Browsing by Subject "BEHAVIOR"

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  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Marttunen, Mauri (2019)
    Purpose: To explore whether sexual harassment experiences are more common among adolescents reporting romantic and erotic interests in the same sex and both sexes, when sociodemographic and mental health confounding are controlled for, and whether the associations are similar in both sexes and in different phases of adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a nationally representative dataset of 25,147 boys and 25,257 girls in comprehensive school, and 33,231 boys and 36,765 girls in upper secondary education. Self-reports of experiences of sexual harassment, and emotional (depression) and behavioral (delinquency) symptoms were used. Results: All associations between sexual minority status and harassment diminished clearly when mental disorder dimensions were controlled for. In the comprehensive school sample (mean age 15.4 years), sexual harassment experiences were 4-7-fold more common among boys, and 1.5-3-fold among girls, with same-sex/both-sexes interest, compared to those interested exclusively in the opposite sex. In the upper secondary education sample (mean age 17.4 years), among boys, sexual harassment was reported 3-6-fold more commonly by those not exclusively heterosexually interested. Among older girls, a slight increase in sexual harassment experiences was seen among those interested in both sexes. Conclusions: Sexual harassment experiences are associated with sexual minority status, particularly among boys. Confounding by mental disorders needs to be accounted for when studying sexual minority status and sexual harassment.
  • Katainen, Anu; Lehto, Anna-Sofia; Maunu, Antti (2015)
    The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience.
  • Danielsson, Maria; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkanen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (2019)
    Background The consumption of tobacco products has evolved to include more complex combinations of different products. We investigated the tobacco habits of a representative population of young Finnish male conscripts in order to evaluate the prevalence of dual use of cigarettes and snus as well as the transition from one tobacco product to another. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the level of education and the use of cigarettes and snus. Methods A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three out of 17 garrisons among conscripts during their first week of service in 2014. A total of 1971 male conscripts were selected by simple random sampling of the 9013 males in the selected garrisons. Of them 1916 participated and filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 97.2%. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions including age, gender, basic education, use of tobacco products as well as questions assessing nicotine dependency. Results The amount of dual users of cigarettes and snus was 21%. There was a higher probability of dual use of cigarettes and snus among smokers compared to snus users (p <0.001). One third (35%) of former smokers reported daily snus use and over 40% of the former snus users smoked daily. One third (34%) of the participants reported snus usage and 14% of the study subjects used snus daily. 40% of the study population were smokers and over 25% smoked daily. Of the participants with basic educational background 57% smoked daily (p <0.001), however, no association between snus and level of education was found (p = 0.69). Conclusions This study provides better understanding of the complex tobacco habits of young adult males. The simultaneous usage of multiple tobacco products as well as the high tendency to transition from one tobacco product to another should be taken into consideration when planning cessation interventions in health care settings and tobacco control policies at societal levels.
  • Bagheri, Mehrdad; Mladenović, Miloš N.; Kosonen, Iisakki; Nurminen, Jukka K (2020)
    Given the necessity to understand the modal shift potentials at the level of individual travel times, emissions, and physically active travel distances, there is a need for accurately computing such potentials from disaggregated data collection. Despite significant development in data collection technology, especially by utilizing smartphones, there are limited efforts in developing useful computational frameworks for this purpose. First, development of a computational framework requires longitudinal data collection of revealed travel behavior of individuals. Second, such a computational framework should enable scalable analysis of time-relevant low-carbon travel alternatives in the target region. To this end, this research presents an open-source computational framework, developed to explore the potential for shifting from private car to lower-carbon travel alternatives. In comparison to previous development, our computational framework estimates and illustrates the changes in travel time in relation to the potential reductions in emission and increases in physically active travel, as well as daily weather conditions. The potential usefulness of the framework was evaluated using long-term travel data of around a hundred travelers within the Helsinki Metropolitan Region, Finland. The case study outcomes also suggest that in several cases traveling by public transport or bike would not increase travel time compared to the observed car travel. Based on the case study results, we discuss potentially acceptable travel times for mode shift, and usefulness of the computational framework for decisions regarding transition to sustainable urban mobility systems. Finally, we discuss limitations and lessons learned for data collection and further development of similar computational frameworks.
