Browsing by Subject "Aging"

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  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed. In addition to formal music therapy, musical leisure activities, such as music listening and singing, which patients can do on their own or with a caregiver, are a promising way to support psychological well-being during aging and in neurological rehabilitation. This review article provides an overview of current evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural effects of musical leisure activities both during normal aging and in the rehabilitation and care of stroke patients and people with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Simoncini, Tommaso (2018)
    Management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common and challenging task. Nowadays older women are more active than they were in the past, and the development of POP disrupts quality of life and impairs social and personal activities. The menopausal transition is a time of vulnerability, during which many women start experiencing symptoms and signs of POP. The role of hormonal changes or of hormonal therapies in influencing the development or progression of POP has been explored extensively. The management of POP requires considerable clinical skills. Correct diagnosis and characterization of the prolapse and an identification of the individual woman's most bothersome symptoms are the hallmark of appropriate initial management. Therapy is multimodal and often multidisciplinary, and requires a competence in pelvic medicine and surgery. The integration of hormonal, non-hormonal and surgical strategies is important and needs to be adjusted to changing circumstances on an individualized basis. When surgery is required, optimal management requires clinicians who are familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of all the available strategies and who are able to use these strategies in a tailored manner. Complex cases should be sent to specialist referral centers. Management of POP should be integrated into the practice of healthcare professionals dealing in menopause.
  • Kuosma-Hämäläinen, Marlen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Yhteiskunnassa näkemykset ikääntyneistä ja ikääntymisestä vaihtelevat ajasta riippuen. Viime aikana ikääntyneisiin liittyvä julkisuuskuva on liittynyt huoltosuhteeseen, hoitajapulaan ja ikääntyneiden heikkoon toimintakykyyn. Tämän näkemyksen rinnalle on tullut vahvasti ajatus aktiivisesta ja onnistuneesta ikääntymisestä, jolla ikääntymiseen liittyviä negatiivisia stereotypioita on pyritty yhteiskunnassamme heikentämään. Lähestymme ikääntymistä mistä tulokulmasta tahansa, vaikuttaa se siihen kuinka ikääntyneet itse itsensä näkevät. Ikääntymisen julkisuuskuvaa on käsitelty aikaisemmissa tutkimuksessa, mutta lähtökohtana ovat olleet pääsääntöisesti mediatekstit. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena onkin selvittää millainen kuva ikääntyneistä luodaan visuaalisten kuvien kautta. Tutkimuskysymykseni on: Millainen kuva ikääntyneistä muodostuu Instagram-kuvien perusteella. Aineisto koostui 316 Instagram-kuvasta, jotka kerättiin Instagram-tileiltä. Jokaisessa aineistoon valitussa kuvassa esiintyi tulkintani mukaan ikääntynyt henkilö. Aineisto analysoitiin Erving Goffmanin luoman kehysanalyysin avulla, jossa on hyödynnetty Eeva Luhtakallion sovellusta visuaalisesta kehysanalyysistä. Löysin kahdeksan erilaista kehystä, jotka kuvaavat ikääntyneistä esitettyjä kuvia; aktiivisuuden, oppimisen, hoivan, menestyksen, merkityksellisyyden, tunteiden, yhteisöllisyyden ja yksilöllisyyden kehykset. Ikääntyneistä voi siis kuvien avulla luoda heterogeenisen kuvan. Tärkeä tutkimuksen huomio oli, että näille kaikille kehyksille yhtenäinen piirre oli se, että ne kuvaavat ”onnistunutta ikääntymistä” monipuolisesti. Sen sijaan toimintakyvyltään hauraampia ikääntyneitä ei aineiston kuvissa näkynyt. Tässä tutkielmassa aktiivisuuden ja oppimisen kehykset olivat eniten edustettuina. Puolestaan menestyksen ja hoivan kehykseen sisältyviä kuvia löytyi aineistosta vähiten. Ikääntyneistä muodostuva kuva kaipaa edelleen ikääntyneiden kuvaston monipuolistumista. Vaikka tuloksista on selvästi nähtävissä se, että ikääntymistä voi lähestyä monesta eri näkökulmasta, on esimerkiksi vähemmistöt ja vanhimmat vanhat kuvissa harvoin edustettuina. Koenkin, että sosiaaliseen mediaan kaivataan ikääntyneiden kohdalla entistä enemmän sosiaalityön ja ikääntyneiden omaa näkökulmaa, joka voi tarjota tätä hetkeä rikkaamman ja todentuntuisemman lähestymistavan ikääntymiseen. Toisaalta on tärkeä vaalia voimavaralähtöistä kuvaa ikääntyneistä, joka voi edesauttaa yhteiskunnan suhtautumista ikääntyneisiin. On kuitenkin muistettava, että onnistunut ikääntyminen merkitsee yksilötasolla paljon enemmän kuin mitä tämän hetken visuaaliset kuvat antavat olettaa.
