Browsing by Subject "BINDING"

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  • Kallijärvi, Jukka; Stratoulias, Vassilis; Virtanen, Kristel; Hietakangas, Ville; Heino, Tapio I.; Saarma, Mart (2012)
  • Siljamaki, Elina; Rintanen, Nina; Kirsi, Maija; Upla, Paula; Wang, Wei; Karjalainen, Mikko; Ikonen, Elina; Marjomaki, Varpu (2013)
  • Lohmus, Andres; Hafren, Anders; Mäkinen, Kristiina (2017)
    We demonstrate here that both coat protein (CP) phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 and a chaperone system formed by two heat shock proteins, CP-interacting protein (CPIP) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), are essential for potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) replication and that all these host proteins have the capacity to contribute to the level of PVA CP accumulation. An E3 ubiquitin ligase called carboxyl terminus Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which may participate in the CPIP-HSP70-mediated CP degradation, is also needed for robust PVA gene expression. Residue Thr243 within the CK2 consensus sequence of PVA CP was found to be essential for viral replication and to regulate CP protein stability. Substitution of Thr243 either with a phosphorylation-mimicking Asp (CPADA) or with a phosphorylation-deficient Ala (CPAAA) residue in CP expressed from viral RNA limited PVA gene expression to the level of nonreplicating PVA. We found that both the CPAAA mutant and CK2 silencing inhibited, whereas CPADA mutant and overexpression of CK2 increased, PVA translation. From our previous studies, we know that phosphorylation reduces the RNA binding capacity of PVA CP and an excess of CP fully blocks viral RNA translation. Together, these findings suggest that binding by nonphosphorylated PVA CP represses viral RNA translation, involving further CP phosphorylation and CPIP-HSP70 chaperone activities as prerequisites for PVA replication. We propose that this mechanism contributes to shifting potyvirus RNA from translation to replication. IMPORTANCE Host protein kinase CK2, two host chaperones, CPIP and HSP70, and viral coat protein (CP) phosphorylation at Thr243 are needed for potato virus A (PVA) replication. Our results show that nonphosphorylated CP blocks viral translation, likely via binding to viral RNA. We propose that this translational block is needed to allow time and space for the formation of potyviral replication complex around the 3' end of viral RNA. Progression into replication involves CP regulation by both CK2 phosphorylation and chaperones CPIP and HSP70.
  • Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Lu, Aileen; Lee, Sandy Che-Eun S.; Yao, Cindy Q.; Sun, Ren X.; Watson, John D.; Soliymani, Rabah; de Borja, Richard; Wong, Ada; Sam, Michelle; Zuzarte, Philip; McPherson, John D.; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C. (2019)
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates many toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the AHR alone does not explain the widely different outcomes among organisms. To identify the other factors involved, we evaluated three transgenic mouse lines, each expressing a different rat AHR isoform (rWT, DEL, and INS) providing widely different resistance to TCDD toxicity, as well as C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice which exhibit a similar to tenfold divergence in TCDD sensitivity (exposures of 5-1000 mu g/kg TCDD). We supplement these with whole-genome sequencing, together with transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the corresponding rat models, Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W) rats (having a similar to 1000-fold difference in their TCDD sensitivities; 100 mu g/kg TCDD), to identify genes associated with TCDD-response phenotypes. Overall, we identified up to 50% of genes with altered mRNA abundance following TCDD exposure are associated with a single AHR isoform (33.8%, 11.7%, 5.2% and 0.3% of 3076 genes altered unique to rWT, DEL, C57BL/6 and INS respectively following 1000 mu g/kg TCDD). Hepatic Pxdc1 was significantly repressed in all three TCDD-sensitive animal models (C57BL/6 and rWT mice, and L-E rat) after TCDD exposure. Three genes, including Cxxc5, Sugp1 and Hgfac, demonstrated different AHRE-1 (full) motif occurrences within their promoter regions between rat strains, as well as different patterns of mRNA abundance. Several hepatic proteins showed parallel up- or downward alterations with their RNAs, with three genes (SNRK, IGTP and IMPA2) showing consistent, strain-dependent changes. These data show the value of integrating genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic evidence across multi-species models in toxicologic studies.
