credit-to-GDP ratio (“Basel gap”) is a widely used early warning indicator of banking crises. It is calculated with the one-sided Hodrick-Prescott filter using an extremely large value of the smoothing parameter λ. We recalibrate the smoothing parameter with panel data covering almost one and a half centuries and 15 countries. The optimal λ is found to be much lower than previously suggested. The 2008 crisis does not dominate the results. The long sample almost eliminates filter initialisation problems.
  • Lubik, Thomas A.; Matthes, Christian; Verona, Fabio (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 5/2019
    We study the behavior of key macroeconomic variables in the time and frequency domain. For this purpose, we decompose U.S. time series into various frequency components. This allows us to identify a set of stylized facts: GDP growth is largely a high-frequency phenomenon whereby inflation and nominal interest rates are characterized largely by low-frequency components. In contrast, unemployment is a medium-term phenomenon. We use these decompositions jointly in a structural VAR where we identify monetary policy shocks using a sign restriction approach. We find that monetary policy shocks affect these key variables in a broadly similar manner across all frequency bands. Finally, we assess the ability of standard DSGE models to replicate these findings. While the models generally capture low-frequency movements via stochastic trends and business cycle fluctuations through various frictions they fail at capturing the medium-term cycle.
  • Tuuli, Saara (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2019
    This paper investigates the impact of the model-based approach to bank capital regulation (i.e. the Internal Ratings Based Approach; IRBA) on firms' access to finance. A difference-in-differences methodology is used given that the IRBA, introduced as part of Basel II, was adopted by different banks in different times. The results suggest that firms indirectly affected by the new regulation via their main bank adopting the IRBA faced a 6-7 percentage point higher probability of facing a deterioration in their access to finance. When the sample is adjusted for the demand for credit, this estimate increases to 12-13 percentage points. The impact is found to come via increases in the cost of credit and to a smaller extent, reductions in the volume or size of loans. Around three-quarters of the effect is attributed to the sensitivity of the IRBA capital requirements to economic conditions, with adopting banks also found to specialize in low-risk lending.
  • Saka, Orkun (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2019
    European banks have been criticized for holding excessive domestic government debt during economic downturns, which may have intensified the diabolic loop between sovereign and bank credit risks. By using a novel bank-level dataset covering the entire timeline of the Eurozone crisis, I first re-confirm that the crisis led to the reallocation of sovereign debt from foreign to domestic banks. This reallocation was only visible for banks as opposed to other domestic private agents and it cannot be explained by the banks' risk-shifting tendency. In contrast to the recent literature focusing only on sovereign debt, I show that banks' private sector exposures were (at least) equally affected by a rise in home bias. Finally, consistent with these patterns, I propose a new debt reallocation channel based on informational frictions and show that informationally closer foreign banks increase their relative exposures when sovereign risk rises. The effect of informational closeness is economically meaningful and robust to the use of different information measures and controls for alternative channels of sovereign debt reallocation.
  • D'Acunto, Francesco; Hoang, Daniel; Paloviita, Maritta; Weber, Michael (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2019
    We use administrative and survey-based micro data to study the relationship between cognitive abilities (IQ), the formation of economic expectations, and the choices of a representative male population. Men above the median IQ (high-IQ men) display 50% lower forecast errors for inflation than other men. The inflation expectations and perceptions of high-IQ men, but not others, are positively correlated over time. High-IQ men are also less likely to round and to forecast implausible values. In terms of choice, only high-IQ men increase their propensity to consume when expecting higher inflation as the consumer Euler equation prescribes. High-IQ men are also forward-looking - they are more likely to save for retirement conditional on saving. Education levels, income, socio-economic status, and employment status, although important, do not explain the variation in expectations and choice by IQ. Our results have implications for heterogeneous-beliefs models of household consumption, saving, and investment.