  • Gao, I-An (2018)
    This paper examines long-term care for the elderly as a point of departure for critically engaging with the debate on the self-determination of Indigenous peoples. By employing the case of the Arctic Indigenous peoples, the Sámi Parliament (Sámediggi) in Norway and Government of Nunavut in Canada, are utilised as central cases from which to explore the institutionalization and self-determination. The thrust of the paper calls for a critical re-investigation of the contingency of long-term care for the elderly in the context of claims of Indigenous sovereignty. Specifically, I examine the landscape of population ageing and the organisation of care among the Sápmi and Nunavut populations, focusing on colonisation from a circumpolar perspective. The functions and practices of Sámediggi and Government of Nunavut are analysed to illustrate how self-determination is exercised and to what extent they safeguard the rights of elderly people. Sámediggi and Nunavut government as institutional arrangements that mark significant advancements in Indigenous peoples’ reclamation of power and restoration of sovereign rights are discussed. Unfortunately, the political functions that would allow self-determination and self-government to be effective continue to be limited for the Inuit in Nunavut and the Sámi in Sápmi on the Norwegian side.
  • Yli-Pohja, Päivi; Pajo, Kati (2018)
    Ikäkuulo on yhteydessä kognitiiviseen heikentymiseen. Muistisairauden riski pitkällä aikavälillä on todettu useissa tutkimuksissa. Kausaalisuhde on epäselvä: johtaako ikäkuulo kognitiiviseen heikentymiseen vai onko molemmilla yhteisiä syytekijöitä. Kuulonkuntoutus parantaa tiedonkäsittelyvalmiuksia ja toimintakykyä.
  • Tiainen, Kristina; Raitanen, Jani; Vaara, Elina; Hervonen, Antti; Jylha, Marja (2015)
    Background: Several studies have focused on predictors of mobility limitations and disabilities. Yet little is known about the pace and patterns of mobility changes among very old people. This study examined changes in functional mobility among individuals aged 90 years and older during a 2-9-year follow-up. In addition, we were interested in the patterns of mobility changes. Methods: Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire in the years 2001, 2003, 2007 and 2010. The study population (n = 948) consisted of individuals from three cohorts (2001, 2003, 2007) who participated in at least two survey rounds and answered the mobility questions. The length of the follow-up varied from 2-9 years between individuals as well as according to how many times an individual took part in the survey. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of time, age, gender, cohort and chronic conditions on changes in mobility. Results: At the baseline, "younger" old people, men and individuals in the cohorts for 2003 and 2007 had significantly better mobility compared with women, older individuals and individuals in the 2001 cohort. In addition, individuals with fewer chronic conditions had better mobility than those with more diseases. Mobility declined for most of the participants during the follow-up. The difference in the change in mobility over time for gender, age or chronic conditions was not statistically significant. The analyses were performed with a subgroup of participants aged 90-91 years at the baseline, and results did not differ substantially from the results for the entire study sample. However, the effect of chronic conditions on the change in mobility was statistically significant among participants aged 90-91years. Conclusions: No differences were observed in the rate of mobility decline over time between age or gender. The effect of chronic conditions on the change in mobility was significant only among individuals aged 90-91 years. The prevention efforts are important and should focus even more, also among the oldest-old, on additional modifiable risk factors such as maintaining muscle strength.
