Browsing by Subject "119 Other natural sciences"

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  • CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, SUDETES 2003 Working Groups; Komminaho, Kari (2003)
  • Venäläinen, Salla; Hartikainen, Helka Helinä (2017)
    Utilisation of sodium (Na+) containing alkali in the neutralisation of acidic industrial process waters rich in sulphate (SO4 2−) produces effluents high in sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) reluctant to precipitate. Discharge of the saline effluents leads to permanent chemical stratification of the recipient freshwater systems, which prevents their annual overturn and the subsequent oxygen supply to hypolimnion. Novel and sustainable technologies are desperately needed to prevent the hazardous environmental impacts of saline effluents. We investigated the ability of anionic nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) gels of three different consistencies to recover solubilised Na+ and SO4 2− from authentic circumneutral mining water onto a solid phase. The water was treated with the NFC gels in three sequential batches at three sorbent-to-solution ratios. NFC-induced changes in the ion concentrations were determined to calculate the Na+ and SO4 2− retention capacity and purification efficiency of the NFC gels. All NFC gels efficiently and coincidentally removed Na+ and SO4 2− from the mining water. We concluded that Na+ ions electrostatically adsorbed onto the deprotonated carboxyl groups of the anionic NFC and attracted SO4 2− ions which also acted as bridging anions between the neighbouring nanofibrils. Decrease in the consistency of the NFC gel enhanced accessibility of the sorption sites and, consequently, promoted the ion retention. A high sorbent-to-solution ratio favoured the intermolecular interactions within the NFC gels, thus decreasing the number of available sorption sites. A high ionic strength of the effluent favoured the ion retention, indicating that anionic NFC is particularly suitable for the treatment of highly saline solutions. The best purification result was obtained at a moderate sorbent-to-solution ratio with a dilute NFC gel. This lowers the demand for the cellulose raw material and the treatment expenses. We conclude that anionic NFC, made of renewable materials, may serve as an efficient and sustainable purification agent for removal and recycling of highly soluble Na+ and SO4 2−from industrial effluents
  • Lindström, Stafva; Timonen, Sari; Sundström, Liselotte; Johansson, Helena (2019)
    Biotic and abiotic characteristics shape the microbial communities in the soil environment. Manipulation of soil, performed by ants when constructing their nests, radically changes the soil characteristics and creates a unique environment, which differs in its composition, frequency and abundance of microbial taxa, from those in the reference soils. We sampled nests of the mound-building ant Formica exsecta, and the surrounding reference soils over a three-month period, and generated NGS (Illumina MiSeq), and T-RFLP data of the bacterial and fungal communities. We used ordination techniques and network analysis to disclose the community structure, and we assessed the variation in diversity, evenness and enrichment of taxa between the two environments. We also used indicator analysis to identify the potential core microbiome of the nests. Our results show that the bacterial and fungal communities, in the rigorously curated nest environment, are significantly different from those in the reference soils, in terms of community structure and enrichment of characteristic indicator taxa. We demonstrate that the nests represent a niche, where microbial species can adapt and diverge from the communities in the surrounding soils. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the composition and function of microbiomes in fragmented habitats.
  • Kotiranta, H.; Shiryaev, A.G.; Spirin, V. (2016)
    The present study reports 227 Aphyllophoroid fungi from Tuva Republic, southern Siberia, Russia. A total of 211 species are new to the republic. The material was collected during August 2014 and includes some surprising species like Haploporus odorus and Polyporus pseudobetulinus, both known as northern taiga species of old-growth forests. Nominates for the new edition of Red Data Book of Tuva are briefly discussed and some microscopical descriptions and illustrations of unidentified or little known species are given.
  • Wang, Qian; Lintunen, Anna; Zhao, Ping; Shen, Weijun; Salmon, Yann; Chen, Xia; Ouyang, Lei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Sun, Dan; Rao, Xinquan; Holtta, Teemu (2020)
    Prerequisite for selection of appropriate tree species in afforestation programs is to understand their water use strategy. Acacia mangium Willd., Schima wallichii Choisy, and Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook are the three main vegetation restoration pioneer species in southern China, but no comparative research on the water use strategy of these three tree species have been reported. Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC) at different soil depths control the sap flux density (J(s)) in the dry and wet seasons. We measured the J(s) of these three tree species by using the thermal dissipation method in low subtropical China. We found that both S. wallichii and C. lanceolata differed clearly in their stomatal behavior from one season to another, while A. mangium did not. The canopy conductance per sapwood area of S. wallichii and C. lanceolata was very sensitive to VPD in the dry season, but not in the wet season. The J(s) of A. mangium was negatively correlated to SWC in all soil layers and during both seasons, while the other two species were not sensitive to SWC in the deeper layers and only positively correlated to SWC in dry season. Our results demonstrate that the three species have distinct water use strategies and may therefore respond differently to changing climate.