  • Chen, Zuyue; Wei, Hong; Pertovaara, Antti; Wang, Jianhong; Carlson, Synnöve (2018)
    Paracetamol has recently been suggested to affect emotion processing in addition to alleviating pain in humans. We investigated in adult male Hannover–Wistar rats whether acute intraperitoneally administrated paracetamol affects behavior in tests measuring anxiety, mood, motor activity, and memory. Unoperated rats received saline or a low (50 mg/kg) or high (300 mg/kg) dose of paracetamol, while rats with a spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathy and sham-operated rats received saline or the low dose of paracetamol. Rats were tested on open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), novel-object recognition (NOR), sucrose preference, rotarod, and monofilament tests. In unoperated rats, both the low and high dose of paracetamol reduced line crossings, and grooming time in the OFT, and novel preference in NOR. The high dose of paracetamol increased the time spent in the closed arm in EPM, reduced the number of rearings and leanings in OFT, the time spent in the light box in LDB, and sucrose preference. Paracetamol had no significant effect on the rotarod test measuring motor activity. The low dose of paracetamol suppressed mechanical pain hypersensitivity in SNI rats, without influencing pain behavior in sham-operated rats. Saline- but not paracetamol-treated SNI rats spent more time than sham-operated rats in the closed arm in the EPM test. Together the results suggest that a high dose of paracetamol increases anxiety-like and anhedonic behavior, and impairs recognition memory in unoperated controls, while in neuropathy, a low dose of paracetamol reduces nerve injury-associated anxiety probably by reducing neuropathic pain.
  • Väärikkälä, Sofia Susanna; Hänninen, Laura Talvikki; Nevas, Mari Anne (2019)
    Simple Summary Official on-farm inspections are carried out throughout the European Union every year to ensure farm compliance with animal welfare standards. The aim of this study was to analyze Finnish inspection data in order to find out how well cattle and pig farms comply with animal welfare standards, to reveal the most common non-compliances and to identify possible farm risk factors. About every fourth inspected Finnish cattle and pig farm did not comply with the animal welfare standards. Examples of factors that increased the risk of non-compliance were small herd size, tie-stall housing and outdoor rearing. Inadequate lying area in cattle farms and a lack of enrichment material in pig farms were the most common non-compliances. The regional differences found may indicate differences in inspectors' interpretations or ways in conducting inspections. As the official inspection reports contain valuable information about the welfare problems on farms, the reports should be better utilized in risk analysis, in targeting farmer education, and in making the inspections more uniform. Abstract The competent authorities of the Member States of the European Union are required to perform animal welfare inspections on livestock farms. The data obtained from these official inspections performed in Finnish cattle and pig farms in 2010-2015 were used with the aim of estimating the prevalence of the most common non-compliances and identifying underlying risk factors. The prevalence of non-compliant cattle and pig farms was 24.2% and 27.9%, respectively. In cattle, the most common problem was an inadequate lying area followed by deficient housing conditions for calves; in pigs, it was a lack of enrichment material. The non-compliances concerning cattle were most frequently detected in autumn and in farms with small herd size, with tie-stall housing and outdoor rearing year-round. The pig farms with a farrow-to-finish unit had a higher prevalence of non-compliances than other production types. The prevalence of the non-compliant farms differed notably between the regions. It can be concluded that the cattle welfare inspections should be performed with a focus on the cold and rainy seasons and at small farms, whereas the pig welfare inspections should mainly focus on farrow-to-finish units. The data received from official inspections should be efficiently utilized in the development of animal welfare inspection system, with the aim of risk-based, consistent and uniform inspections. In addition, the data should be utilized in targeting information for farmers.
