Browsing by Subject " education"

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  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Kandler, Christian; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Busjahn, Andreas; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rose, Richard J.; Koskenvuo, Markku; Heikkilä, Kauko; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; OEncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Goldberg, Jack H.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Maia, Jose A.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Turkheimer, Eric; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
  • Doftori, Mojibur (2004)
    This study is an investigation into the role of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in education of child labourers in Bangladesh and Nepal. It is guided by semi-structured and structured interviews as well as observations and analyzing texts and documents. It analyzes diverse approaches of NGOs in education sector in improving the living conditions of child labourers. It also analyzes to what extent the NGO approaches fit with the broader national goals of education sector development. The data used in the study were collected from a total ten NGOs in Bangladesh and Nepal during the fieldwork in 1999. A total 100 cases of child labourers was gathered during the fieldwork. Sociological theories of education have been used for this study to shed light on educational possibilities of child labourers. I find resistance theory and particularly the work of Paulo Freire as central to explain educational possibilities of child labourers in Bangladesh and Nepal. Extensive literature review and empirical data are used to explain historical developments and contexts of child labour and primary education, conceptions of childhood, role of NGOs in development in general and education sector in particular in Bangladesh and Nepal. Children’s ‘agency’ has been given importance in the study to give children’s own perspective on their work and education. The study reveals that it is possible to educate child labourers even under poverty and hardships if the needs and contexts of child labourers are taken into account when designing educational projects/programs. It also reveals that individual NGO projects may help children to improve their capability to cope with their situations. However, lack of linking of NGO work on education with the work of other actors is an impediment in achieving maximum impact. One of the conclusions reached in the study is that cooperation and synergy between education projects/programs of NGOs and government is a must to have maximum positive impact on living conditions of child labourers and achieving the national goal of ‘Education for All’. There is a need for both NGOs and governments of developing countries to reconsider some of their policies on education sector to reduce child labour.
  • Iotova, Violeta; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Bruegmann, Petra; Broesamle, Manuela; Bratina, Natasa; Tillmann, Vallo; Hiort, Olaf; Pereira, Alberto M. (2021)
    Objective: The European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions (Endo-ERN), operational since 2017, consists of 71 health care providers (HCPs) in 19 EU member states. Our objective was to assess education and knowledge on rare endocrine conditions. Design and methods: A survey was developed and sent through the DIGIT-EUROSURVEY system to all Endo-ERN HCPs. Results: Response rate was 55% (n = 146), 95% physicians, 58% > 20 years of experience, 96% academics. Largest knowledge gaps were reported for the transition and neonatal ages, and for the GPs. Less than 50% of HCPs had structured educational rare diseases (RD) plans, while 86% used RD specific guidelines. HCPs would share educational materials within Endo-ERN (74%), and participate in an accreditation model (85%). E-learning portals of the endocrine scientific societies used 58 % (ESPE) and 64% (ESE). Most participants (90%) regarded Endo-ERN coordinated educational activities (annual meetings slots, webinars, etc.) as highly important and supported a common educational platform. Social media was perceived as important for educating patients (86%) but not for physicians (36%). Seventy-five % had developed patient education materials; only 31% had specific children's materials, and by-country avail ability varied from 0 to 100%. Respondents provided newly diagnosed patients with their own material in the national language (81%); referred to advocacy groups (68%), and relevant online sources (50%). Respondents believed the European Commission should fund education through Endo-ERN. Conclusion: Identified knowledge gaps in rare endocrine disorders set the basis for fast catch-up through collaboration, alignment with patients' needs, and further development of existing and newly developed educational resources.
