Browsing by Subject "Adolescence"

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  • Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Haravuori, Henna; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    We investigated whether psychiatric symptomatology, impulsivity, family and social dysfunction, and alcohol use mediate the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicidality. The study population comprised 206 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 203 age- and gender-matched adolescents from the community. ACEs and suicidality were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version, the Life Events Checklist, and a structured background data collection sheet. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured using the Symptom Checklist -90. Impulsivity, social dysfunction, and family dysfunction were measured using the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and alcohol use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. A simple mediation test and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. A positive direct effect of ACEs on suicidality was observed. Also seen was a positive indirect effect of ACEs on suicidality through psychiatric symptomatology, impulsivity, and family and social dysfunctions. Alcohol misuse did not, however, mediate the relationship between ACEs and suicidality. According to the multiple mediation analyses, psychiatric symptomatology was the most significant mediator, followed by impulsivity. Psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, and family and social dysfunctions are factors that should be taken into consideration when assessing suicidality in adolescents.
  • Kiviruusu, Olli; Strandholm, Thea; Karlsson, Linnea; Marttunen, Mauri (2020)
    Objectives This study investigated the eight-year course and outcomes of depressive mood disorders and the key outcome predictors among adolescent outpatients. Methods Depressive adolescent outpatients (N = 148) in a naturalistic clinical setting were assessed at baseline, six months, 12 months and eight years using diagnostic and self-report instruments. Baseline predictors covered selected sociodemographic, clinical and treatment-related characteristics. The outcomes were time to recovery, recurrence, time spent being ill and longitudinal latent profiles of depressive symptoms. Results The recovery rate from any depressive mood disorder was 73% at two years, 91% at five years and 94% by the end of the eight-year follow-up. Two thirds (67%) of the subjects presented at least one recurrence and 57% of them were depressed for 25% or more of the follow-up period. At the eight-year follow-up, 36% had a mood disorder, 48% suffered from anxiety and 26% had a personality disorder. Less severe depression at baseline predicted a shorter time to recovery, whereas recurrence was predicted by a younger age. A latent profile with initially moderate-level depressive symptoms but a poor distal outcome was associated with being female and borderline personality disorder. Limitations The female preponderance in the sample warrants caution when interpreting sex differences in the findings. Conclusions Although the depression outcome for some adolescents making the transition to young adulthood is promising, many of them experience long, even chronic episodes, and recurrences are common. Personality-disorder characteristics appeared to be significant outcome predictors in this adolescent population.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Frojd, Sari (2016)
    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ranjit, Anu; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Latvala, Antti; Heikkila, Kauko; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo (2019)
    Longitudinal, genetically informative studies of the association between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescents are limited. We examined the longitudinal association of cigarette smoking with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence in a Finnish twin cohort. We used prospective data from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (maximum N = 4152 individuals, 1910 twin pairs). Current smoking status and a number of lifetime cigarettes smoked were assessed at the age of 14 and depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Negative binomial regression was conducted to model the association between smoking behavior and subsequent depressive symptoms among individuals, and within-pair analyses were conducted to control for unmeasured familial confounding. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, school grades, drinking alcohol to intoxication, health status, family structure, parental education, and smoking, as well as for pre-existing depressiveness. The results of the individual-level analyses showed that cigarette smoking at the age of 14 predicted depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Compared to never smokers, those who had smoked over 50 cigarettes (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.28-1.60) and regular smokers (IRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.62) had higher depression scores. The associations were attenuated when adjusted for measured covariates and further reduced in within-pair analyses. In the within-pair results, the estimates were lower within monozygotic (MZ) pairs compared to dizygotic (DZ) pairs, suggesting that shared genetic factors contribute to the associations observed in individual-based analyses. Thus, we conclude that cigarette smoking is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence, but the association is not independent of measured confounding factors and shared genetic influences.
