Browsing by Subject "BIRTH COHORT"

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  • Kujala, Urho M.; Palviainen, Teemu; Pesonen, Paula; Waller, Katja; Sillanpää, Elina; Niemelä, Maisa; Kangas, Maarit; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Sievänen, Harri; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo; Männikkö, Minna; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Purpose Polygenic risk scores (PRS) summarize genome-wide genotype data into a single variable that produces an individual-level risk score for genetic liability. PRS has been used for prediction of chronic diseases and some risk factors. As PRS has been studied less for physical activity (PA), we constructed PRS for PA and studied how much variation in PA can be explained by this PRS in independent population samples. Methods We calculated PRS for self-reported and objectively measured PA using UK Biobank genome-wide association study summary statistics, and analyzed how much of the variation in self-reported (MET-hours per day) and measured (steps and moderate-to-vigorous PA minutes per day) PA could be accounted for by the PRS in the Finnish Twin Cohorts (FTC;N= 759-11,528) and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966;N= 3263-4061). Objective measurement of PA was done with wrist-worn accelerometer in UK Biobank and NFBC1966 studies, and with hip-worn accelerometer in the FTC. Results The PRS accounted from 0.07% to 1.44% of the variation (R-2) in the self-reported and objectively measured PA volumes (Pvalue range = 0.023 to
  • Eriksson, Johan G.; Venojarvi, Mika; Osmond, Clive (2016)
    Several noncommunicable diseases have their origins in early developmental phases. One factor possibly explaining the association between early growth and later health could be adipocyte function. The objective of this study was to assess the association between the adipocytokine chemerin and early growth and later health. 1074 participants from Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born 19341944 with information on prenatal and childhood growth participated. Metabolic outcomes include glucose tolerance, adiposity, and chemerin concentration. Mean chemerin concentrations were 5.0 ng/mL higher in women than in men (95% CI 2.7 to 7.2, P <0.001). The strongest correlate of chemerin concentration was adult waist circumference and body fat percentage (r = 0.22, P <0.001 and r= 0.21, P <0.001, resp.). After adjustment for body fat percentage, chemerin concentration was 5.4 ng/mL lower in subjects with type 2 diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance (-0.2 to 10.9, P = 0.06). It was 3.0 ng/mL higher in those with metabolic syndrome than in those without (0.6 to 5.3, P = 0.01). No measure of early growth was associated with chemerin concentration. Our findings do not support a role for chemerin in linking early growth with later metabolic health.
  • Rosenholm, Marko; Paro, Emmi; Antila, Hanna; Voikar, Vootele; Rantamäki, Tomi (2017)
    Brain development is a complex process regulated by genetic programs and activity-dependent neuronal connectivity. Anesthetics profoundly alter neuronal excitability, and anesthesia during early brain development has been consistently associated with neuroapoptosis, altered synaptogenesis, and persistent behavioral abnormalities in experimental animals. However, the depth, and even more the duration and developmental time point(s) of exposure to anesthesia determine the neuropathological and long-term behavioral consequences of anesthetics. Here, we have investigated adulthood phenotypic changes induced by repeated but brief (30 min) isoflurane anesthesia delivered during two distinct developmental periods in male mice. A set of animals were subjected to anesthesia treatments at postnatal days 7, 8 and 9 (P7-9) when the animals are susceptible to anesthesia-induced neuroapoptosis and reduced synaptogenesis. To control the potential influence of (handling) stress, a separate group of animals underwent repeated maternal separations of similar durations. Another set of animals were exposed to the same treatments at postnatal days 15, 16 and 17 (P15-17), a developmental time period when anesthetics have been shown to increase synaptogenesis. Starting from postnatal week 9 the mouse phenotype was evaluated using a battery of behavioral tests that assess general locomotor activity (home cage activity, open field), learning and memory (water maze) and depression- (saccharin preference, forced swim test), anxiety- (light-dark box, stress-induced hyperthermia) and schizophrenia- (nesting, prepulse inhibition) related endophenotypes. Apart from mild impairment in spatial navigation memory, exposure to anesthesia treatments during P7-9 did not bring obvious behavioral alterations in adult animals. Importantly, maternal separation during the same developmental period produced a very similar phenotype during the water maze. Mice exposed to anesthesia during P15-17 showed mild hyperactivity and risk-taking behavior in adulthood, but were otherwise normal. We conclude that significantly longer administration periods are needed in order for early-life repeated exposures to anesthetics to produce behavioral alterations in adult mice.