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lääperi, Mitja; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2021)
    Background Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence-based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses' use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners' satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self-directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education. Results Thirty-five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p <.05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self-efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6-month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy than the control group. At the 12-month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions. Linking Evidence to Action The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
  • Vähäaho, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Background and objectives: Currently in Finland, there are over 66 000 women living with breast cancer. The five-year survival rate is 90.6 %. Breast cancer and its treatments are known to impair patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The current study is a part of an open prospective randomized Breast cancer and exercise (BREX) -study in Finland conducted to investigate whether supervised exercise training shortly after the adjuvant treatments of breast cancer patients could prevent osteoporosis and improve patient’s quality of life. This master thesis examines cross-sectional and prospective associations between the sense of coherence (SOC) and the HRQoL of breast cancer survivors. Methods: 537 long-term breast cancer survivors and controls who participated in a prospective randomized physical exercise intervention with twelve months of supervised exercise training were followed up five years. 406 participants who finished the 5-year follow-up and filled the SOC questionnaire were included in the final analyzes. The SOC was measured by 13-item Finnish and Swedish short forms of Orientation to life Questionnaire (SOC-13) at 3 years. Cancer-specific HRQoL was measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) version 3 and general HRQoL by the 15D. Associations between the SOC and the HRQoL were studied by logistic regression analyze. Results and conclusion: The SOC was associated with the cancer-specific and the general HRQoL at the 3-year (p < .001) and at the 5-year follow-up (p < .001). The relationship was the most significant for the general HRQoL, global health / quality of life and emotional and cognitive functions. Weak SOC increases the risk of low cancer-specific and low general HRQoL after the adjuvant treatments of breast cancer. Strong SOC as an inner resource may serve as a protective psychological factor in the adaptation process of breast cancer survivors. The SOC-13 questionnaire might be useful in targeting patients vulnerable to decrease in the HRQoL and in planning psychosocial interventions.
  • Mikola, Peitsa (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Junna, Liina M.; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Östergren, Olof; Jasilionis, Domantas; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Aims: Tobacco smoking and alcohol use contribute to differences in life expectancy between individuals with primary, secondary and tertiary education. Less is known about the contribution of these risk factors to differences at higher levels of education. We estimate the contribution of smoking and alcohol use to the life-expectancy differences between the doctorates and the other tertiary-educated groups in Finland and in Sweden. Methods: We used total population data from Finland and Sweden from 2011 to 2015 to calculate period life expectancies at 40 years of age. We present the results by sex and educational attainment, the latter categorised as doctorate or licentiate degrees, or other tertiary. We also present an age and cause of death decomposition to assess the contribution of deaths related to smoking and alcohol. Results: In Finland, deaths related to smoking and alcohol constituted 48.6% of the 2.1-year difference in life expectancy between men with doctorate degrees and the other tertiary-educated men, and 22.9% of the 2.1-year difference between women, respectively. In Sweden, these causes account for 22.2% of the 1.9-year difference among men, and 55.7% of the 1.6-year difference among women, which in the latter case is mainly due to smoking. Conclusions: Individuals with doctorates tend to live longer than other tertiary-educated individuals. This difference can be partly attributed to alcohol consumption and smoking.
  • Sepp, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study represents comparative educational research focusing on music syllabi in the National Curricula for basic schools and the pedagogical thinking of music teachers in those schools in Estonia and Finland. The thesis consists of six articles and a summary explaining the background of the research, the research methods, as well as the conclusions and further discussions about the results. The aim of the research was to study and compare the music syllabi and their influence on general music education and actual music practices in the two countries. The study also aimed at specification and comparison of pedagogical thinking of teachers teaching music in basic schools as well as tried to identify what objectives, content, practices and methods they used. The data came from three different sources: the current music syllabi in the National Core curricula in both countries, answers to a web-based questionnaire (N = 157) and semi-structured interviews (N = 10) for teachers teaching music in basic schools. The data were analysed using a mixed method, which became intertwined: the aim was to compare and obtain an overall idea about the role and meaning of the music syllabi on the music practices and to find out about the pedagogical thinking of the teachers music teaching. In the first stage, the music syllabi of both countries were compared using content analysis by themes and categories; next, the answers to the closed questions of the questionnaire were quantitatively analysed and the answers to the open questions were studied and qualitatively compared using content analysis. In the third stage, the data from the interviews were qualitatively analysed using directed content analysis. Finally, the entire data set was reviewed to obtain a more reliable overall picture, and the results of the analyses allowed to draw some conclusions. The results of the neighbouring countries of Estonia and Finland revealed several similarities as well as differences in their music syllabi and in the music teachers pedagogical thinking. The major differences were related to the level of prescription of the music syllabi, the optional status of the subject and the number of lessons. The music syllabus in the National Curriculum in Estonia provides more detailed explanations, and music is a compulsory subject throughout basic schooling. The music syllabus in Finland is more like a framework according to which teachers are expected to design the local curricula, and the subject is optional from grade 8 onwards. The number of music lessons per week also differs. The main objectives of the music syllabi in both countries confirm the idea of musicing: engaging pupils in the real world of music by singing, playing instruments, listening to various styles and genres of music, and expressing their own ideas through improvisation, composition and movement. The pedagogical thinking and use of music practices in the two countries also revealed similar tendencies. Thus, the use of Riho Päts approach to music teaching is naturally more widespread in Estonia, but as several Estonian music teachers also work in Finland, this approach has also become more popular here.