  • Lehti, Venla; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Helenius, Hans; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik (2012)
  • Torikka, Antti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpela, Arja; Marttunen, Mauri; Luukkaala, Tiina; Rimpela, Matti (2014)
  • Oshukova, Svetlana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Tani, Pekka; Aronen, Eeva T.; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaivosoja, Matti; Lindberg, Nina (2015)
    Background: In general psychiatric services, cost benefit screening instruments for psychopathic traits in adolescents are needed. The aim of the present study was to study the psychometric properties of the Finnish versions of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD-SR) in community youth. As gender-specific differences exist in psychopathic traits, we analyzed the data separately in girls and boys. Methods: The YPI and the APSD-SR were administered to 372 9th graders (174 boys and 198 girls) with a mean age of 15.06 years (SD 0.28). Cronbach's alphas were used to study internal consistency. The factor structures of the self assessments were studied using both Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results: In both self-assessments, boys scored significantly higher in the total scores, Interpersonal and Affective dimension scores as well as in most sub-dimensions. In the YPI, the alpha values for total and dimensional scores ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 in boys and from 0.74 to 0.89 in girls and, in the APSD-SR, respectively, from 0.38 to 0.78 and from 0.29 to 0.78. In CFA, the three-factor model produced poor fit for both self-assessments. For the ten sub-dimensions of the YPI, the PCA suggested two factors. Extending the model into three components showed sub-dimension loadings according to the original dimensions. For the APSD-SR, the PCA revealed a five-factor structure in the male sample and a six-factor one in the female group. When limiting the model to a three factor-model, we obtained a structure, which resembled the original dimensions. Conclusions: Both the YPI and the APSD-SR are promising tools of screening for psychopathic features in Finnish community youth. The YPI turned out to be slightly better than the APSD-SR in both reliability and factor structure. However, the original three-factor models did not find support. Both self-assessments were somewhat weak for tapping the callous-unemotional traits of the psychopathic character, but, again, the YPI worked better than the ASPD-SR. Both self assessments revealed significant gender differences in psychopathic character traits.
  • IMAGEN Consortium; Frere, Pauline Bezivin; Vetter, Nora C.; Artiges, Eric; Penttilä, Jani; Lemaitre, Herve (2020)
    Though adolescence is a time of emerging sex differences in emotions, sex-related differences in the anatomy of the maturing brain has been under-explored over this period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether puberty and sexual differentiation in brain maturation could explain emotional differences between girls and boys during adolescence. We adapted a dedicated longitudinal pipeline to process structural and diffusion images from 335 typically developing adolescents between 14 and 16 years. We used voxel-based and Regions of Interest approaches to explore sex and puberty effects on brain and behavioral changes during adolescence. Sexual differences in brain maturation were characterized by amygdala and hippocampal volume increase in boys and decrease in girls. These changes were mediating the sexual differences in positive emotional regulation as illustrated by positive attributes increase in boys and decrease in girls. Moreover, the differential maturation rates between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex highlighted the delayed maturation in boys compared to girls. This is the first study to show the sex effects on the differential cortico/subcortical maturation rates and the interaction between sex and puberty in the limbic system maturation related to positive attributes, reported as being protective from emotional disorders.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Frojd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri (2016)
    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Frojd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri (2016)
    Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90 953 boys and 91 746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Santangeli, Olena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Virkkala, Jussi; Castaneda, Anu E.; Marttunen, Mauri; Paunio, Tiina; Urrila, Anna S. (2017)
    Objective: Adolescence is a vulnerable period of life that is characterized by increasing incidence of depression. Sleep disturbance is one of the diagnostic symptoms of depressive disorder. Adolescence is also characterized by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its regulation. The goal of this study was to assess sleep macroarchitecture and slow-wave activity (SWA) in depressed adolescent boys. Methods: Eight non-medicated adolescent boys meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for depressive disorder and 10 age-matched healthy controls (average age 16.0 years) underwent polysomnography in their home environment for two consecutive nights. Sleep macroarchitecture, SWA, and SWA dissipation were assessed in all subjects. Results: Depressed boys showed a flattened pattern of SWA dissipation through the night. SWA power was lower during the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM) episode in the frontal derivation and higher during the third NREM episode in the central derivation in the group of depressed boys as compared to healthy boys. The SWA dissipation pattern correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms, and the correlation was strongest in the frontal derivation. In addition, total sleep time was shorter in patients as compared to the control group, but no other differences were found in the macroarchitecture of sleep. Conclusion: Depression in adolescent boys is characterized by more evenly distributed SWA through the night as compared to healthy subjects, and we showed for the first time that this pattern of SWA distribution is associated with severity of depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that homeostatic regulation of sleep may be impaired in adolescent depression. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kuula, L.iisa; Gradisar, M.; Martinmäki, K.; Richardson, C.; Bonnar, D.; Bartel, K.; Lang, C.; Leinonen, L.; Pesonen, A.K. (2019)
