Browsing by Subject "5171 Political Science"

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  • Adebayo, Gabriel O (2021)
    Research on counter-radicalization policies and policing in education in Europe is currently patchy and often focused on the United Kingdom. Scholars have observed that counter-radicalization policing in education is a threat to human freedom, human rights and dignity, and safe learning environments. However, scholars generally have not examined this issue from the viewpoint of human security. This paper examines the policing policy matter from the perspective of the personal security form of human security. The concern is that such a policing policy-related threat is antithetical to the concept of human security promoted by the United Nations (UN) and which the European Union (EU) and some European states had adopted. The study aims to find out how the current educational counter-radicalization initiatives and their effects could be used to argue for human security in Europe. The goal is to see how we can learn from past mistakes and improve future directions. The primary data are sourced from selected national, EU and UN policy documents, and a national media report. This work employs descriptive discourse analysis to analyse its data. The findings reveal that the present educational counterradicalization policies of selected cases are grossly and/or explicitly deficient in the principles and language of human security. This has a negative impact on our understanding of the counter-radicalization policy effects in Europe. The study shows that the counter-radicalization strategy could trigger insecurity and negative security-oriented education for citizenship than we previously acknowledged in the literature. This piece suggests that the adverse consequences and tendencies could have been prevented had the appropriate human security elements been used in formulating and promoting the policy/strategy.
  • Kylli, Roosa-Maria; Horsmanheimo, Laura; Kuokkanen, Kanerva; Palonen, Emilia (D.Rad, 2021)
    The Finnish report on the legal and policy framework of de-radicalisation and integration highlights the explicit and implicit de-radicalisation policies and the role of collaboration instead of a strong sector on de-radicalisation. The report provides a conceptual account on existing policies and laws addressing radicalisation, to pinpoint their most critical aspects and best practices, and to develop evidence-based policy and guidelines. The study is based on desk research including scholarly literature, legislative and news media sources, interviews with six experts and stakeholders and two case studies on Finnish de-radicalisation projects.
  • T. Magalhães, Pedro (2021)
    As a political technology, camps materialize the ominous potential of modern democracy understood as sovereign power. Indeed, although one usually associates the massive projects of segregation, reeducation and extermination carried out in and through camps to the totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, the more puzzling truth is that the reasoning justifying them is not incompatible with the concept of popular sovereignty. The popular collective subject in whose name divine-right monarchs were deposed, and whose constituent power brought forth new, more egalitarian political institutions, can also turn out to be a force that closes in on itself and fosters a quest for transparent, homogeneous identity that does not shy away from employing the most ruthless coercive means. In this paper, I turn to Claude Lefort’s concept of indeterminacy as an alternative reading of the modern democratic endeavour that preserves a self-critical awareness of democracy’s ominous side. My contention is that Lefort’s concept proves to be fruitful in two ways. On the one hand, it allows us to grasp why the camp – and, for that matter, the populist strongman – is an ever-present possibility of democratic politics. On the other hand, and most importantly, it equips us with the tools to challenge these sovereigntist drifts from a specifically democratic perspective.
  • Closa Montero, Carlos; González de León, Felipe; Losada, Fernando (European Commission, 2020)
    Taken together, both technical and intergovernmental bodies have reinforced their positions in the EU macroeconomic governance framework. By contrast, representative assemblies have a much more limited role on a policy domain that has seen a significant overhaul of EU scrutiny, control and sanctioning powers. This means a reconfiguration of authority, delegation and the institutional governance of the Eurozone. In order to asses these changes, this study looks specifically at two recent developments in the EMU governance framework: the creation and consolidation of Independent Fiscal Institutions (IFIs) and the role of national parliaments in the European Semester. These two phenomena not only represent a significant innovation in terms of governance, but also a new example of the tension between technocracy and democracy that has been at the core of the EMU architecture since its inception and can be linked with the EU democratic deficit. The paper analyses the institutional design and the mandate of the IFIs, as well as the role played by the national parliaments in the European Semester. The analysis concludes that fiscal agencies can have mix effects over legitimacy, democratic representativeness, and accountability, arguing that the key to know which effect dominates over the other lies in the cooperation between fiscal agencies and national parliaments. This cooperation could also improve the national parliaments´ effectiveness and their ability to scrutinize the governments and the European Semester.