  • Huotari, Miina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study investigates the relationship between policy and practice of access to education within the architectures of humanitarian action. The importance of education as a human right has been internationally widely acknowledged, and more recently it has gained more foothold in discussions about humanitarian action practices. The thesis deploys a research approach that is based on discourse analysis. To analyse policy, internationally and universally recognized and applicable key documents dealing with access to education have been selected for further inspection. Practice is approached through semi-structured interviews with practitioners in the field of humanitarian action and education, and through a case study of Za’atari refugee camp in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Theoretically this thesis is inspired by poststructuralist development theory (PSDT) and its hyponym discursive institutionalism (DI). Based on these influences, I treat education as an institution that is subject to interventions by different actors and phenomena. The findings of this thesis demonstrate, on one hand, that education has become a more central aspect of policy regarding humanitarian action. On the other hand, the results sheer light on various challenges that actors on the practical side face while intending to implement and follow through on policies and principles of the before mentioned documents in the field. Actors that operate in the field are especially facing challenges with unstable financial resources and shortcomings in bringing policy closer to the needs of the field. The findings of this study also suggest that the importance of education as a central element of humanitarian action in crisis and conflict situations need to be realized further. This applies to both policy and practice, for education is now realized as a mean of protection rather than additional good or service.
  • Global Burden of Disease Self-Harm Collaboration; Orpana, H.M.; Doku, D.T.; Meretoja, T.J.; Shiri, R.; Vasankari, T. (2019)
    Objectives To use the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 to describe patterns of suicide mortality globally, regionally, and for 195 countries and territories by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index, and to describe temporal trends between 1990 and 2016. Design Systematic analysis. Main outcome measures Crude and age standardised rates from suicide mortality and years of life lost were compared across regions and countries, and by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index (a composite measure of fertility, income, and education). Results The total number of deaths from suicide increased by 6.7% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4% to 15.6%) globally over the 27 year study period to 817 000 (762 000 to 884 000) deaths in 2016. However, the age standardised mortality rate for suicide decreased by 32.7% (27.2% to 36.6%) worldwide between 1990 and 2016, similar to the decline in the global age standardised mortality rate of 30.6%. Suicide was the leading cause of age standardised years of life lost in the Global Burden of Disease region of high income Asia Pacific and was among the top 10 leading causes in eastern Europe, central Europe, western Europe, central Asia, Australasia, southern Latin America, and high income North America. Rates for men were higher than for women across regions, countries, and age groups, except for the 15 to 19 age group. There was variation in the female to male ratio, with higher ratios at lower levels of Socio-demographic index. Women experienced greater decreases in mortality rates (49.0%, 95% uncertainty interval 42.6% to 54.6%) than men (23.8%, 15.6% to 32.7%). Conclusions Age standardised mortality rates for suicide have greatly reduced since 1990, but suicide remains an important contributor to mortality worldwide. Suicide mortality was variable across locations, between sexes, and between age groups. Suicide prevention strategies can be targeted towards vulnerable populations if they are informed by variations in mortality rates. © Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen (2017)
    Software engineering education is under constant pressure to provide students with industry-relevant knowledge and skills. Educators must address issues beyond exercises and theories that can be directly rehearsed in small settings. Industry training has similar requirements of relevance as companies seek to keep their workforce up to date with technological advances. Real-life software development often deals with large, software-intensive systems and is influenced by the complex effects of teamwork and distributed software development, which are hard to demonstrate in an educational environment. A way to experience such effects and to increase the relevance of software engineering education is to apply empirical studies in teaching. In this paper, we show how different types of empirical studies can be used for educational purposes in software engineering. We give examples illustrating how to utilize empirical studies, discuss challenges, and derive an initial guideline that supports teachers to include empirical studies in software engineering courses. Furthermore, we give examples that show how empirical studies contribute to high-quality learning outcomes, to student motivation, and to the awareness of the advantages of applying software engineering principles. Having awareness, experience, and understanding of the actions required, students are more likely to apply such principles under real-life constraints in their working life.