  • Bornelov, Susanne; Saaf, Annika; Melen, Erik; Bergstrom, Anna; Moghadam, Behrooz Torabi; Pulkkinen, Ville; Acevedo, Nathalie; Pietras, Christina Orsmark; Ege, Markus; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Riedler, Josef; Doekes, Gert; Kabesch, Michael; van Hage, Marianne; Kere, Juha; Scheynius, Annika; Soderhall, Cilla; Pershagen, Goran; Komorowski, Jan (2013)
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Eila; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate, in women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the number and incidence of induced abortions (= pregnancy terminations performed by a physician), their demographic characteristics, use of contraceptives, plus indications of and complications related to pregnancy termination. Methods: Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women born between the years 19651980 who were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder during the follow-up period ending 31.122013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth- matched controls were obtained from the Population Register of Finland. Information about births and induced abortions were obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Induced Abortion Register. Results: The number and incidence of induced abortions per 1000 follow-up years did not differ between cases and their controls. However, due to fewer pregnancies, cases exhibited an over 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy termination (RR 228; 95% CI 2.20-2.36). Cases were younger, were more often without a partner at the time of induced abortion, and their pregnancies resulted more often from a lack of contraception. Among cases, the indication for pregnancy termination was more often mother-to-be's medical condition. Induced abortions after 12 weeks gestation were more common among cases. However, cases had no more complications related to termination. Conclusions: The incidence of induced abortions among Finnish women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is similar to the general population, but their risk per pregnancy over two-fold. They need effective, affordable family planning services and long-term premeditated contraception. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Arrhenius, Bianca; Gyllenberg, David; Chudal, Roshan; Lehti, Venla; Sucksdorff, Minna; Sourander, Ona; Virtanen, Juha-Pekka; Torsti, Jutta; Sourander, Andre (2018)
    Background: Broadly defined learning and coordination disorders (LCDs) are common in the population and have previously been associated with familial social risk factors and male sex. However, comprehensive nationwide studies of these risk factors in LCD subgroups are lacking. Our objective was to assess different LCDs in relation to sex and maternal education, marital status and socioeconomic status based on occupation. Methods: We conducted a nationwide register-based study. The following diagnoses were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) according to the ICD-10 (n = 28,192): speech disorders (F80), scholastic disorders (F81), motor and coordination disorders (F82) and mixed developmental disorder (F83). To study cumulative incidence and male: female ratios of service use of LCDs, we used a cohort design among all Finnish children born singleton 1996-2007 (n = 690,654); to study social risk factors, we used a nested case-control design with extensive register data on both cases and matched controls (n = 106,616). Results: The cumulative incidence was 4.7% for any LCD by age 15 and the changes in cumulative incidence over time were minor. The male: female ratios were 2.2-3.0 across LCD subgroups. Learning and coordination disorders were more common in households with lower maternal education, socioeconomic status based on occupation and among children with single mothers at the time of birth; the odds ratios (OR) for any LCD were 1.2-1.9 across risk factors. The odds for LCD diagnosis increased linearly with the number of social risk factors, except for coordination disorder. The effect size of three risk factors was highest in the group with mixed or multiple LCDs; OR 3.76 (95% CI 3.31-4.28). Conclusions: Multiple social risk factors increase the odds for multiple, more comprehensive learning difficulties. The findings have implications for service planning, as early identification and interventions of learning and coordination disorders might reduce related long-term social adversities.
  • Wessman, Jaana; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Parviainen, Pekka; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Koiranen, Markku; Ekelund, Jesper; Laitinen, Jaana; Taanila, Anja; Tammelin, Tuija; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Joukamaa, Matti; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Freimer, Nelson; Palotie, Leena; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina (2012)
  • Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2012)
  • Orlando, Giulia; Law, Philip J.; Palin, Kimmo; Tuupanen, Sari; Gylfe, Alexandra; Hanninen, Ulrika A.; Cajuso, Tatiana; Tanskanen, Tomas; Kondelin, Johanna; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, Johan G.; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Pukkala, Eero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Järvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Lepisto, Anna; Bohm, Jan; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Palles, Claire; Martin, Lynn; Barclay, Ella; Tenesa, Albert; Farrington, Susan; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Meyer, Brian F.; Wakil, Salma M.; Campbell, Harry; Smith, Christopher G.; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maughan, Timothy S.; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Win, Aung Ko; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Taipale, Jussi; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Houlston, Richard S. (2016)
    To identify new risk loci for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with independent replication, totalling 13 656 CRC cases and 21 667 controls of European ancestry. The combined analysis identified a new risk association for CRC at 2q35 marked by rs992157 (P = 3.15 x 10(-8), odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.13), which is intronic to PNKD (paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia) and TMBIM1 (transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1). Intriguingly this susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.90, D' = 0.96) with the previously discovered GWAS SNP rs2382817 for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Following on from this observation we examined for pleiotropy, or shared genetic susceptibility, between CRC and the 200 established IBD risk loci, identifying an additional 11 significant associations (false discovery rate [FDR]) <0.05). Our findings provide further insight into the biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC, and identify risk factors that may influence the development of both CRC and IBD.