Browsing by Subject "BEHAVIORS"

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  • Mundy, Lisa K.; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B.; Patton, George C. (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. METHODS: Eight-to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. RESULTS: Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (beta = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.2 to 6.2) and grammar/punctuation (beta = 20.8; 95% CI, 40.1 to 1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: = 29.0; 95% CI, 53.8 to 4.1; female children: beta = 30.1; 95% CI, 56.6 to 3.5), and writing (female children: beta = -21.5; 95% CI, 40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: beta = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: beta = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: beta = 25.5; 95% CI, 4-2.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: beta = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: beta = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). CONCLUSIONS: Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school.
  • Tiainen, Anna-Maija K.; Mannisto, Satu; Lahti, Marius; Blomstedt, Paul A.; Lahti, Jari; Perala, Mia-Maria; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2013)
  • Viljakainen, Heli T.; Figueiredo, Rejane A. O.; Rounge, Trine B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
    Background Picky eating (PE) is the most common cause of early-life feeding problems. However, the consequences of PE on food intake and weight development in general populations have not been established. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the associations of PE and food neophobia (FN) with weight status in 5700 Finnish preadolescents. In addition, we described food consumption by PE/FN status. Material and methods: We utilised the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort of 9-12-year-old preadolescents, who were categorised as having PE and FN based on answers from parental questionnaires. Weight was categorised as underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obesity based on body mass index (BMI) according to IOTF age- and sex-specific cut-offs. Eating patterns were obtained with a 16-item food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The overall prevalence of PE and FN were 34% and 14%, respectively. PE was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8) and led to a higher risk of underweight (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.7-2.4), while this was not observed with FN. Compared with preadolescents without PE/FN, those with PE/FN reported consuming unhealthy foods such as pizza, hamburgers/hot dogs, and salty snacks more frequently (p <0.0038). By the same token, these preadolescents reported consuming healthy foods such as cooked vegetables, fresh vegetables/salad, fruit/berries, milk/soured milk, and dark bread less frequently. Conclusions: Among Finnish preadolescents, only PE was associated with a higher risk for underweight and inversely with overweight/obesity. PE and FN were accompanied with unhealthy eating patterns. Management of PE in children may be explored as a potential strategy for improving healthy eating and avoiding underweight in preadolescents.
  • Aho, Hanna; Pietila, Ilkka; Joronen, Katja (2019)
  • Stenholm, Sari; Head, Jenny; Kivimaki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Zaninotto, Paola; Hanson, Linda Magnuson; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi (2016)
    Background: Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the co-occurrence of these behaviour-related risk factors predict healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy in four European cohort studies. Methods: Data were drawn from repeated waves of four cohort studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. Smoking status, physical inactivity and obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) were examined separately and in combination. Health expectancy was estimated by using two health indicators: suboptimal self-rated health and having a chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes). Multistate life table models were used to estimate sex-specific healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75 years. Results: Compared with men and women with at least two behaviour-related risk factors, those with no behaviour-related risk factors could expect to live on average8 years longer in good health and 6 years longer free of chronic diseases between ages 50 and 75.Having any single risk factor was also associated with reduction in healthy years. No consistent differences between cohorts were observed. Conclusions: Data from four European countries show that persons with individual and co-occurring behaviour-related risk factors have shorter healthy life expectancy and shorter chronic disease-free life expectancy. Population level reductions in smoking, physical inactivity and obesity could increase life-years lived in good health.
  • Upadyaya, Katja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2020)
    Background and Objectives:Latent profiles of employees' job burnout (e.g., exhaustion, cynicism, feelings of inadequacy) and work engagement (e.g., energy, dedication, absorption) were examined. Moreover, the role of social work-related (multicultural, interpersonal, and project work demands) and personal demands (relationship demands) and social work-related resources (servant leadership, team climate) and personal resources (resilience, self-efficacy) in predicting the latent profiles were examined. Design:This study is a part of an Occupational Health Study in which 766 employees participated twice. Methods:The results were analyzed using latent profile analysis. Results:Two longitudinal profiles of burnout and engagement could be identified, namely high engagement (84% of the participants) and increasing burnout (16%) profiles. Employees who experienced high work-related social resources (servant leadership) and high personal resources (resilience, self-efficacy) were more likely to belong to the high engagement group than to the increasing burnout group. Employees who experienced high work-related social demands (multicultural, interpersonal, and project work demands) and personal social demands (relationship demands) more often belonged to the increasing burnout group. Conclusions:Social resources may help in promoting employees' job engagement, whereas social demands are often associated with increasing burnout symptoms.
  • Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Härkänen, Tommi; Regushevskaya, Elena; Hemminki, Elina; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Laanpere, Made; Kuznetsova, Olga; Koskinen, Seppo (2014)
  • Inkeroinen, Saija; Koskinen, Jenni; Karlsson, Mia; Kilpi, Taina; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Puukka, Pauli; Taponen, Ros-Marie; Tuominen, Riitta; Virtanen, Heli (2021)
    Purpose: Patient education improves health and treatment adherence of patients with chronic kidney disease. However, evidence about the sufficiency of patients' knowledge processed in patient education is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subjective and objective sufficiency of knowledge processed in patient education in dialysis care and treatment. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. The sample (n=162) comprised patients in predialysis or home dialysis. All eligible patients during the data collection timeframe (2016-2017) in two university hospital districts in Finland were invited to participate. Subjective sufficiency was evaluated with a structured questionnaire having 34 items divided into six dimensions of empowering knowledge (bio-physiological, functional, social, experiential, ethical, and financial) on a Likert scale (1=not sufficient at all, 4=very sufficient). Objective sufficiency was evaluated with a structured knowledge test with 10 items (score range 0-10, correct=1, wrong/no knowledge=0) based on the multidimensional content of patient education emphasizing bio-physiological dimension. Results: In subjective sufficiency of knowledge, the mean was 3.27 (SD 0.54). The bio-physiological dimension of empowering knowledge was the most sufficient (mean 3.52, SD 0.49) and the experiential the least (mean 2.8, SD 0.88). In objective sufficiency, the means ranged 5.15-5.97 (SD 2.37-2.68) among patients in different modalities of dialysis care and treatment. The least sufficient objective scores were bio-physiological and functional knowledge. The subjective and objective sufficiency did not correlate with each other. Conclusion: Patients' knowledge, either subjective or objective, does not seem to be sufficient. Hence, attention should be paid to supporting patients with more personalized knowledge. Furthermore, the relationship between subjective and objective sufficiency needs future consideration, as their non-correspondence was a new discovery.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2016)
    Background: We assessed whether the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is suitable for screening binge eating disorder (BED) in young women. Method: Young women (N = 2825) from the 1975-79 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were assessed by questionnaires, including subscales of the EDI. For a subset of women (N = 548), we established DSM-5 diagnoses of BED; 16 women had lifetime BED. We compared screening properties of the EDI scales using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, determined optimal cutoff points, and calculated sensitivities and specificities. Results: The best screen for DSM-5 BED was the global score of three subscales (Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86. Its sensitivity was 87% and specificity 76% at cutoff >= 21. Three individual subscales had acceptable screening properties: Bulimia (AUC 0.83; sensitivity 80%, specificity 78% at cutoff >= 2), Drive For Thinness (AUC 0.82; sensitivity 87%, specificity 72% at cutoff >= 7), and Body Dissatisfaction (AUC 0.81; sensitivity 93%, specificity 60% at cutoff >= 8). Conclusion: The EDI performed well as a screening tool for BED in our community-based sample of young twin women. Future studies should assess its value in other populations and in clinical settings. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Both smoking and obesity are separately associated with sickness absence. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and health conditions may occur concurrently yet studies focusing on their joint association are few. This study examined the joint associations of smoking and obesity with sickness absence (SA). Methods: A mail survey among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, during 2000-2002 included data on obesity, smoking and covariates (N = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women). These data were prospectively linked with register data on self-(1-3 days) and medically certified (4 days or longer) SA among those consenting to the linkage (n = 6986). Pregnant, underweight and those with missing data on key variables were excluded (n = 138). The total number of participants included in the analyses was 6847. The follow-up time was 5 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR). Results: Among women and men smoking and obesity were associated with self-certified SA. Among women there was a joint association with self-certified SA (obese smokers RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.59-2.07). Among women and men smoking and obesity were jointly associated with medically certified SA (for obese smoking women RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.93-2.57, for obese smoking men RR 2.69, 95% CI 2.03-3.55). Associations remained after adjustments for socioeconomic position, working conditions, health behaviours and self-rated health. Conclusion: Both smoking and obesity are jointly associated with all lengths of sickness absence. Support measures for smoking cessation and prevention of obesity could likely to reduce SA.