  • Muha, Villo; Williamson, Ritchie; Hills, Rachel; McNeilly, A.D.; McWilliams, T.G.; Alonso, Jana; Schimpl, Marianne; Leney, Aneika C.; Heck, Albert J.R.; Sutherland, Calum; Read, Kevin D.; McCrimmon, Rory J.; Brooks, S.P.; Van Aalten, Daan M.F. (2019)
    O-GlcNAcylation is an abundant post-translational modification in the nervous system, linked to both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. However, the mechanistic links between these phenotypes and site-specific O-GlcNAcylation remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that Ser517 O-GlcNAcylation of the microtubule-binding protein Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 (CRMP2) increases with age. By generating and characterizing a Crmp2S517A knock-in mouse model, we demonstrate that loss of O-GlcNAcylation leads to a small decrease in body weight and mild memory impairment, suggesting that Ser517 O-GlcNAcylation has a small but detectable impact on mouse physiology and cognitive function. © 2019 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.
  • Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Viiri, Johanna; Paterno, Jussi J.; Hyttinen, Juha M. T.; Koskela, Ali; Chen, Mei; Leinonen, Henri; Tanila, Heikki; Kivinen, Niko; Koistinen, Arto; Toropainen, Elisa; Amadio, Marialaura; Smedowski, Adrian; Reinisalo, Mika; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Mackiewicz, Jerzy; Mutikainen, Maija; Ruotsalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Kettunen, Mikko; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Sinha, Debasish; Kinnunen, Kati; Petrovski, Goran; Blasiak, Janusz; Bjorkoy, Geir; Koskelainen, Ari; Skottman, Heli; Urtti, Arto; Salminen, Antero; Kannan, Ram; Ferrington, Deborah A.; Xu, Heping; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Tavi, Pasi; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai (2019)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multi-factorial disease that is the leading cause of irreversible and severe vision loss in the developed countries. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of dry AMD involves impaired protein degradation in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). RPE cells are constantly exposed to oxidative stress that may lead to the accumulation of damaged cellular proteins, DNA and lipids and evoke tissue deterioration during the aging process. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the lysosomal/autophagosomal pathway are the two major proteolytic systems in eukaryotic cells. NRF-2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2) and PGC-1 alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) are master transcription factors in the regulation of cellular detoxification. We investigated the role of NRF-2 and PGC-1 alpha in the regulation of RPE cell structure and function by using global double knockout (dKO) mice. The NRF-2/PGC-1 alpha dKO mice exhibited significant age-dependent RPE degeneration, accumulation of the oxidative stress marker, 4-HNE (4-hydroxynonenal), the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4), and damaged mitochondria. Moreover, levels of protein ubiquitination and autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1), Beclin-1 and LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta) were significantly increased together with the Iba-1 (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1) mononuclear phagocyte marker and an enlargement of RPE size. These histopathological changes of RPE were accompanied by photoreceptor dysmorphology and vision loss as revealed by electroretinography. Consequently, these novel findings suggest that the NRF-2/PGC-1 alpha dKO mouse is a valuable model for investigating the role of proteasomal and autophagy clearance in the RPE and in the development of dry AMD.
  • Koopman, Jacob J. E.; Kramer, Anneke; van Heemst, Diana; Asberg, Anders; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Collart, Frederic; Couchoud, Cecile G.; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G.; Massy, Ziad A.; De Meester, Johan M. J.; Palsson, Runolfur; Steenkamp, Retha; Traynor, Jamie P.; Jager, Kitty J.; Putter, Hein (2016)
    Purpose: Although a population's senescence rate is classically measured as the increase in mortality rate with age on a logarithmic scale, it may be more accurately measured as the increase on a linear scale. Patients on dialysis, who suffer from accelerated senescence, exhibit a smaller increase in their mortality rate on a logarithmic scale, but a larger increase on a linear scale than patients with a functioning kidney transplant. However, this comparison may be biased by population heterogeneity. Methods: Follow-up data on 323,308 patients on dialysis and 91,679 patients with a functioning kidney transplant were derived from the ERA-EDTA Registry. We measured the increases in their mortality rates using Gompertz frailty models that allow individual variation in this increase. Results: According to these models, the senescence rate measured as the increase in mortality rate on a logarithmic scale was smaller in patients on dialysis, while the senescence rate measured as the increase on a linear scale was larger in patients on dialysis than patients with a functioning kidney transplant. Conclusions: Also when accounting for population heterogeneity, a population's senescence rate is more accurately measured as the increase in mortality rate on a linear scale than a logarithmic scale. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Tian, Li; Hui, Chin Wai; Bisht, Kanchan; Tan, Yunlong; Sharma, Kaushik; Chen, Song; Zhang, Xiangyang; Tremblay, Marie-Eve (2017)