  • Gholami, Mahdia; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad; Virtanen, Jorma I. (2014)
  • Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Andreassen, Ole A.; Angelopoulos, Elias; Ardau, Raffaella; Ayhan, Yavuz; Baethge, Christopher; Bauer, Rita; Baune, Bernhard T.; Becerra-Palars, Claudia; Bellivier, Frank; Belmaker, Robert H.; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bicakci, Sule; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Bjella, Thomas D.; Cabrera, Jorge; Cheung, Eric Y. Wo; Del Zompo, Maria; Dodd, Seetal; Donix, Markus; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Fountoulakis, Kostas N.; Frye, Mark A.; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Gottlieb, John F.; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Henry, Chantal; Isometsä, Erkki T.; Janno, Sven; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kardell, Mathias; Khaldi, Slim; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Konig, Barbara; Kot, Timur L.; Krogh, Rikke; Kunz, Mauricio; Lafer, Beny; Landen, Mikael; Larsen, Erik R.; Lewitzka, Ute; Licht, Rasmus W.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; MacQueen, Glenda; Manchia, Mirko; Marsh, Wendy; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Monica; Melle, Ingrid; Meza-Urzua, Fatima; Ming, Mok Yee; Monteith, Scott; Morken, Gunnar; Mosca, Enrica; Mozzhegorova, Anton A.; Munoz, Rodrigo; Mythri, Starlin V.; Nacef, Fethi; Nadella, Ravi K.; Nery, Fabiano G.; Nielsen, Rene E.; O'Donovan, Claire; Omrani, Adel; Osher, Yamima; Sorensen, Helle Ostermark; Ouali, Uta; Ruiz, Yolanda Pica; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Pinna, Marco; da Ponte, Francisco D. R.; Quiroz, Danilo; Ramesar, Raj; Rasgon, Natalie; Reddy, M. S.; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Sagduyu, Kemal; Raghuraman, Bharathram Sathur; Scippa, Angela M.; Severus, Emanuel; Simhandl, Christian; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Stein, Dan J.; Strejilevich, Sergio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Suominen, Kirsi; Tagata, Hiromi; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Tondo, Leonardo; Torrent, Carla; Vaaler, Arne E.; Vares, Edgar; Veeh, Julia; Vieta, Eduard; Viswanath, Biju; Yoldi-Negrete, Maria; Zetina, Mark; Zgueb, Yosra; Whybrow, Peter C. (2019)
    In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p <0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.
  • Piirtola, Maarit; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Korhonen, Maila Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri; collaboration group, CODATwins (2018)
    Background Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. Methods and findings The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18–69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. Conclusions Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.
  • Urtamo, Annele; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2018)
    Personal values influence behavior and decision making, but their long-term associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), frailty, and mortality are less clear. We studied these associations from midlife to old age in a 26-year follow-up of the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS) cohort. In 1974, 1320 clinically healthy men (born 1919-1934) reported in a 12-item questionnaire their personal values. In 2000, a mailed questionnaire, including assessment of HRQoL with RAND-36 (SF-36) instrument, was sent to survivors, and 1025 men responded. In 2000, the presence of phenotypic frailty was assessed using modified Fried criteria including indicators of shrinking, physical weakness, exhaustion, and physical inactivity. Mortality through December 31, 2000 was verified from national registries. Using a factor analysis, the data of the 12-item questionnaire of personal values were loaded in 3 factors: valuing health ("Health"), enjoyable and varying life ("Enjoyment"), and comfort and work-oriented life ("Work-life-balance"). Adjusted for age, we found a significant positive association between valuing "Health" in midlife and RAND-36 domains of Physical functioning (p = .032) and Vitality (p = .005) in old age. "Health" also predicted less frailty (p = .008), and "Enjoyment" was associated with higher mortality (p = .017). Value priorities of men assessed in midlife had long-term associations with HRQoL and frailty in old age, and they may also predict mortality.