  • Sah-Teli, Shiv K.; Hynönen, Mikko J.; Schmitz, Werner; Geraets, James A.; Seitsonen, Jani; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Butcher, Sarah J.; Wierenga, Rik K.; Venkatesan, Rajaram (2019)
    The trifunctional enzyme (TFE) catalyzes the last three steps of the fatty acid beta-oxidation cycle. Two TFEs are present in Escherichia coli, EcTFE and anEcTFE. EcTFE is expressed only under aerobic conditions, whereas anEcTFE is expressed also under anaerobic conditions, with nitrate or fumarate as the ultimate electron acceptor. The anEcTFE subunits have higher sequence identity with the human mitochondrial TFE (HsTFE) than with the soluble EcTFE. Like HsTFE, here it is found that anEcTFE is a membrane-bound complex. Systematic enzyme kinetic studies show that anEcTFE has a preference for medium- and long-chain enoyl-CoAs, similar to HsTFE, whereas EcTFE prefers short chain enoyl-CoA substrates. The biophysical characterization of anEcTFE and EcTFE shows that EcTFE is heterotetrameric, whereas anEcTFE is purified as a complex of two heterotetrameric units, like HsTFE. The tetrameric assembly of anEcTFE resembles the HsTFE tetramer, although the arrangement of the two anEcTFE tetramers in the octamer is different from the HsTFE octamer. These studies demonstrate that EcTFE and anEcTFE have complementary substrate specificities, allowing for complete degradation of long-chain enoyl-CoAs under aerobic conditions. The new data agree with the notion that anEcTFE and HsTFE are evolutionary closely related, whereas EcTFE belongs to a separate subfamily.
  • Kulig, Waldemar; Korolainen, Hanna; Zatorska, Maria; Kwolek, Urszula; Wydro, Pawel; Kepczynski, Mariusz; Rog, Tomasz (2019)
    Phosphatidic acids (PAs) have many biological functions in biomembranes, e.g., they are involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and transformation of cells. Despite decades of research, the molecular understanding of how PAs affect the properties of biomembranes remains elusive. In this study, we explored the properties of lipid bilayers and monolayers composed of PAs and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with various acyl chains. For this purpose, the Langmuir monolayer technique and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the miscibility of PA and PC lipids and the molecular organization of mixed bilayers. The monolayer experiments demonstrated that the miscibility of membrane components strongly depends on the structure of the hydrocarbon chains and thus on the overall lipid shape. Interactions between PA and PC molecules vary from repulsive, for systems containing lipids with saturated and unsaturated acyl tails (strongly positive values of the excess free energy of mixing), to attractive, for systems in which all lipid tails are saturated (negative values of the excess free energy of mixing). The MD simulations provided atomistic insight into polar interactions (formation of hydrogen bonds and charge pairs) in PC-PA systems. H-bonding between PA monoanions and PCs in mixed bilayers is infrequent, and the lipid molecules interact mainly via electrostatic interactions. However, the number of charge pairs significantly decreases with the number of unsaturated lipid chains in the PA-PC system. The PA dianions weakly interact with the zwitterionic lipids, but their headgroups are more hydrated as compared to the monoanionic form. The acyl chains in all PC-PA bilayers are more ordered compared to single-component PC systems. In addition, depending on the combination of lipids, we observed a deeper location of the PA phosphate groups compared to the PC phosphate groups, which can alter the presentation of PAs for the peripheral membrane proteins, affecting their accessibility for binding.