  • van den Born, Riyan J.G.; Verbrugge, Laura; Ganzevoort, Wessel (2020)
    Adaptive management strategies are required to manage multi-actor and multifunctional river landscapes. Such strategies need to be inclusive of perspectives of different stakeholders. We present a case study of a pilot engineering project in the Dutch river Waal, which drastically changed the appearance of the river landscape. We study perceptions of four stakeholder groups (residents, recreational anglers, recreational boaters and shipping professionals) regarding the impacts of this intervention on landscape values, including aesthetics, naturalness, biodiversity, flood safety and accessibility. Results show that stakeholders differ in which functions of the river landscape they found important and how they perceive the longitudinal dams to influence the landscape. They also differ in levels of place attachment and trust in the responsible authority. Shipping professionals stood out for their more negative evaluations of the dams compared to the other stakeholders, while especially residents demonstrated high levels of place identity and connection with nature. Residents also feel that the dams are improving flood risk safety in the area, and they positively evaluate knowledge and skills of Dutch water managers. These results provide water managers with much needed insights into landscape functions valued by different stakeholder groups and those perceived as most endangered by landscape interventions.
  • Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Toom, Auli; Ilomäki, Liisa (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2017)
    New Perspectives on Learning and Instruction
  • Sennikov, Alexander; Phipps, James B. (2013)
    Compilation of the nomenclatural checklist of Rosaceae for volumes 16 and 17 of Atlas Florae Europaeae resulted in nomenclatural and taxonomic adjustments presented here. The synonymy of Cotoneaster bullatus is verified; the name C. tomentellus is shown to have been validly published in 2009 instead of 1961. Cotoneaster marianus, an alleged endemic to Macedonia, is a synonym of C. parnassicus from Greece. The new combination Sorbaronia mitschurinii is proposed to reflect the intergeneric hybrid origin of Aronia mitschurinii, an apomictic species of cultigenous origin (Aronia melanocarpa × Sorbus aucuparia). The name Crataegus chrysocarpa var. rotundifolia J. B. Phipps & Sennikov is proposed to replace the illegitimate C. chrysocarpa var. phoenicea E. J. Palmer, and the illegitimate C. horrida Medik. ex Cinovskis 1971 is added to its synonymy. The new name Crataegus chrysocarpa var. phoeniceoides J. B. Phipps & Sennikov is proposed for C. chrysocarpa var. phoenicea J. B. Phipps, nom. illeg., non E. J. Palmer. The name Sorbus tauricola Zaik. ex Sennikov is validly published with a new description and type designation. The lectotype of Cotoneaster bullatus and the neotypes of C. moupinensis f. floribundus and Mespilus rotundifolia are designated.
  • Wirtanen, Gun (2018)
    see the pdf-file
  • Castagneyrol, Bastien; Valdés-Correcher, Elena; Bourdin, Audrey; Barbaro, Luc; Bouriaud, Olivier; Branco, Manuela; Centenaro, Giada; Csóka, György; Duduman, Mihail-Leonard; Dulaurent, Anne-Maïmiti; Eötvös, Csaba B.; Faticov, Maria; Ferrante, Marco; Fürjes-Mikó, Ágnes; Galmán, Andrea; Gossner, Martin M.; Harvey, Deborah; Howe, Andy G.; Kaennel-Dobbertin, Michèle; Koricheva, Julia; Löveï, Gábor L.; Lupaștean, Daniela; Milanović, Slobodan; Mrazova, Anna; Opgennoorth, Lars; Pitkänen, Juha-Matti; Popović, Marija; Roslin, Tomas; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Sam, Katerina; Tahadlová, Markéta; Thomas, Rebecca; Tack, Ayco J. M. (2020)
  • Saarela, Taija; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja; Vesala, Timo; Jantti, Helena (2020)
    Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant natural source of methane (CH4). CH4 produced through anaerobic decomposition of organic matter (OM) in lake sediment and water column can be either oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) by methanotrophic microbes or emitted to the atmosphere. While the role of CH4 oxidation as a CH4 sink is widely accepted, neither the magnitude nor the drivers behind CH4 oxidation are well constrained. In this study, we aimed to gain more specific insight into CH4 oxidation in the water column of a seasonally stratified, typical boreal lake, particularly under hypoxic conditions. We used (CH4)-C-13 incubations to determine the active CH4 oxidation sites and the potential CH4 oxidation rates in the water column, and we measured environmental variables that could explain CH4 oxidation in the water column. During hypolimnetic hypoxia, 91% of available CH4 was oxidized in the active CH4 oxidation zone, where the potential CH4 oxidation rates gradually increased from the oxycline to the hypolimnion. Our results showed that in warm springs, which become more frequent, early thermal stratification with cold well-oxygenated hypolimnion delays the period of hypolimnetic hypoxia and limits CH4 production. Thus, the delayed development of hypolimnetic hypoxia may partially counteract the expected increase in the lacustrine CH4 emissions caused by the increasing organic carbon load from forested catchments.