  • Vaarala, Auli; Uusitalo, Liisa; Lunden, Janne; Tuominen, Pirkko (2021)
    The Finnish Hygiene Passport System, a national legislative requirement, has been used to test the food safety knowledge of food handlers for almost 20 years, resulting in over one million approved hygiene passports. However, information on the relevance of the Hygiene Passport System is virtually nonexistent. In order to evaluate the relevance of the official hygiene passport test, we collected a sample of original official hygiene passport tests from test examiners. We also arranged a simulated hygiene passport test for volunteers without any professional background in the food sector to investigate whether the basic level of hygiene knowledge of Finns is sufficient to pass the test. Our study revealed that more than 80% of the participants in the official hygiene passport test passed. However, participants completing the test in a foreign language or with assistance had significantly more difficulties in passing the test. The results for the simulated test suggested that the food safety knowledge of most Finns would have enabled them to pass the official test without prior training, especially those older than 20 and with a higher educational level. The simulated test also revealed that preparation prior to the test, i.e. study or training, was effective in increasing the food safety knowledge of participants, especially when their knowledge level was initially low, as among young participants. Moreover, significant variation in the difficulty of the test itself was observed, which may affect the pass rate. The current study supports the relevance of the hygiene passport test, showing that without the national requirement for the hygiene passport test, the level of food hygiene knowledge of new employees in the food sector, especially young people aged under 20, would be lower. However, our results suggest that the relevance of the hygiene passport test should be improved by validation of the test and by using official translations when conducting the test in a foreign language. Digitalization of the test would enable the regular evaluation of the test based on accurate data collection.
  • Leppälahti, Suvi; Gissler, M.; Mentula, M.; Heikinheimo, O. (2012)
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Head, Jenny; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Okuloff, Annaleena; Tabak, Adam G.; Goldberg, Marcel; Ervasti, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Pentti, Jaana; Zins, Marie; Kivimaki, Mika (2015)
    Background Studies of work disability in diabetes have examined diabetes as a homogeneous disease. We sought to identify subgroups among persons with diabetes based on potential risk factors for work disability. Methods Participants were 2,445 employees with diabetes from three prospective cohorts (the Finnish Public Sector study, the GAZEL study, and the Whitehall II study). Work disability was ascertained via linkage to registers of sickness absence and disability pensions during a follow-up of 4 years. Study-specific latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups according to prevalent comorbid disease and health-risk behaviours. Study-specific associations with work disability at follow-up were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Results Separate latent class analyses for men and women in each cohort supported a two-class solution with one subgroup (total n = 1,086; 44.4%) having high prevalence of chronic somatic diseases, psychological symptoms, obesity, physical inactivity and abstinence from alcohol and the other subgroup (total n = 1,359; 55.6%) low prevalence of these factors. In the adjusted meta-analyses, participants in the 'high-risk' group had more work disability days (pooled rate ratio = 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99) and more work disability episodes (pooled rate ratio = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.46). These associations were similar in men and women, younger and older participants, and across occupational groups. Conclusions Diabetes is not a homogeneous disease in terms of work disability risk. Approximately half of people with diabetes are assigned to a subgroup characterised by clustering of comorbid health conditions, obesity, physical inactivity, abstinence of alcohol, and associated high risk of work disability; the other half to a subgroup characterised by a more favourable risk profile.