  • Vus, Kateryna; Girych, Mykhailo; Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kurutos, Atanas; Vasilev, Aleksey; Gadjev, Nikolai; Deligeorgiev, Todor (2019)
    The potential of novel cyanine dyes to inhibit the insulin amyloid formation was evaluated using thioflavin T fluorescence assay, quantum-chemical calculations, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. According to the ability to suppress the insulin fibrillization under physiological conditions the examined compounds were found to follow the order: trimethines > pentamethines > monomethines > heptamethines. Of these, the trimethines 3-3 and 3-5, and pentamethines 5-3 and 5-9 almost completely prevented the protein aggregation by retarding both nucleation (except 3-3) and elongation processes. The quantum-chemical calculations revealed a complex relationship between the dye structure and its inhibitory effects. The molecular docking studies showed that most cyanines bind specifically to the L17 ladder of the B chain, located at the dry steric zipper of the insulin fibril protofilament, and form the stable complexes with the helices of the insulin monomer. The molecular dynamics simulations provided evidence for the increase of insulin helicity in the presence of cyanines. Collectively, the presented findings highlight two possible mechanisms by which cyanines can inhibit the insulin fibrillization: i) stabilization of the native protein structure followed by the retardation of the protein nucleation (all dyes); and ii) blocking the lateral extension of beta-sheets via the dye-protein stacking interactions (3-3, 3-5, 5-3, 5-9). Overall, the obtained results may prove of importance for the design of small molecules capable of preventing amyloid fibril formation by insulin and other proteins. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ye, Lingling; Wang, Xin; Lyu, Munan; Siligato, Riccardo; Eswaran, Gugan; Vainio, Leo; Blomster, Tiina; Zhang, Jing; Mähönen, Ari Pekka (2021)
    During primary growth, plant tissues increase their length, and as these tissues mature, they initiate secondary growth to increase thickness.(1) It is not known what activates this transition to secondary growth. Cytokinins are key plant hormones regulating vascular development during both primary and secondary growth. During primary growth of Arabidopsis roots, cytokinins promote procambial cell proliferation(2,3) and vascular patterning together with the hormone auxin.(4-7) In the absence of cytokinins, secondary growth fails to initiate.(8) Enhanced cytokinin levels, in turn, promote secondary growth.(8,9) Despite the importance of cytokinins, little is known about the downstream signaling events in this process. Here, we show that cytokinins and a few downstream LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) family of transcription factors are rate limiting components in activating and further promoting secondary growth in Arabidopsis roots. Cytokinins directly activate transcription of two homologous LBD genes, LBD3 and LBD4. Two other homologous LBDs, LBD1 and LBD11, are induced only after prolonged cytokinin treatment. Our genetic studies revealed a two stage mechanism downstream of cytokinin signaling: while LBD3 and LBD4 regulate activation of secondary growth, LBD1, LBD3, LBD4, and LBD11 together promote further radial growth and maintenance of cambial stem cells. LBD overexpression promoted rapid cell growth followed by accelerated cell divisions, thus leading to enhanced secondary growth. Finally, we show that LBDs rapidly inhibit cytokinin signaling. Together, our data suggest that the cambium-promoting LBDs negatively feed back into cytokinin signaling to keep root secondary growth in balance.
  • Skledar, Darja Gramec; Trontelj, Jurij; Troberg, Johanna; Tomašič, Tihomir; Zega, Anamarija; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin (2019)
    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is in the body mainly metabolized to the corresponding bisphenol AF glucuronide (BPAF-G). While BPAF-G is not commercially available, enzyme-assisted synthesis of BPAF-G using the human recombinant enzyme UGT2A1, purification of BPAF-G by solid phase extraction and semi-preparative HPLC and chemical characterization of BPAF-G by NMR and LC-MS/MS were performed and are described here. Furthermore, BPAF glucuronidation kinetics with the UGT enzymes that showed the highest glucuronidation activity in previous studies (i.e hepatic UGTs 1A3, 2B7, and 2B17, intestinal UGT 1A10 and UGT 2A1 that is present in airways) was performed and data is presented. Hepatic enzymes exhibited high affinities toward BPAF, while extrahepatic UGTs 2A1 and 1A10 showed the high v(max), values (3.3 and 3.0 nmol/min/mg, respectively). To understand molecular interactions of BPA, BPAF and BPAF-G with ligand biding sites of several nuclear receptors, molecular modeling was performed and data on the binding modes of BPAF, BPA, and BPAF-G in the ligand-binding sites of nuclear receptors are presented. This article is related to "Endocrine activities and adipogenic effects of bisphenol AF and its main metabolite" (Skledar et al., 2019). (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Hassan, Alaa A.; Aly, Ashraf A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; El Shaieb, Kamal M.; Makhlouf, Maysa M.; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M. N.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Dalby, Kevin N.; Kaoud, Tamer S. (2019)