    Mounting evidence indicates the importance of microglia for proper brain development and function, as well as in complex stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline along the aging trajectory. Considering that microglia are resident immune cells of the brain, a homeostatic maintenance of their effector functions that impact neuronal circuitry, such as phagocytosis and secretion of inflammatory factors, is critical to prevent the onset and progression of these pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which microglial functions can be properly regulated under healthy and pathological conditions are still largely unknown. We aim to summarize recent progress regarding the effects of psychosocial stress and oxidative stress on microglial phenotypes, leading to neuroinflammation and impaired microglia-synapse interactions, notably through our own studies of inbred mouse strains, and most importantly, to discuss about promising therapeutic strategies that take advantage of microglial functions to tackle such brain disorders in the context of adult psychosocial stress or aging-induced oxidative stress. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ylikoski, Ari; Partinen, Markku (2017)
    Unettomuuden lisääntyminen ja yöunen rikkonaisuus ovat tavallisia sekä ikääntymiseen että ¬neurodegeneraatioon liittyviä vaivoja. Ihmisen ikääntyessä useat välittäjäaineet vähenevät, kuten myös hermosolut erityisesti sinitumakkeessa ja hypotalamuksen tumakkeissa. Kohorttitutkimuksissa on havaittu, että unihäiriöt edeltävät usein neurodegeneratiivisten sairauksien tyypillisiä ydinoireita. Uuden tutkimustiedon mukaan unihäiriöt voivat altistaa neurodegeneratiivisille sairauksille ja pahentaa niitä. Unihäiriöt kuuluvat näiden sairauksien hoidettavissa oleviin riskitekijöihin. Uni tai sen puute saattavat suojata neurodegeneraatiolta tai altistaa sille usealla eri mekanismilla.
  • Oinas, Minna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sulkava, Raimo; Myllykangas, Liisa; Juva, Kati; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Rastas, Sari; Niinisto, Leena; Kalimo, Hannu; Paetau, Anders (2009)
  • Könönen, Maija (2020)
  • Nikolaev, Alexandre; Higby, Eve; Hyun, JungMoon; Lehtonen, Minna; Ashaie, Sameer; Hallikainen, Merja; Hänninen, Tuomo; Soininen, Hilkka (2020)
    While cognitive changes in aging and neurodegenerative disease have been widely studied, language changes in these populations are less well understood. Inflecting novel words in a language with complex inflectional paradigms provides a good opportunity to observe how language processes change in normal and abnormal aging. Studies of language acquisition suggest that children inflect novel words based on their phonological similarity to real words they already know. It is unclear whether speakers continue to use the same strategy when encountering novel words throughout the lifespan or whether adult speakers apply symbolic rules. We administered a simple speech elicitation task involving Finnish‐conforming pseudo‐words and real Finnish words to healthy older adults, individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to investigate inflectional choices in these groups and how linguistic variables and disease severity predict inflection patterns. Phonological resemblance of novel words to both a regular and an irregular inflectional type, as well as bigram frequency of the novel words, significantly influenced participants' inflectional choices for novel words among the healthy elderly group and people with AD. The results support theories of inflection by phonological analogy (single‐route models) and contradict theories advocating for formal symbolic rules (dual‐route models).
  • Strandberg, Timo; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Sipilä, Sarianna (2021)
    • Sarkopenia tarkoittaa etenevää yleistynyttä lihasmassan ja -voiman vähenemistä. Se ei ole ikään sidottu, mutta se on tavallisempi vanhalla iällä. • Patofysiologia on monimutkainen ja etiologia moninainen. Tehokas ehkäisy edellyttää elämänaikaisia toimia. • Sarkopenia lisää merkittävien kliinisten tapahtumien riskiä, mm. kaatumisia, toimintakyvyn ¬heikentymistä ja gerastenian kehittymistä. • Toistaiseksi paras hoito koostuu lihasvoimaharjoitusten ja ravitsemushoidon yhdistämisestä. ¬Spesifisiä lääkehoitomahdollisuuksia tutkitaan.