  • Palonen, Emilia (2021)
    Rise of populist politics in the 21s century calls scholars and politicians alike to reflect upon the question of how politics and democracy have been understood. Drawing on the theory of hegemony, this article establishes a distinction between democracy and 'demography' as a key line of conceptualization in politics. It highlights a central misunderstanding at the core of the demonization of populism: For radical democratic theory, 'the people' is not a demographic, socio-economic, or historically sedimented category tied to some characteristics, but a performative process of 'being' and 'becoming' 'the people' as a self-consciously enacted polity. This statement challenges the taken-for-granted status of subjectivities of political struggle and links this approach to other contemporary discussions of politics, democracy, and populism. After discussing how anti, neo and post-foundational theoretical accounts on populism reveal a dimension of politics and representation, this article emphasizes action and performativity over static categories and models characteristic of political realism and political system approaches.
  • Gritsenko, Daria; Indukaev, Andrey (2021)
    This essay examines the role of civic tech in contemporary Russian governance through a data-driven analysis of the 'Active Citizen' platform deployed in Moscow. It shows that the way in which polls are conducted on the platform has various consequences, from serving the city administration's PR needs to shuffling the power balance in various policy areas and effectively disempowering certain stakeholder groups, as well as helping the administration to increase control over a policy domain. At the same time, some platform uses actually empower citizens by engaging them in decision-making and offering grounds for further mobilisation.
  • Mattila, Mikko (2020)
    Recently, awareness of the importance of health in explaining political participation has grown considerably. Studies have focused on individual participation forms but not on broader participation modes. Furthermore, analyses of the mechanisms explaining the health effects have been lacking. Here, structural equation models are employed to study the relationship between health, political trust, and institutional and non-institutional participation using data from Finland. Poor health is related to increased non-institutional participation, while good health boosts traditional institutional participation, although the latter relationship is very weak. These observations are explained by differences in political trust. Those in good health have stronger trust in the political system, while poor health is connected with reduced trust. These differences manifest themselves in varying behaviour. Poor health decreases trust which leads to increased non-institutional participation, while good health leads to a high trust and institutional activities.
  • Wass, Hanna; Gidengil, Elisabeth (2021)
  • Gonzalez, Nidia; Kröger, Markus (2020)
    Este artículo contrasta dos sistemas de conocimiento: el de las comunidades indígenas habitantes del bosque y el de la gobernanza forestal. Nuestra aproximación parte de un enfoque que pretende trascender los límites de los sujetos y objetos de la investigación forestal clásica, se trata de una reflexión crítica estructurada en tres partes. Luego de la introducción y del apartado metodológico, se ilustran las asimetrías de poder entre estos dos sistemas de conocimiento. Posteriormente, se hace un análisis de las definiciones oficiales de bosque, más frecuentemente utilizadas en el escenario de la gobernanza forestal, y se les compara con aquellas provenientes del sistema de conocimiento indígena. Finalmente, el artículo demuestra que el reduccionismo de la racionalidad de las políticas forestales del último siglo es producto de una falta de apertura hacia concepciones milenarias usadas por las comunidades del bosque. Una gobernanza plural requiere diálogo focalizado en rescatar el impacto político de las prácticas locales y cómo estas pueden representar los primeros pasos hacia la generación de alternativas, en las cuales se aprecie cómo la gestión forestal no solo se relaciona con la reducción de emisiones, sino que también está íntimamente ligada a la seguridad alimentaria, la agroforistería y la protección a la biodiversidad
  • Jitlina, Olga; Kangas, Anni; Krivonos, Daria; Pascucci, Elisa; Tereshkina, Anna (2020)
    This article narrates the politics of escape from borders and labour discipline in a post-Soviet migrant metropolis drawing on the art-activism project Nasreddin in Russia. It explores the relation between control and autonomy in urban migrations through a trans-aesthetics: a set of visual and verbal stories weaving together experiences and outcomes of the art project with academic debates on late capitalist urbanization. The encounter of artistic practices and migrants’ embodied, everyday struggles to inhabit the city, it is suggested, has potential for disrupting the disciplinary and exclusionary effects of capitalist transformations and migration enforcement. This is made visible through transient spaces of escape in which the everyday lives and social worlds of migrants, constrained by the precarization of labour and by the multiplication and diversification of bordering practices, are reclaimed through laughter, mobility and care. This point is illustrated by focusing on three such spaces and practices: trickster politics in the housing market, acts of disidentification and care work on the city ‘as a body.’ The article offers a methodologically innovative contribution to ongoing debates on aesthetic political economy, cities and borders and artistic and activist interventions in global cities.
