Browsing by Subject "Animals"

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  • Santos-Cortez, R.L.P.; Bhutta, M.F.; Earl, J.P.; Hafrén, Lena; Jennings, M.; Mell, J.C.; Pichichero, M.E.; Ryan, A.F.; Tateossian, Hilda; Ehrlich, G.D. (2020)
    Objective: To review the most recent advances in human and bacterial genomics as applied to pathogenesis and clinical management of otitis media. Data sources: PubMed articles published since the last meeting in June 2015 up to June 2019. Review methods: A panel of experts in human and bacterial genomics of otitis media was formed. Each panel member reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a merged draft was created. The panel met at the 20th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2019, discussed the review and refined the content. A final draft was made, circulated, and approved by the panel members. Conclusion: Trans-disciplinary approaches applying pan-omic technologies to identify human susceptibility to otitis media and to understand microbial population dynamics, patho-adaptation and virulence mechanisms are crucial to the development of novel, personalized therapeutics and prevention strategies for otitis media. Implications for practice: In the future otitis media prevention strategies may be augmented by mucosal immunization, combination vaccines targeting multiple pathogens, and modulation of the middle ear microbiome. Both treatment and vaccination may be tailored to an individual's otitis media phenotype as defined by molecular profiles obtained by using rapidly developing techniques in microbial and host genomics. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
  • Kaikkonen, Ossi; Turunen, Teemu T.; Meller, Anna; Åhlgren, Johanna; Koskelainen, Ari (2022)
    Objective: Subthreshold retinal laser therapy (SLT) is a treatment modality where the temperature of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is briefly elevated to trigger the therapeutic benefits of sublethal heat shock. However, the temperature elevation induced by a laser exposure varies between patients due to individual differences in RPE pigmentation and choroidal perfusion. This study describes an electroretinography (ERG)-based method for controlling the temperature elevation during SLT. Methods: The temperature dependence of the photopic ERG response kinetics were investigated both ex vivo with isolated pig retinas and in vivo with anesthetized pigs by altering the temperature of the subject and recording ERG in different temperatures. A model was created for ERG-based temperature estimation and the feasibility of the model for controlling SLT was assessed through computational simulations. Results: The kinetics of the photopic in vivo flash ERG signaling accelerated between 3.6 and 4.7%/degrees C, depending on the strength of the stimulus. The temperature dependence was 5.0%/degrees C in the entire investigated range of 33 to 44 degrees C in ex vivo ERG. The simulations showed that the method is suitable for determining the steady-state temperature elevation in SLT treatments with a sufficiently long laser exposure and large spot size, e.g., during > 30 s laser exposures with > 3 mm stimulus spot diameter. Conclusions: The described ERG-based temperature estimation model could be used to control SLT treatments such as transpupillary thermotherapy. Significance: The introduced ERG-based method for controlling SLT could improve the repeatability, safety, and efficacy of the treatment of various retinal disorders.
  • Rankin, D J; Lopez-Sepulcre, A; Foster, K R; Kokko, H (2007)
    Adaptation does not necessarily lead to traits which are optimal for the population. This is because selection is often the strongest at the individual or gene level. The evolution of selfishness can lead to a 'tragedy of the commons', where traits such as aggression or social cheating reduce population size and may lead to extinction. This suggests that species-level selection will result whenever species differ in the incentive to be selfish. We explore this idea in a simple model that combines individual-level selection with ecology in two interacting species. Our model is not influenced by kin or trait-group selection. We find that individual selection in combination with competitive exclusion greatly increases the likelihood that selfish species go extinct. A simple example of this would be a vertebrate species that invests heavily into squabbles over breeding sites, which is then excluded by a species that invests more into direct reproduction. A multispecies simulation shows that these extinctions result in communities containing species that are much less selfish. Our results suggest that species-level selection and community dynamics play an important role in regulating the intensity of conflicts in natural populations.