    A large number of natural products containing the propellane scaffold have been reported to exhibit cytotoxicity against several cancers; however, their mechanism of action is still unknown. Anticancer drugs targeting DNA are mainly composed of small planar molecule/s that can interact with the DNA helix, causing DNA malfunction and cell death. The aim of this study was to design and synthesize propellane derivatives that can act as DNA intercalators and/or groove binders. The unique structure of the propellane derivatives and their ability to display planar ligands with numerous possible geometries, renders them potential starting points to design new drugs targeting DNA in cancer cells. New substituted furo-imidazo[3.3.3]propellanes were synthesized via the reaction of substituted alkenylidene-hydrazinecarbothioamides with 2-(1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydr- 1H-2-ylidene) propanedinitrile in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The structures of the products were confirmed by a combination of elemental analysis, NMR, ESI-MS, IR and single crystal X-ray analysis. Interestingly, 5c, 5d and 5f showed an ability to interact with Calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Their DNA-binding mode was investigated using a combination of absorption spectroscopy, DNA melting, viscosity, CD spectroscopy measurements, as well as competitive binding studies with several dyes. Their cytotoxicity was evaluated against the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines. 5c, 5d and 5f exhibited similar anti-proliferative activity against the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. Further mechanistic studies revealed their ability to induce DNA damage in the A549 cell line, as well as apoptosis, evidenced by elevated Annexin V expression, enhanced caspase 3/7 activation and PARP cleavage. In this study, we present the potential for designing novel propellanes to provoke cytotoxic activity, likely through DNA binding-induced DNA damage and apoptosis.
  • Cascone, Annunziata; Bruelle, Celine; Lindholm, Dan; Bernardi, Paolo; Eriksson-Rosenberg, Ove (2012)
  • Vaughan, Danielle; Kretz, Oliver; Alqallaf, Ali; Mitchell, Robert; von der Heide, Jennie L.; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Matsakas, Antonios; Pasternack, Arja; Collins-Hooper, Henry; Ritvos, Olli; Ballesteros, Randy; Huber, Tobias B.; Amthor, Helge; Mukherjee, Abir; Patel, Ketan (2020)
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a devastating disease caused by the absence of a functional rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein called dystrophin. Several avenues are being developed aimed to restore dystrophin expression in boys affected by this X-linked disease. However, its complete cure is likely to need combinational approaches which may include regimes aimed at restoring muscle mass. Augmenting muscle growth through the manipulation of the Myostatin/Activin signalling axis has received much attention. However, we have recently shown that while manipulation of this axis in wild type mice using the sActRIIB ligand trap indeed results in muscle growth, it also had a detrimental impact on the testis. Here we examined the impact of administering a powerful Myostatin/Activin antagonist in two mouse models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. We report that whilst the impact on muscle growth was not always positive, both models showed attenuated testis development. Sperm number, motility and ultrastructure were significantly affected by the sActRIIB treatment. Our report suggests that interventions based on Myostatin/Activin should investigate off-target effects on tissues as well as muscle.
  • Välimäki, Mika J.; Tölli, Maria A.; Kinnunen, Sini M.; Aro, Jani; Serpi, Raisa; Pohjolainen, Lotta; Talman, Virpi; Poso, Antti; Ruskoaho, Heikki J. (2017)
    Transcription factors are pivotal regulators of gene transcription, and many diseases are associated with the deregulation of transcriptional networks. In the heart, the transcription factors GATA4 and NKX2-5 are required for cardiogenesis. GATA4 and NKX2-5 interact physically, and the activation of GATA4, in cooperation with NKX2-5, is essential for stretch-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, we report the identification of four small molecule families that either inhibit or enhance the GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy. A fragment-based screening, reporter gene assay, and pharmacophore search were utilized for the small molecule screening, identification, and optimization. The compounds modulated the hypertrophic agonist-induced cardiac gene expression. The most potent hit compound, N-[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]-5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (3, IC50 = 3 mu M), exhibited no activity on the protein kinases involved in the regulation of GATA4 phosphorylation. The identified and chemically and biologically characterized active compound, and its derivatives may provide a novel class of small molecules for modulating heart regeneration.