  • Maatta, Simo K.; Suomalainen, Karita; Tuomarla, Ulla (2021)
    In this paper, we analyze online discussion threads related to national belonging in Finland, Denmark, and France. These discussions are all related to immigration and the definition of 'legitimate' citizens. Our approach is empirical: the goal is to show how in-groups and out-groups are construed linguistically and discursively in the data and how the interactants negotiate membership categories and express their opinions regarding them. The most important in-group in the datasets consists of the nationals born in the country, whereas the out-group par excellence is formed by Muslims. The data show how the boundaries of national communities are performatively constructed through the everyday discourse of online fora, which constitute an important arena of societal debate today. This discourse draws its force from the reiteration of stereotypical generalizations and the power attached to the written word in a communication environment enabling an efficient dissemination of ideological discourse.
  • Laine, Veera (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
  • Gel'man, Vladimir; Zavadskaya, Margarita (2021)
  • Himmelroos, Staffan; Peltoniemi, Johanna (2021)
    The number of countries that have adopted policies allowing emigrants to participate in home country elections from abroad has increased greatly in the last few decades. The enfranchisement of non-resident citizens in home country elections is, nevertheless, somewhat controversial because it gives political influence to individuals who are unlikely to be affected by the outcome of an election. Despite an active debate on external voting rights among political theorists, little is known what the citizens themselves think of this practice. To examine how both non-resident and resident citizens perceive external voting rights, we use two surveys of Finnish citizens from 2019. The first survey was directed to Finnish citizens living abroad (n = 1,949), and the second was conducted using an online panel consisting of Finnish citizens living in Finland (n = 994). Both surveys included items with normative questions about external voting rights, which allows us to compare what resident and non-resident citizens think of the enfranchisement of external citizens. Our findings suggest that resident citizens view external voting rights more negatively than non-resident citizens. The factors associated with these attitudes are also quite different for the two examined populations. For resident citizens more education and ideological self-placement to the left is associated with more positive views of external voting rights, while experience of having voted from abroad and dissatisfaction with democracy in the host country is associated with more positive views among non-resident citizens.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (Russland-Analysen, 2021)
  • Put, Gert-Jan; von Schoultz, Åsa; Isotalo, Veikko (2020)
    Previous studies on intra-party competition have largely neglected the role played by geographic distance between co-partisan candidates. In this study, we argue that candidates who live further away from intra-party competitors on the same party list benefit electorally from their remoteness. Moreover, we contend that the electoral effectiveness of exhibiting local personal vote attributes – a theoretically and empirically well-established candidate strategy to cultivate personal votes – also depends on the geographical proximity of localized co-partisan candidates. Using a unique and untapped dataset of more than 5,000 Finnish election candidates’ home address coordinates over four consecutive parliamentary elections (1999–2011), we run beta regression models to examine the effects of candidate remoteness and nearest candidates’ local characteristics on intra-party vote shares. To measure the remoteness of a particular candidate, we develop a novel index based on the distribution of co-partisans over concentric circles around that candidate. The empirical analyses show that the effect of geographic remoteness depends on local party strength and the degree of urbanization: candidates particularly benefit from more distant co-partisans in party strongholds and rural and suburban municipalities. Moreover, all models confirm that nearby located localized co-partisans decrease a candidate’s own vote share. These findings have important implications for politicians’ careers, party nomination strategies and future empirical research on intra-party competition.
  • Rask, Mikko; Ertiö, Titiana-Petra; Tuominen, Pekka; Ahonen, Veronica Lucia (BIBU, 2021)
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