  • Duplouy, Anne (2015)
    In the last two years, researchers from the Metapopulation Research Centre (MRC) at the University of Helsinki, Finland, have, under the initiative of Dr. Anna-Liisa Laine, introduced more than 150 pre-school children to Biological Science and the profession of researcher. The project is called “Tiede Tulee Tarhaan” in Finnish, which translates into “Science goes Kindergarden”.
  • Poysa, Hannu; Lammi, Esa; Poysa, Silvo; Vaananen, Veli-Matti (2019)
    Interactions and dependence between species can transmit the effects of species declines within and between trophic levels, resulting in secondary endangerments and, in some cases, extinctions. Many mixed-species avian breeding aggregations commonly have a protector species whose aggressive nest defense is used by other species to defend their nests. Disappearance of the protector species may have population demographic consequences on the dependent species. Aggressive nest defense behavior of small colonial gulls, such as the black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), is used by many waterbird species to gain protection against predators. We used data from 15 local waterbird communities in Finland to study long-term changes and dynamics of breeding numbers of other waterbirds as a response to long-term changes and dynamics of black-headed gull colonies. We found that breeding numbers of many species tracked long-term changes in the size of black-headed gull colonies. This was true even after controlling for a common trend in the size of the black-headed gull colony and the breeding numbers of the other species. The trend-controlled positive temporal association with black-headed gull was relatively stronger in species that nest in similar habitats of a lake as the black-headed gull, and in species that have a more critical conservation status due to drastic population decline. Our results suggest that the overall decline of black-headed gull colonies has resulted in secondary endangerment of many other species in waterbird communities.
  • Stén, Johan (2021)
    Suuri sveitsiläinen matemaatikko Leonhard Euler (1707–83) laati kohta Berliinin tiedeakatemian jäseneksi vuonna 1741 tultuaan kirjoituksen, jossa hän perusteli ”korkeamman matematiikan” (mathesis sublimior) hyödyllisyyttä monilla tieteenaloilla. Teksti jäi julkaisematta hänen elinaikanaan, mutta se ilmestyi vuonna 1847 lehdessä Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik 35 (s. 109–116) otsikolla Commentatio de matheseos sublimioris utilitate. Eulerin kootuista teoksista Opera Omnia se löytyy osasta III.2 ja Gustaf Eneströmin laatimasta Eulerin teosluettelosta numerolla 790. Teksti ei ole menettänyt ajankohtaisuuttaan, ja se ilmestyy tässä suoraan latinasta käännettynä kaiketi ensi kertaa suomeksi
  • Hagge, Jonas; Abrego, Nerea; Baessler, Claus; Bouget, Christophe; Brin, Antoine; Brustel, Herve; Christensen, Morten; Gossner, Martin M.; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Horak, Akub; Gruppe, Axel; Isacsson, Gunnar; Koehler, Frank; Lachat, Thibault; Larrieu, Laurent; Schlaghamersky, Jiri; Thorn, Simon; Zapponi, Livia; Mueller, Joerg (2019)
    Aim: Beech forests comprise a globally unique temperate forest type in Europe. The dominance of beech in these forests developed during the ongoing post-glacial northward re-colonization, concurrently with intensified forest use by humans. We investigated how these two processes together with climate shaped the patterns of functional diversity of two major species groups involved in wood decomposition and whether functional diversity is determined on the local or regional species pool level. Location: European beech forest distribution range. Taxon: Saproxylic beetles and fungi. Methods: We analysed records of 532,496 saproxylic beetles of 788 species and 8,630 records of 234 saproxylic fungal species based on sets of traits similar to both groups. We tested how space, climate and landscape composition affect trait-based functional diversity on local and regional scales. Using structural equation modelling, we tested whether functional diversity is shaped on the local or regional scale. Results: The response of local functional diversity of both saproxylic beetles and fungi followed a highly congruent pattern of decreasing functional diversity towards the north, with higher elevation and accounted for overall geographical gradients with higher temperature, while increasing with higher precipitation. Structural equation modelling revealed that local functional diversity is determined by community changes operating on the level of the regional species pool. Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that the functional diversity patterns of saproxylic organisms in European beech forests are mainly determined on the regional scale and driven by anthropogenic and biogeographical processes. To conserve the variation and hotspots of functional diversity in beech forests, activities have to focus on a broad spatial and climatic range of sites throughout Europe, including the primeval forests in the east, as started by the UNESCO World Heritage selection of "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe".