  • Green, Sarah (2022)
    The majority of diseases that afflict humans are shared by nonhuman animals, and three-quarters of emerging diseases do so. People have known this for centuries, understanding that diseases traveled the same routes as did traders, migrants, and soldiers. Zoonosis is a process that involves the movement of a pathogen from a nonhuman animal body to a human animal body, which then triggers disease. In the past, this reality mostly served as an impediment to the bioeconomics of working with animals; in more recent years, research on zoonoses has turned animals into part of bioeconomic logic in themselves. [borders; crosslocations; animals; nonhuman; domestication; zoonoses]
  • Kokko, Hanna; Lopez-Sepulcre, Andres (2007)
    Calls to understand the links between ecology and evolution have been common for decades. Population dynamics, i.e. the demographic changes in populations, arise from life history decisions of individuals and thus are a product of selection, and selection, on the contrary, can be modified by such dynamical properties of the population as density and stability. It follows that generating predictions and testing them correctly requires considering this ecogenetic feedback loop whenever traits have demographic consequences, mediated via density dependence (or frequency dependence). This is not an easy challenge, and arguably theory has advanced at a greater pace than empirical research. However, theory would benefit from more interaction between related fields, as is evident in the many near-synonymous names that the ecogenetic loop has attracted. We also list encouraging examples where empiricists have shown feasible ways of addressing the question, ranging from advanced data analysis to experiments and comparative analyses of phylogenetic data.
    The exposure to amoxicillin has been associated with molar incisor hypomineralization. This study aimed to determine if amoxicillin disturbs the enamel mineralization in in vivo experiments. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly assigned into three groups to received daily phosphatase-buffered saline or amoxicillin as either 100 or 500 mg/kg. Mice received treatment from day 13 of pregnancy to day 40 postnatal. After birth, the offsprings from each litter continued to receive the same treatment according to their respective group. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content in the dental hard tissues were analyzed from 60 upper first molars and 60 upper incisors by the complexometric titration method and colorimetric analysis using a spectrophotometer at 680 nm, respectively. Lower incisors were analyzed by X-ray microtomography, it was measured the electron density of lingual and buccal enamel, and the enamel and dentin thickness. Differences in Ca and P content and electron density among the groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. There was no significant difference on enamel electron density and thickness among the groups (p > 0.05). However, in incisors, the higher dose of amoxicillin decreased markedly the electron density in some rats. There were no statistically significant differences in Ca (p = 0.180) or P content (p = 0.054), although the higher dose of amoxicillin could affect the enamel in some animals. The amoxicillin did not significantly alter the enamel mineralization and thickness in rats. © 2020
  • Koljonen, Virve; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Söderlund, Tim; Gissler, Mika (2016)
  • Kokko, Hanna; Wong, Bob B M (2007)
    In a seminal paper, Hammerstein and Parker (1987) described how sex roles in mate searching can be frequency dependent: the need for one sex to perform mate searching is diminished when the opposite sex takes on the greater searching effort. Intriguingly, this predicts that females are just as likely to search as males, despite a higher potential reproductive rate by the latter sex. This prediction, however, is not supported by data: male mate searching prevails in nature. Counterexamples also exist in the empirical literature. Depending on the taxon studied, female mate searching can arise in either low- or high-density conditions, and suggested explanations differ accordingly. We examine these puzzling observations by building two models (with and without sperm competition). When sperm competition is explicitly included, male mate searching becomes the dominant pattern; when it is excluded, male mate searching predominates only if we assume that costs of searching are higher for females. Consequently, two hypotheses emerge from our models. The multiple-mating hypothesis explains male searching on the basis of the ubiquity of sperm competition, and predicts that female searching can arise in low-density situations in which sperm can become limiting. It can also explain cases of female pheromone production, where males pay the majority of search costs. The sex-specific cost hypothesis predicts the opposite pattern of female searching in high-density conditions, and it potentially applies to some species in which sperm limitation is unlikely.