  • Brunila, Kristiina; Rossi, Leena-Maija (2018)
    In this article, identity politics is understood as a form of politics stressing collective but malleable group identities as the basis of political action. This notion of identity politics also allows thinking of identity as intersectional. The focus of this article, and a problem related to identity politics, is that when discussed in the context of the neoliberal order, identity politics has a tendency to become harnessed by the ethos of vulnerability. Some implications of the 'vulnerabilizisation' are considered in the field of education, which is a field currently thoroughly affected by neoliberalism. Therefore, it is also important to look closer at the relationship between identity politics and the ethos of vulnerability. In addition, we re-consider poststructuralist thinking as a theoretical and political approach to see what it can offer in terms of re-thinking identity politics and in analyzing the ethos of vulnerability. When categories of vulnerability keep expanding into various psycho-emotional vulnerabilities defining subjects that can be known and spoken about, it is crucial to ask whether we regard these changes as educationally and politically progressive. The article discusses some problematic policies in educational environments and the phenomenon of trigger warnings.
  • International Group for Diabetes and Ramadan (IGRD) (2015)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine if individualized education before Ramadan results in a safer fast for people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes who received care from participating clinics in Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Saudi Arabia and intended to fast during Ramadan 2014 were prospectively studied. Twelve clinics participated. Individualized education addressed meal planning, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring and acute metabolic complications and when deemed necessary, provided an individualized diabetes treatment plan. RESULTS: 774 people met study criteria, 515 received individualized education and 259 received usual care. Those who received individualized education were more likely to modify their diabetes treatment plan during Ramadan (97% vs 88%, p<0.0001), to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose at least twice daily during Ramadan (70% vs 51%, p<0.0001), and to have improved knowledge about hypoglycemic signs and symptoms (p=0.0007). Those who received individualized education also reduced their body mass index (-1.1±2.4 kg/m(2) vs -0.2±1.7 kg/m(2), p<0.0001) and glycated haemoglobin (-0.7±1.1% vs -0.1±1.3%, p<0.0001) during Ramadan compared those who received usual care. There were more mild (77% vs 67%, p=0.0031) and moderate (38% vs 19%, p<0.0001) hypoglycemic events reported by participants who received individualized education than those who received usual care, but fewer reported severe hypoglycemic events during Ramadan (23% vs 34%, p=0.0017). CONCLUSIONS: This individualized education and diabetes treatment program helped patients with type 2 diabetes lose weight, improve glycemic control and achieve a safer fast during Ramadan.
  • Alemanji, Aminkeng Atabong (2016)
    In this thesis I set out to investigate what antiracism education in Finland is at a conceptual, methodological and practical level. At the conceptual level, this study examines how and why antiracism is theorised and explores the challenges to and possible gains from a potential shift in existing antiracist strategies in Finland. At the practical and methodological levels (using both literature and research data) this study investigates how antiracism education Finland is done and how it could be done differently. This thesis includes a collection of five articles. The first article, If an apple is a foreign apple you have to wash it very carefully : Youth discourses on racism (2016), is set at the intersection of formal and non-formal education and critically examines the use of wrong questions in antiracism discourses. The second article, Antiracism Apps as Actants of Education for Diversities (2015), examines how two mobile phone applications could be used as antiracism educational tools, bearing in mind the potentials and limitations of such technologies. The third article, Educating Children to Survive within a Neo-Racist Framework: Parents' Struggle, (submitted), set in informal/non-formal education, investigates the different strategies employed by mothers of immigrant background children to educate their child or children on how to respond to racial violence. Article four, Zebra World - The Promotion of Imperial Stereotypes in a Children's Book (2015), challenges the binary and stereotypical agenda of educational materials regarding how they tell the story of us and them. The last article, Holocaust Education: An Alternative Approach to Antiracism Education? A Study of a Holocaust Textbook Used in 8th Grade in an International School in Finland (2015), examines how, through the notion of intersectionality, educators can use the concepts of racism and neo-racism to teach about the Holocaust and vice versa. Grounded in an understanding of racism based on postcoloniality and neo-racism, this study investigates racism in Finland using four interrelated lenses: Finnish exceptionalism, coloniality of power, whiteness theory and denial of racism. It unearths the hidden structural hierarchies (re)produced, sustained and recycled by power structures. In addition, this study argues that since antiracism as a word endorses a recognition of the existence of racism, it is important to build and offer antiracism programmes in and out of schools. It calls for antiracism education as a discipline to be given more space in formal education and proposes strategies through which this can be achieved. Furthermore, it proposes that antiracism education must be ready to be self-critical, bearing in mind that there is no one true solution to racism.