  • Laaksonen, Maija; Sajanti, Eeva; Sormunen, Jani J.; Penttinen, Ritva; Hanninen, Jari; Ruohomaki, Kai; Saaksjarvi, Ilari; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytonen, Jukka; Klemola, Tero (2017)
    A national crowdsourcing-based tick collection campaign was organized in 2015 with the objective of producing novel data on tick distribution and tick-borne pathogens in Finland. Nearly 20 000 Ixodes ticks were collected. The collected material revealed the nationwide distribution of I. persulcatus for the first time and a shift northwards in the distribution of I. ricinus in Finland. A subset of 2038 tick samples containing both species was screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the prevalence was 14.2% for I. ricinus and 19.8% for I. persulcatus), B. miyamotoi (0.2% and 0.4%, respectively) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV; 0.2% and 3.0%, respectively). We also report new risk areas for TBEV in Finland and, for the first time, the presence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from mainland Finland. Most importantly, our study demonstrates the overwhelming power of citizen science in accomplishing a collection effort that would have been impossible with the scientific community alone.
  • Heinonen, Jussi S.; Jennings, Eleanor S.; Riley, Teal R. (2015)
    Calculating reliable temperatures of Mg-rich magmas is problematic because melt composition and KD(Fe-Mg)ol-liq, the key parameters of many traditional thermometers, are difficult to constrain precisely. The recently developed Al-in-olivine thermometer [Coogan, L.A., Saunders, A.D., Wilson, R.N., 2014. Aluminum-in-olivine thermometry of primitive basalts: Evidence of an anomalously hot mantle source for large igneous provinces. Chemical Geology 368, 1–10] circumvents these problems by relying on the temperature-dependent exchange of Al between olivine and spinel crystallising in equilibrium with each other. This thermometer is used to re-evaluate the crystallisation temperatures of the most Mg-rich magma type identified from the Karoo large igneous province (LIP), known as the Vestfjella depleted ferropicrite suite. Previous temperature estimates for the suite were based on olivine-melt equilibria and indicated anomalously high crystallisation temperatures in excess of 1600 °C. We also present crystallisation temperatures for another Antarctic Karoo magma type, Group 3 dykes from Ahlmannryggen, which are derived from a pyroxene-rich mantle source. Our high-precision analysis of Al in olivine-spinel pairs indicate crystallisation temperatures from 1391±42 °C to 1481±35 °C for the Vestfjella depleted ferropicrite suite (Fo88–92) and from 1253±64 °C to 1303±40 °C for the Group 3 dykes (Fo79–82). Although the maximum temperature estimates for the former are over 100 °C lower than the previously presented estimates, they are still ~200 °C higher than those calculated for mid-ocean ridge basalts using the same method. Although exact mantle potential temperatures are difficult to estimate, the presented results support elevated sub-Gondwanan upper mantle temperatures (generated by a mantle plume or internal mantle heating) during the generation of the Karoo LIP.
  • Varga, Ildiko; Keresztes, Balázs; Poczai, Péter (2012)
    The European mistletoe (Viscum album) is an evergreen, perennial, epiphytic, hemiparasitic shrub, which is widely distributed in Europe. Its occurrence induces extremely sensitive health of host trees further contributing to the phenomenon of forest decline spiral. Besides mechanical pruning a hyperparasitic fungus (Phaeobotryosphaeria visci) could be a successful candidate to develop an effective biocontrol agent against V. album. We were extensively aware of the insect community of European mistletoe in light of finding another potential agent. We collected and identified 22 insect species (4 Sternorrhyncha, 5 Heteroptera, 5 Coleoptera, 5 Hymenoptera, 2 Lepidoptera, 1 Diptera) from which eight are specialists restricted only to European mistletoe (Cacopsylla visci, Carulaspis visci, Hypseloecus visci, Pinalitus viscicola, Ixapion variegatum, Liparthrum bartschti, Synanthedon loranthi, Celypha woodiana). Species associations with this plant are reported here for the first time for two Heteroptera (Campyloneura virgula, Pentatoma rufipes), one Coleoptera (Sericoderus lateralis), one ant species (Lasius brunnes) as well as for an aphid belonging to the Aphis fabae sensu stricto group, respectively. Species assotiation with this plant is reported for the first time in Hungary for the Leptophloeus hypobori species. Based on our observations and literature review only the mass occurrence of different pests would have the potential to effectively control this hemiparasite. From the pests of the green plant parts the mistletoe associated psyllid (Cacopsylla visi), mistletoe scale (Carulaspis visci) and the mistletoe bug, Hypseloecus visci, while from the pests of the woody parts a clearwing moth, Synanthedon loranthi and a bark beetle, Liparthrum bartschti look perspective in light if biological control.