  • Hirvonen, Katariina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Salomaa, Veikko; Mannisto, Satu; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Introduction: Genetic variations in DBH-gene and its surroundings have been shown to associate with smoking behavior including smoking cessation in several studies. In this study we replicate and measure the effect size for association between DBH polymorphism rs3025343 and smoking cessation in a large population-based sample while examining environmental factors that could relate to the association. Methods: We studied 11 926 adult subjects from four surveys of the National FINRISK Study. The analysis was restricted to either current or former smokers. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationships of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), covariates, smoking cessation, and smoking severity (cotinine, CPD). Gene-environment interactions were tested by likelihood-ratio test. Results: The association between rs3025343 and smoking cessation (prevalence odds ratio, OR = 1.12, p = .094, 95% CI = 0.98-1.30) was replicated identically with the GWAS study of The Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08-1.18). None of our tested phenotypes significantly influenced the association between rs3025343 and smoking cessation. Overall, marital status, education, depression, alcohol use, self-rated health, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) showed phenotypic associations with smoking cessation, but the association of various phenotypes with smoking cessation did not vary by genotype. Conclusions: The current study replicates the effect size for the association between rs3025343 and smoking cessation despite lack of overall significance due to smaller sample size. We could not show environmental influences on the association of rs3025343 with smoking cessation. Implications: Our study replicates the direction and strength of the association of DBH polymorphism rs3025343 with smoking cessation. We could not detect environmental influences on the strength of the association of rs3025343 with smoking cessation, but the limited power of our analysis needs to be taken into account.
  • Seilo, Noora; Paldanius, Susanna; Autio, Reija; Kunttu, Kristina; Kaila, Minna (2020)
    Objective To evaluate the association between health and study-related factors measured by an Electronic Health Questionnaire (eHQ), participation in a health examination process and graduation in a university student population. Design Nationwide, retrospective, register-based cohort study with a 6-year follow-up. Setting Student health care in Finland. Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS) provides statutory student health services to university students in Finland. The health examination process of FSHS includes the eHQ provided annually to university entrants and a subsequent health check when necessary based on students' eHQ response. Participants A national cohort of university entrants from the 2011-2012 academic year (n=14 329, n (female)=8075, n (male)=6254). Outcome measures The primary outcome measure was graduation, measured based on whether a student had completed a bachelor's, licentiate or master's degree during the 6-year follow-up. Results Some 72% of the women and 60% of the men had graduated during the follow-up. The predictors in the eHQ associated with non-graduation differed by sex. Among the women's low enthusiasm about studies (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.6), low engagement with studies (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8 to 3.4) and daily smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6) were the strongest predictors to non-graduation. Among the men, low engagement with studies (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5 to 5.5) and obesity (body mass index >= 35) (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.8) were the strongest predictors to non-graduation. Not attending the health check when referred was associated with non-graduation in both sexes: the OR for not graduating was 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.9) in women and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) in men. Conclusions Engagement and enthusiasm about studying in the first year are important predictors of graduation and therefore a potential intervention target. Health promotion initiatives conducted early in the studies may have a positive effect on students' academic achievement.
  • Lehtomaa, Jaakko; Resnick, Sidney (2020)
    One of the central objectives of modern risk management is to find a set of risks where the probability of multiple simultaneous catastrophic events is negligible. That is, risks are taken only when their joint behavior seems sufficiently independent. This paper aims to identify asymptotically independent risks by providing tools for describing dependence structures of multiple risks when the individual risks can obtain very large values. The study is performed in the setting of multivariate regular variation. We show how asymptotic independence is connected to properties of the support of the angular measure and present an asymptotically consistent estimator of the support. The estimator generalizes to any dimension N >= 2 and requires no prior knowledge of the support. The validity of the support estimate can be rigorously tested under mild assumptions by an asymptotically normal test statistic. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Castren, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2015)
    Background: Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. Methods: This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score >= 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Conclusions: Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and identification of ARPG among the underage are needed.