  • Heilkkinen, Emma M.; Auriola, Seppo; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Grey, Angus C.; del Amo, Eva M.; Toropainen, Elisa; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2019)
    Lens is the avascular tissue in the eye between the aqueous humor and vitreous. Drug binding to the lens might affect ocular pharmacokinetics, and the binding may also have a pharmacological role in drug-induced cataract and cataract treatment. Drug distribution in the lens has been studied in vitro with many compounds; however, the experimental methods vary, no detailed information on distribution between the lens sublayers exist, and the partition coefficients are reported rarely. Therefore, our objectives were to clarify drug localization in the lens layers and establish partition coefficients for a wide range of molecules. Furthermore, we aimed to illustrate the effect of lenticular drug binding on overall ocular drug pharmacokinetics. We studied the distribution of 16 drugs and three fluorescent dyes in whole porcine lenses in vitro with imaging mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques. Furthermore, we determined lens/buffer partition coefficients with the same experimental setup for 28 drugs with mass spectrometry. Finally, the effect of lenticular binding of drugs on aqueous humor drug exposure was explored with pharmacokinetic simulations. After 4 h, the drugs and the dyes distributed only to the outermost lens layers (capsule and cortex). The lens/buffer partition coefficients for the drugs were low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.8. On the basis of the pharmacokinetic simulations, a high lens-aqueous humor partition coefficient increases drug exposure in the lens but does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor. To conclude, the lens seems to act mainly as a physical barrier for drug distribution in the eye, and drug binding to the lens affects mainly the drug pharmacokinetics in the lens.
  • Tang, Jing; Tanoli, Zia-ur-Rehman; Ravikumar, Balaguru; Alam, Zaid; Rebane, Anni; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Peddinti, Gopal; van Adrichem, Arjan J.; Wakkinen, Janica; Jaiswal, Alok; Karjalainen, Ella; Gautam, Prson; He, Liye; Parri, Elina; Khan, Suleiman; Gupta, Abhishekh; Ali, Mehreen; Yetukuri, Laxman; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Hersey, Anne; Leach, Andrew R.; Overington, John P.; Repasky, Gretchen; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2018)
    Knowledge of the full target space of bioactive substances, approved and investigational drugs as well as chemical probes, provides important insights into therapeutic potential and possible adverse effects. The existing compound-target bioactivity data resources are often incomparable due to non-standardized and heterogeneous assay types and variability in endpoint measurements. To extract higher value from the existing and future compound target-profiling data, we implemented an open-data web platform, named Drug Target Commons (DTC), which features tools for crowd-sourced compound-target bioactivity data annotation, standardization, curation, and intra-resource integration. We demonstrate the unique value of DTC with several examples related to both drug discovery and drug repurposing applications and invite researchers to join this community effort to increase the reuse and extension of compound bioactivity data.
  • Srinivasan, Vignesh; Bruelle, Celine; Scifo, Enzo; Pham, Dan Duc; Soliymani, Rabah; Lalowski, Maciej; Lindholm, Dan Bj (2020)
    USP14 is a deubiquitinating enzyme associated with the proteasome that is important for protein degradation. Here we show that upon proteasomal inhibition or expression of the mutant W58A38 USP14, association of USP14 with the 19S regulatory particle is disrupted. MS-based interactomics revealed an interaction of USP14 with the chaperone, HSC70 in neuroblastoma cells. Proteasome inhibition enhanced binding of USP14 to HSC70, but also to XBP1u and IRE1α proteins, demonstrating a role in the unfolded protein response. Striatal neurons expressing mutant huntingtin exhibited reduced USP14 and HSC70 levels, whilst inhibition of HSC70 downregulated USP14. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition or the use of mutant W58A-USP14 facilitated the interaction of USP14 with the autophagy protein, GABARAP. Functionally, overexpression of W58A-USP14 increased GABARAP positive autophagosomes in striatal neurons and this was abrogated using the HSC70 inhibitor, VER-155008. Modulation of the USP14-HSC70 axis by various drugs may represent a potential therapeutic target in HD to beneficially influence multiple proteostasis pathways
  • Grabon, Aby; Orlowski, Adam; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Vuorio, Joni; Javanainen, Matti; Rog, Tomasz; Lönnfors, Max; McDermott, Mark I.; Siebert, Garland; Somerharju, Pentti; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Bankaitis, Vytas A. (2017)
    Phosphatidylinositol-transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. The defining feature of PITPs is their ability to exchange phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules between membranes, and this property is central to PITP-mediated regulation of lipid signaling. However, the details of the PITP-mediated lipid exchange cycle remain entirely obscure. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the mammalian StART-like PtdIns/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein PITP alpha, both on membrane bilayers and in solvated systems, informed downstream biochemical analyses that tested key aspects of the hypotheses generated by the molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provided five key insights into the PITP alpha lipid exchange cycle: (i) interaction of PITP alpha with the membrane is spontaneous and mediated by four specific protein substructures; (ii) the ability of PITP alpha to initiate closure around the PtdCho ligand is accompanied by loss of flexibility of two helix/loop regions, as well as of the C-terminal helix; (iii) the energy barrier of phospholipid extraction from the membrane is lowered by a network of hydrogen bonds between the lipid molecule and PITP alpha; (iv) the trajectory of PtdIns or PtdCho into and through the lipidbinding pocket is chaperoned by sets of PITP alpha residues conserved throughout the StART-like PITP family; and (v) conformational transitions in the C-terminal helix have specific functional involvements in PtdIns transfer activity. Taken together, these findings provide the first mechanistic description of key aspects of the PITP alpha PtdIns/PtdCho exchange cycle and offer a rationale for the high conservation of particular sets of residues across evolutionarily distant members of the metazoan StART-like PITP family.
