Browsing by Subject "ADENOCARCINOMA"

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  • Talwelkar, Sarang S.; Nagaraj, Ashwini S.; Devlin, Jennifer R.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Potdar, Swapnil; Kiss, Elina A.; Saharinen, Pipsa; Salmenkivi, Kaisa Maria; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Wennerberg, Krister; Verschuren, Emmy (2019)
    Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) contain nontargetable mutations, including KRAS, TP53, or STK11/LKB1 alterations. By coupling ex viva drug sensitivity profiling with in vivo drug response studies, we aimed to identify drug vulnerabilities for these NSCLC subtypes. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) or adenocarcinoma (AC) cultures were established from Kras(G12D/+);Lkb1(fl/fl) (KL) tumors or AC cultures from Kras(G12D/+);p53(fl/fl) (KP) tumors. Although p53-null cells readily propagated as conventional cultures, Lkb1-null cells required conditional reprograming for establishment. Drug response profiling revealed short-term response to MEK inhibition, yet long-term clonogenic assays demonstrated resistance, associated with sustained or adaptive activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK): activation of ERBBs in KL cultures, or FGFR in AC niltures. Furthermore, pan-ERBB inhibition reduced the clonogenidty of KL cultures, which was exacerbated by combinatorial MEK inhibition, whereas combinatorial MEK and FGFR inhibition suppressed clonogenicity of AC cultures. Importantly, in vivo studies confirmed KL-selective sensitivity to pan-ERBB inhibition, which correlated with high ERBB ligand expression and activation of ERBB receptors, implying that ERBB network activity may serve as a predictive biomarker of drug response. Interestingly, in human NSCLCs, phosphorylation of EGFR or ERBB3 was frequently detected in ASCs and squamous cell carcinomas. We conclude that analysis of in situ ERBB signaling networks in conjunction with ex vivo drug response profiling and biochemical dissection of adaptive RTK activities may serve as a valid diagnostic approach to identify tumors sensitive to ERBB network inhibition.
  • Närhi, Katja; Nagaraj, Ashwini S.; Parri, Elina; Turkki, Riku; van Duijn, Petra W.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Lahtela, Jenni; Uotinen, Virva; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Räsänen, Jari; Linder, Nina; Trapman, Jan; Rannikko, Antti; Kallioniemi, Olli; Af Hällström, Taija M.; Lundin, Johan; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Anders, Simon; Verschuren, Emmy W. (2018)
    A key question in precision medicine is how functional heterogeneity in solid tumours informs therapeutic sensitivity. We demonstrate that spatial characteristics of oncogenic signalling and therapy response can be modelled in precision-cut slices from Kras-driven non-small-cell lung cancer with varying histopathologies. Unexpectedly, profiling of in situ tumours demonstrated that signalling stratifies mostly according to histopathology, showing enhanced AKT and SRC activity in adenosquamous carcinoma, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in adenocarcinoma. In addition, high intertumour and intratumour variability was detected, particularly of MAPK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 activity. Using short-term treatment of slice explants, we showed that cytotoxic responses to combination MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mTOR inhibition correlate with the spatially defined activities of both pathways. Thus, whereas genetic drivers determine histopathology spectra, histopathology-associated and spatially variable signalling activities determine drug sensitivity. Our study is in support of spatial aspects of signalling heterogeneity being considered in clinical diagnostic settings, particularly to guide the selection of drug combinations. (c) 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Lahtela, Jenni; Pradhan, Barun; Narhi, Katja; hemmes, Annabrita; Sarkioja, Merja; Kovanen, Panu E.; Brown, Arthur; Verschuren, Emmy W. (2015)
    Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on histological analysis and molecular profiling of targetable driver oncogenes. Therapeutic responses are further defined by the landscape of passenger mutations, or loss of tumor suppressor genes. We report here a thorough study to address the physiological role of the putative lung cancer tumor suppressor EPH receptor A3 (EPHA3), a gene that is frequently mutated in human lung adenocarcinomas. Our data shows that homozygous or heterozygous loss of EphA3 does not alter the progression of murine adenocarcinomas that result from Kras mutation or loss of Trp53, and we detected negligible postnatal expression of EphA3 in adult wildtype lungs. Yet, EphA3 was expressed in the distal mesenchyme of developing mouse lungs, neighboring the epithelial expression of its Efna1 ligand; this is consistent with