  • Ren, Hao; Yang, Peng; Winnik, Francoise M. (2020)
    Azo dyes, such as azobenzene, are able to convert absorbed light into motion or deformation on the macroscopic scale on the basis of their remarkable ability to undergo repeatedly and in 100% yield reversibletrans-to-cisphotoisomerization. Current needs for multiresponsive and fast photoswitches have led to the development of heteroaryl azo dyes, such as azopyridine. This remarkable azo compound combines the photoresponse of the azo chromophore with the chemistry of the pyridine ring, in particular its responsiveness to changes in pH and its ability to form hydrogen- and halogen-bonds. This mini-review summarizes key features of the photoisomerization of polymer-tethered azopyridine in aqueous media and describes a few recent research accomplishments in emerging areas that have benefited of the fast thermalcis-to-transrelaxation characteristics of azopyridinium or H-bonded azopyridine. It also discusses the effects of the photoisomerization of azopyridine on the thermoresponsive properties of azopyridine-tethered heat-sensitive polymers. Overall, azopyridine is a highly versatile actuator to consider when designing photo/multiresponsive polymeric materials.
  • Broms, Ulla; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Sillanmaki, Lauri H.; Mattila, Kari J.; Koskenvuo, Markku (2012)
  • Hasanzadeh, Kamyar; Czepkiewicz, Michal; Heinonen, Jukka; Kyttä, Marketta; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Ottelin, Juudit (2019)
    Activity space (AS) is a measure of spatial behavior used to summarize the mobility behavior of individuals. Current studies often highlight the fact that AS is highly complex and multidimensional in character. Therefore, the need for more holistic approaches providing more comprehensive descriptions of mobility patterns is evident. This article assesses the activity spaces of young adults aged 25-40 living in the Helsinki metropolitan area using a dataset collected with an online map survey. Using a wide range of measurements covering different aspects of AS, we identified seven components that define activity spaces, namely size, intensity of activities, volume of trips, exteriority, polycentricity, elongation, and destination specialization. We then used the components together with travel mode use to identify a typology of daily mobility patterns. The results show that individuals with different types of AS differ significantly in their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, employment, household characteristics, and residential neighborhood. Furthermore, the study reveals interesting associations between AS characteristics and different aspects of wellbeing. Overall, the results highlight the importance of multidimensional and comprehensive approaches to understanding daily mobility of urban residents.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Kontto, Jukka; Perhoniemi, Riku; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Methods: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE). Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Conclusions: It seems that overall gambling frequency is the strongest indicator of high gambling expenditure. Our results showed that different game types had different effect sizes on gambling expenditure. Weekly gambling on horse races and non-monopoly games had the greatest increasing effect on expenditure. However, different game types also varied based on their popularity. The extent of potential harms caused by high expenditure therefore also varies on the population level. Based on our results, future prevention and harm minimization efforts should be tailored to different game types for greater effectiveness.
  • Arola, Riikka; Antila, Henna; Riipinen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helina; Riala, Kaisa; Kantojarvi, Liisa (2016)
    Various psychiatric problems in adolescence and early adulthood have been shown to associate with criminal behaviour. In this study the association of personality disorders (PDs) with criminal behaviour was examined in adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 13-17) admitted to acute psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Crime data was obtained from the Finnish Legal Register Centre on September 2013. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence. The information on PDs in early adulthood was based on follow-up information on psychiatric treatments in either out-or inpatient settings until the end of 2012, and was extracted from the National Care Register for Health Care provided by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. A total of 22 (39%) of the 57 subjects with PD had committed a crime. In women, the likelihood for violent criminality was significantly increased in those with Borderline PD (OR 6.09, CI 1.24-29.84, p = 0.009) and was also associated with conduct disorder (OR 4.26, CI 1.38-13.19, p = 0.012), child welfare placement (OR 11.82, CI 3.61-38.76, p <0.001) and parent's substance use disorder (OR 7.74, CI 2.30-26.10, p = 0.001). In men, no association was observed between PD and any kind of criminal behaviour. Significant predictors for violent criminality in males were conduct disorder (OR 4.05, CI 1.75-9.38, p = 0.001), substance use disorder (OR 2.51, CI 1.22-5.17, p = 0.012) and special services at school (OR 2.58, CI 1.16-5.76, p = 0.021). Females with Borderline PD showed an increased risk for violent offending. This suggests Borderline PD as a potential explanatory factor for violent assaults by females and highlights the importance of recognizing the risk for violence in young women with a Borderline PD. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.