  • Zhang, Xue; Viitala, Tapani; Harjumäki, Riina; Kartal-Hodzic, Alma; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Österberg, Monika (2021)
    The development of in vitro cell models that mimic cell behavior in organs and tissues is an approach that may have remarkable impact on drug testing and tissue engineering applications in the future. Plant based, chemically unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) hydrogel is a natural, abundant, and biocompatible material that has attracted great attention for biomedical applications, in particular for threedimensional cell cultures. However, the mechanisms of cell-CNF interactions and factors that affect these interactions are not yet fully understood. In this work, multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to study how the adsorption of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells on CNF films is affected by the different proteins and components of the cell medium. Both human recombinant laminin 521 (LN-521, a natural protein of the extracellular matrix) and poly -L-lysine (PLL) adsorbed on CNF films and enhanced the attachment of HepG2 cells. Cell medium components (glucose and amino acids) and serum proteins (fetal bovine serum, FBS) also adsorbed on both bare CNF and on protein-coated CNF substrates. However, the adsorption of FBS hindered the attachment of HepG2 cells to LN-521and PLLcoated CNF substrates, suggesting that serum proteins blocked the formation of laminin-integrin bonds and decreased favorable PLL-cell electrostatic interactions. This work sheds light on the effect of different factors on cell attachment to CNF, paving the way for the utilization and optimization of CNF-based materials for different tissue engineering applications. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Hyvarinen, Anne K.; Kumanto, Mona K.; Marjavaara, Sanna K.; Jacobs, Howard T. (2010)
  • Anwar, Tahira; Liu, Xiaonan; Suntio, Taina; Marjamäki, Annika; Biazik, Joanna; Chan, Edmond Y. W.; Varjosalo, Markku; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa (2019)
    Autophagy transports cytoplasmic material and organelles to lysosomes for degradation and recycling. Beclin 1 forms a complex with several other autophagy proteins and functions in the initiation phase of autophagy, but the exact role of Beclin 1 subcellular localization in autophagy initiation is still unclear. In order to elucidate the role of Beclin 1 localization in autophagosome biogenesis, we generated constructs that target Beclin 1 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondria. Our results confirmed the proper organelle-specific targeting of the engineered Beclin 1 constructs, and the proper formation of autophagy-regulatory Beclin 1 complexes. The ULK kinases are required for autophagy initiation upstream of Beclin 1, and autophagosome biogenesis is severely impaired in ULK1/ULK2 double knockout cells. We tested whether Beclin 1 targeting facilitated its ability to rescue autophagosome formation in ULK1/ULK2 double knockout cells. ER-targeted Beclin 1 was most effective in the rescue experiments, while mitochondria-targeted and non-targeted Beclin 1 also showed an ability to rescue, but with lower activity. However, none of the constructs was able to increase autophagic flux in the knockout cells. We also showed that wild type Beclin 1 was enriched on the ER during autophagy induction, and that ULK1/ULK2 facilitated the ER-enrichment of Beclin 1 under basal conditions. The results suggest that one of the functions of ULK kinases may be to enhance Beclin 1 recruitment to the ER to drive autophagosome formation.