  • Vaskivuo, Laura; Hokkanen, Laura; Hänninen, Tuomo; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paajanen, Teemu; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia (2019)
    Background:Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) may be the first sign of cognitive decline in aging. Objective:To examine whether SMCs reported by oneself and informant predict cognitive change over 2 years among at-risk elderly people, and to determine the relationship of different types of SMCs (prospective and retrospective memory complaints) and change in cognitive function. Methods:This investigation is part of the FINGER project, which is a multicenter randomized controlled trial aiming at preventing cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older adults with increased risk of dementia. A subsample of 303 control-group participants (aged 60–80 years) and their informants (n = 261) rated the frequency of SMCs, using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-up visits using a neuropsychological test battery. Results:Participants who reported more SMCs improved less in global cognition, executive function, and memory during the subsequent 2 years in the fully-adjusted analyses. Self-reported retrospective memory problems predicted less improvement in all cognitive domains, whereas prospective memory problems did not. Informant-reported memory problems were not linked to subsequent change in cognition. Conclusion:Our results indicate that self-reported SMCs, measured with PRMQ, predict future cognitive change in several cognitive domains. By contrast, reports by informants were not linked to changes in cognition. Among cognitively healthy at-risk elderly individuals, the persons themselves observe more easily problems relevant for their future cognitive trajectories than their informants.
  • Hirvonen, Katariina; Laivuori, Hannele; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hackman, Peter (2017)
    Background: Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6) is involved in various crucial cellular pathways, being a key regulator of telomere structure, DNA repair, metabolism, transcriptional control and the NF-kappa B pathway. Sirt6 knock-out mice have been reported to develop typical features of aging and senescence at the age of 2-3 weeks and die within 4 weeks. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sequence variations of SIRT6 are associated with aging and longevity in Finnish men. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 43 longer-living and healthy males and 92 male control subjects who have died of natural causes at an average age of 66,6 (+/- 4,1) years and who belonged to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and their surroundings of the SIRT6 were studied using direct PCR sequencing. Results: The SNP rs117385980 (C > T), situated 23 bases downstream of the exon 2 exon/intron border was found in heterozygous form in 1/43 longer-living healthy men (Minor allele frequency (MAF) 0,0116) and in 9/92 controls (MAF 0,0489). To replicate this finding, we studied a group of 63 healthy men at an average age of 83 years from the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS)-cohort. The heterozygosity of the same SNP was seen in 2/63 men from the HBS-cohort (MAF 0,0159). Fisher exact test was performed in our two combined study samples. The P-value for all samples combined was 0.07 and the odds ratio 3.53 (95% confidence interval 0.96-13.4). Conclusions: These results suggest an inverse association between the T allele of rs117385980 and longevity. The result needs to be confirmed in a larger study. It remains to be determined whether rs117385980 itself has an effect or if it is a mere genetic marker for some other yet undiscovered sequence variant causing a functional effect.
  • Hirvonen, Katariina; Laivuori, Hannele; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Eriksson, Johan G; Hackman, Peter (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6) is involved in various crucial cellular pathways, being a key regulator of telomere structure, DNA repair, metabolism, transcriptional control and the NF-kappa B pathway. Sirt6 knock-out mice have been reported to develop typical features of aging and senescence at the age of 2–3 weeks and die within 4 weeks. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sequence variations of SIRT6 are associated with aging and longevity in Finnish men. Methods The sample of this study consisted of 43 longer-living and healthy males and 92 male control subjects who have died of natural causes at an average age of 66,6 (±4,1) years and who belonged to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and their surroundings of the SIRT6 were studied using direct PCR sequencing. Results The SNP rs117385980 (C > T), situated 23 bases downstream of the exon 2 exon/intron border was found in heterozygous form in 1/43 longer-living healthy men (Minor allele frequency (MAF) 0,0116) and in 9/92 controls (MAF 0,0489). To replicate this finding, we studied a group of 63 healthy men at an average age of 83 years from the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS)–cohort. The heterozygosity of the same SNP was seen in 2/63 men from the HBS–cohort (MAF 0,0159). Fisher exact test was performed in our two combined study samples. The P-value for all samples combined was 0.07 and the odds ratio 3.53 (95% confidence interval 0.96–13.4). Conclusions These results suggest an inverse association between the T allele of rs117385980 and longevity. The result needs to be confirmed in a larger study. It remains to be determined whether rs117385980 itself has an effect or if it is a mere genetic marker for some other yet undiscovered sequence variant causing a functional effect.
  • Kelkka, Tiina; Savola, Paula; Mustjoki, Satu (2019)