  • Uusimäki, Elisa (2020)
    This article examines passages in Sirach which posit that travel fosters understanding (Sir. 34.9–13) and that the sage knows how to travel in foreign lands (Sir. 39.4). The references are discussed in the context of two ancient Mediterranean corpora, that is, biblical and Greek literature. Although the evidence in Sirach is insufficient for demonstrating the existence of a specific social practice, the text at least attests to an attitude of mental openness, imagining travel as a professional enterprise with positive outcomes. This article argues that the closest parallels to Sir. 34.9–13 and Sir. 39.4 are not to be found in the Hebrew Bible or Hellenistic Jewish literature but in (nonJewish) Greek writings which refer to travels undertaken by the sages who roam around for the sake of learning. The shared travel motif helps to demonstrate that Sirach belongs to a wider Hellenistic Mediterranean context than just that of biblical literature.
  • Martikainen, Pekka; Korhonen, Kaarina; Jelenkovic, Aline; Lahtinen, Hannu; Havulinna, Aki; Ripatti, Samuli; Borodulin, Katja; Salomaa, Veikko; Smith, George Davey; Silventoinen, Karri (2021)
    Background Genetic vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD) is well established, but little is known whether these effects are mediated or modified by equally well-established social determinants of CHD. We estimate the joint associations of the polygenetic risk score (PRS) for CHD and education on CHD events. Methods The data are from the 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 surveys of the population-based FINRISK Study including measures of social, behavioural and metabolic factors and genome-wide genotypes (N=26 203). Follow-up of fatal and non-fatal incident CHD events (N=2063) was based on nationwide registers. Results Allowing for age, sex, study year, region of residence, study batch and principal components, those in the highest quartile of PRS for CHD had strongly increased risk of CHD events compared with the lowest quartile (HR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.97 to 2.59); associations were also observed for low education (HR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.32 to 1.89). These effects were largely independent of each other. Adjustment for baseline smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, igh-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol, blood pressure and diabetes attenuated the PRS associations by 10% and the education associations by 50%. We do not find strong evidence of interactions between PRS and education. Conclusions PRS and education predict CHD events, and these associations are independent of each other. Both can improve CHD prediction beyond behavioural risks. The results imply that observational studies that do not have information on genetic risk factors for CHD do not provide confounded estimates for the association between education and CHD.
  • Hillebrandt, Maarten Zbigniew (2020)
    The cybernetic dream of regulatory 'dashboard control' has taken off in the German higher education system. Both government regulators and university managers are engaged in the creation of waves of increasingly fine-grained quantitative data. Yet a wide range of recent case studies of the German higher education sector attest that in spite of this 'datafication' frenzy, the impact of the collected data mass on regulatory and managerial decision-making capacities seems to have remained relatively limited. This article explores why, in spite of the considerable investment in quantitative data infrastructures in the German higher education sector, this did not result in significant overt analytical capacity building. It explores three hypotheses: 1) a legal hypothesis according to which quantification is curbed by legal protections under the Rechtsstaat; 2) a dysfunctionality hypothesis which holds that decision makers reject quantification as a flawed and impracticable pursuit; and 3) an egalitarian federalism hypothesis which argues that Germany's federal states seek to prevent commensurability to avoid comparison and competition. The article finds that, in spite of its inconspicuousness, quantification indeed does inform various central decision-making processes. However, different legal, political, and relational factors prompt decision makers to engage in a hybrid, tempered and, overall, untransparent application of numerical data.