    Background: Development induces changes in sleep, and its duration has been reported to change as a function of aging. Additionally, sleep timing is a marker of pubertal maturation, where during adolescence, the circadian rhythm shifts later. Typically, this is manifested in a later sleep onset in the evening and later awakening in the morning. These changes across development seem to be universal around the world but are unlikely to persist into adulthood. Methods: This study utilized accelerometer data from 17,355 participants aged 16-30 years (56% female) measured by validated Polar wearables over a 14-day period. We compared sleep duration, chronotype (sleep midpoint) and weekend catch-up (ie, social jetlag) sleep across ages and regions over 242,948 nights. Results: The data indicate a decline in sleep duration as well as a dramatic shift in sleep onset times throughout adolescence. This continues well into early adulthood and stabilizes nearer age 30. Differences in sleep duration across ages were significant, and ranged from 7:53 h at age 16 to 7:29 h at age 30 in the sample. Additionally, there was a clear difference between females and males throughout adolescence and young adulthood: girls had longer sleep duration and earlier timed sleep in the current study. Differences in sleep were found between regions across the world, and across European areas. Conclusions: Both sleep duration and sleep timing go through a clear developmental pattern, particularly in early adulthood. Females had an earlier sleep midpoint and obtained more sleep. Regional differences in sleep occurred across the world. Crown Copyright (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Saukkonen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.; Laajasalo, Taina; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Jokela, Markus (2016)
    We examined different forms of victimization experiences in relation to psychopathic features and whether these associations differed in boys and girls among 4855 Finnish school adolescents aged 15-16 years. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self Report (APSD-SR). Victimization was assessed with questions about violent and abusive experiences across lifetime and within the last 12 months. Results from linear regression analysis showed that victimization was significantly associated with higher APSD-SR total scores, more strongly in girls than boys. Recent (12-month) victimization showed significance in the relationship between victimization and psychopathic features; especially recent sexual abuse and parental corporal punishment were strong determinants of higher APSD-SR total scores. The present study demonstrates novel findings on how severe victimization experiences relate to psychopathic features in community youth, especially in girls. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive evaluation of victimization experiences when psychopathic features are present in youth. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T. (2016)
    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9 % of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.
  • Hara, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Focus on boys and men, especially as gendered subjects, has been missing in most of the mainstream development as well as in the Gender and Development (GAD) field, even if it is widely recognized that gender equality cannot be achieved without a focus on and an active involvement of boys and men in pursuing it. Where focus has been placed on boys and men in this field, attention has been drawn on masculinities, arguing that “masculinities matter” for gender equality and development. Evidence has been offered for instance of marginalized “masculinity-threatened” men resorting to “hypermasculinity” to assert themselves as masculine in the face of poverty that precludes their role as the breadwinner – which is the cornerstone for masculine identity in Kenya as well as globally. In addition to that hypermascular behavior is claimed to exacerbate gender inequality and other development issues, it is a form of “toxic masculinity” that boys and men themselves also suffer from. This study focuses on marginalized urban adolescent men explicitly as gendered beings in the context of Mukuru Kayaba slum in Nairobi. More precisely, this study aims to provide insights of the perceptions of these boys on masculinity and gender equality as well as of their lived realities as they strive to comply with the previous in the context of poverty, and challenge their way out of it. The hypothesis of marginalized urban men resorting to hypermasculinity to assert themselves as masculine serves as a backdrop of this study and a more nuanced understanding of this phenomenon is sought for in this study. The research material of this study derived from interviews with 10 adolescent boys between the ages of 15 and 19. The study was guided by critical masculinity theory which is engaged with the social constructionist view of masculinity, and gender, as socially-produced and fluid dynamics that derive their meanings within specific social contexts. In addition to employing especially Connell's social theory on masculinity, postcolonial perspectives on masculinity and effects of current globalization are also attempted to be incorporated as the context where the boys live and construct their masculinity is all, historical, local and global at once. Central findings of the study are that hypermascular attitudes, beliefs and actions were defined as the negation of “proper” masculinity in the official narratives of the boys. However, this kind of masculinity was claimed to be the most common one among boys in the slum. Adolescents did thus appear to be more prone to resort to hypermascular behaviors than adult men in the slums of Nairobi, which highlights how a fragile life situation adolescence is. The boys do not however comply to hypermasculine behavior necessarily to assure themselves as masculine per se, but either because of pure need, and/or because they are striving for hegemonic masculine ideals such as being able to provide for girls. Hypermasculinity might however also be a more hegemonic form of masculinity among the boys in the slum than the boys were willing to let be known. In any case, the boys felt stigmatized, criticized and dehumanized by people from outside of the slum, but they also took part in the same stigmatization: the social construction of slum boys as thieves – thus hypermascular. This, in turn, appeared to allow the police to use arbitrary and excessive power against them. In conclusion, my material strongly supports the view that boys (and men) should be included in considerations and pursuits to advance gender equality. However, similarly as girls and women need better opportunities at many places, boys and men living in poverty also need opportunities. The easy way forward in GAD in addressing boys and men has been to consider the problematics of masculinities. The transformation that is required to bring about the opportunities needed by both genders however is a much bigger and more difficult issue, and something that would also bring the masculinities at the top of the global hierarchy of masculinities into question and scrutiny.