BOFIT Discussion Papers (1999- )


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BOFIT Discussion Papers is a series devoted to academic studies by BOFIT economists and guest researchers. The focus is on works relevant for economic policy and economic developments in transition / emerging economies. >>More information.

Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Chen, Sophia; Ratnovski, Lev; Tsai, Pi-Han (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2019
    We estimate credit and fiscal multipliers in China, using subnational political cycles as a source of exogenous variation. The tenure of the provincial party secretary, interacted with the credit and fiscal expenditure used in other provinces, instruments for provincial credit and government expenditure growth. We find a fiscal multiplier of 0.75 in 2001-2008, which increased to 1.2 in 2010-2015, consistent with higher multipliers in a slower economy. At the same time, a credit multiplier of 0.2 in 2001-2008 declined to close to zero in 2010-2015, consistent with credit saturation and credit misallocation. Our results suggest that credit expansion cannot further support economic growth in China. The flip side is that lower credit growth is also unlikely to disrupt output growth. Fiscal policy is powerful, and can cushion the macroeconomic adjustment to lower credit intensity.
  • Deng, Yuping; Wu, Yanrui; Xu, Helian (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2019
    A firm's top manager and a government official may be connected due to special circumstances. This social relationship or political connection may provide industrial polluters with protection or a “pollution shelter” which could lead to severe environmental deterioration. This paper aims to examine the link between political connections and firms’ pollution discharges by using Chinese data. Empirical results show that political connections are the institutional origin for firms to adopt strategic pollution discharges. Government officials who are young, of low education, promoted locally and in office for a relatively long time are more likely to build political connections with polluters. This phenomenon results in inadequate enforcement of regulation and emission control. The pollution discharges of politically connected firms also vary considerably due to firm heterogeneity. This study also shows that pollution shelter effects caused by political connections are more obvious in the central and western regions, prefecture cities and capital-intensive industries.
  • Cheung, Yin-Wong; He, Shi (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 3/2019
    We conduct a meta-regression analysis of 69 studies that generated 937 renminbi (RMB) misalignment estimates. The Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach is adopted to allow for model selection and sampling uncertainties in assessing effects of study characteristics on these RMB misalignment estimates. Misalignment estimates are found to be influenced by the eight selected study characteristic types in our median probability model. The RMB misalignment estimate from models with various hypothetical combinations of study characteristics, however, is mostly insignificantly different from zero. It is also shown that the set of significant study characteristics is sensitive to the use of the least squares estimation method and the choice of benchmark study characteristics.
  • Chernykh, Lucy; Davydov, Denis; Sihvonen, Jukka (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2019
    We use a novel, household opinions-based measure – Public Confidence in a Bank – to explore the role of bank-level and system-wide determinants of customers’ trust in banks. Our study covers a panel of approximately 260 large Russian commercial banks publicly monitored during 2010–2017. We find that public confidence in a bank is highly sensitive to the industry-level financial stability indicators, but less sensitive to bank-level risk characteristics. This result reveals an important role of overall banking sector stability in determining public perception of the safety and soundness of individual banks.
  • Bircan, Çağatay; Saka, Orkun (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 1/2019
    We use data on the universe of credit in Turkey to document a strong political lending cycle. State-owned banks systematically adjust their lending around local elections compared with private banks in the same province. There is considerable tactical redistribution: state-owned banks increase credit in politically competitive provinces which have an incumbent mayor aligned with the ruling party, but reduce it in similar provinces with an incumbent mayor from the opposition parties. This effect only exists in corporate lending as opposed to consumer loans, suggesting that tactical redistribution targets job creation to increase electoral success. Political lending influences real outcomes as credit-constrained opposition areas suffer drops in employment and firm sales. There is substantial misallocation of financial resources as credit constraints most affect provinces and industries with high initial efficiency.