  • Tamas, Gertrud; Fabbri, Margherita; Falup-Pecurariu, Cristian; Teodoro, Tiago; Kurtis, Monica M.; Aliyev, Rahim; Bonello, Michael; Brozova, Hana; Coelho, Miguel Soares; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Dietrichs, Espen; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Elmgreen, Soren Bruno; Groppa, Sergiu; Kadastik-Eerme, Liis; Khatiashvili, Irine; Kostic, Vladimir; Krismer, Florian; Mansour, Alia Hassan; Odin, Per; Gavriliuc, Olga; Olszewska, Diana Angelika; Relja, Maja; Scheperjans, Filip; Skorvanek, Matej; Smilowska, Katarzyna; Taba, Pille; Tavadyan, Zaruhi; Valante, Ramona; Vujovic, Balsa; Waldvogel, Daniel; Yalcin-Cakmakli, Gul; Chitnis, Shilpa; Ferreira, Joaquim J. (2020)
    Background: Little information is available on the official postgraduate and subspecialty training programs in movement disorders (MD) in Europe and North Africa. Objective: To survey the accessible MD clinical training in these regions. Methods: We designed a survey on clinical training in MD in different medical fields, at postgraduate and specialized levels. We assessed the characteristics of the participants and the facilities for MD care in their respective countries. We examined whether there are structured, or even accredited postgraduate, or subspecialty MD training programs in neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, geriatrics, neuroradiology, neuropediatrics, and general practice. Participants also shared their suggestions and needs. Results: The survey was completed in 31/49 countries. Structured postgraduate MD programs in neurology exist in 20 countries; structured neurology subspecialty training exists in 14 countries and is being developed in two additional countries. Certified neurology subspecialty training was reported to exist in 7 countries. Recommended reading lists, printed books, and other materials are the most popular educational tools, while courses, lectures, webinars, and case presentations are the most popular learning formats. Mandatory activities and skills to be certified were not defined in 15/31 countries. Most participants expressed their need for a mandatory postgraduate MD program and for certified MD sub-specialization programs in neurology. Conclusion: Certified postgraduate and subspecialty training exists only in a minority of European countries and was not found in the surveyed Egypt and Tunisia. MD training should be improved in many countries.
  • Hiilamo, Heikki Tuomas; Merikukka, Marko; Haataja, Anita (2018)
    This study asks how Finnish 6-year-olds who stay at home before school start compare in educational outcomes with children who attend public day care. Earlier studies have shown that participation in public day care can enhance school performance especially among disadvantaged children. In Finland, the child home care allowance scheme supports the home care of 6-year-olds if they have a younger sibling under the age of 3 who is also not attending public day care. We used as outcome variables grade point average after compulsory school at age 15 to 16 and dichotomous variable measuring completion of further education by age 25. The study utilized data of the birth cohort 1987 (N = 4,928). The results show that staying at home before school start is associated with poorer school performance but not with completion of further education.
  • Hakulinen, C.; Elovainio, M.; Arffman, M.; Lumme, S.; Pirkola, S.; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, K.; Böckerman, P. (2019)
    Objective To examine the associations between an onset of serious mental disorders before the age of 25 with subsequent employment, income and education outcomes. Methods Nationwide cohort study including individuals (n = 2 055 720) living in Finland between 1988–2015, who were alive at the end of the year they turned 25. Mental disorder diagnosis between ages 15 and 25 was used as the exposure. The level of education, employment status, annual wage or self‐employment earnings, and annual total income between ages 25 and 52 (measurement years 1988–2015) were used as the outcomes. Results All serious mental disorders were associated with increased risk of not being employed and not having any secondary or higher education between ages 25 and 52. The earnings for individuals with serious mental disorders were considerably low, and the annual median total income remained rather stable between ages 25 and 52 for most of the mental disorder groups. Conclusions Serious mental disorders are associated with low employment rates and poor educational outcomes, leading to a substantial loss of total earnings over the life course.