the known roles of EPH receptors in embryonic development. However, the partial loss of EphA3 leads only to subtle changes in epithelial Nkx2-1, endothelial Cd31 and mesenchymal Fgf10 RNA expression levels, and no macroscopic phenotypic effects on lung epithelial branching, mesenchymal cell proliferation, or abundance and localization of CD31-positive endothelia. The lack of a discernible lung phenotype in EphA3-null mice might indicate lack of an overt role for EPHA3 in the murine lung, or imply functional redundancy between EPHA receptors. Our study shows how biological complexity can challenge in vivo functional validation of mutations identified in sequencing efforts, and provides an incentive for the design of knock-in or conditional models to assign the role of EPHA3 mutation during lung tumorigenesis.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Makitie, Antti; Remes, Satu Maria; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo; Hagstrom, Jaana (2017)
    A large subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is associated with HPV infection and has better outcome than non-viral-related tumors. Various malignancies also carry a role for TLRs, key activators of inflammation and innate immunity. We examined the expression of TLRs in OPSCC, and their association with HPV status and treatment outcome. TLR 5, 7, 9, and p16 were studied by immunohistochemistry and HPV status was detected with in situ hybridization in 202 tumors of consecutively treated OPSCC patients using tissue microarray method. The relations between TLR expression and HPV status, p16 expression, clinicopathological factors, and survival were analyzed. TLR 5, 7, and 9 expression patterns differed between HPV-positive and -negative tumors, and they were statistically significantly associated with history of smoking, heavy drinking, tumor site, grade, size (T), metastasis (N), and stage. Moreover, in HPV-positive tumors the expression of TLR 5 and 7 correlated with tumor recurrence. After adjustment, among HPV-positive OPSCC patients, high TLR 5 and low TLR 7 expression were associated with poor disease-specific survival. Our results indicate that TLR 5 and 7 may have a role in the prognostication of HPV-positive OPSCC, however, further studies are needed to clarify the comprehensive role of these TLRs in OPSCC.
  • Brunelli, Matteo; Bria, Emilio; Nottegar, Alessia; Cingarlini, Sara; Simionato, Francesca; Calio, Anna; Eccher, Albino; Parolini, Claudia; Iannucci, Antonio; Gilioli, Eliana; Pedron, Serena; Massari, Francesco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Borze, Florentina Ioana; Knuutila, Sakari; Gobbo, Stefano; Santo, Antonio; Tondulli, Luca; Calabro, Francesco; Martignoni, Guido; Chilosi, Marco (2012)
  • Wang, Zhu; Yang, Yang; Cui, Yancheng; Wang, Chao; Lai, Zhiyong; Li, Yansen; Zhang, Wei; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Ye, Yingjiang; Jiang, Kewei; Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Shan (2020)
    Objective: Recent studies have shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Our previous studies have reported that TAMs promote the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC) cells through the Kindlin-2 pathway. However, the mechanism needs to be clarified. Methods: THP-1 monocytes were induced by PMA/interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 to establish an efficient TAM model in vitro and M2 macrophages were isolated via flow cytometry. A dual luciferase reporter system and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to investigate the mechanism of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF beta 2) regulating Kindlin-2 expression. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the relationships among TAM infiltration in human GC tissues, Kindlin-2 protein expression, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in human GC tissues. A nude mouse oncogenesis model was used to verify the invasion and metastasis mechanisms in vivo. Results: We found that Kindlin-2 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in GC cells cocultured with TAMs, associated with higher invasion rate. Kindlin-2 knockdown reduced the invasion rate of GC cells under coculture condition. TGF beta 2 secreted by TAMs regulated the expression of Kindlin-2 through the transcription factor NF-kappa B. TAMs thus participated in the progression of GC through the TGF beta 2/NF-kappa B/Kindlin-2 axis. Kindlin-2 expression and TAM infiltration were significantly positively correlated with TNM stage, and patients with high Kindlin-2 expression had significantly poorer overall survival than patients with low Kindlin-2 expression. Furthermore, Kindlin-2 promoted the invasion of GC cells in vivo. Conclusions: This study elucidates the mechanism of TAMs participating in GC cell invasion and metastasis through the TGF beta 2/NF-kappa B/Kindlin-2 axis, providing a possibility for new treatment options and approaches.