Browsing by Subject "BIRTH-WEIGHT"

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  • Kumpulainen, Satu M.; Heinonen, Kati; Kaseva, Nina; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Wolke, Dieter; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Background Maternal early pregnancy overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) are associated with mental and physical health adversities in the offspring. Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been put forward as one of the mechanisms that may play pathophysiological role. However, evidence linking maternal overweight and obesity with offspring HPA-axis activity is scarce. We studied if maternal early pregnancy BMI is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol, a marker of HPA-axis activity, in young adult offspring. Methods At a mean age of 25.3 (standard deviation [SD) = 0.6) years, 653 Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study participants collected saliva samples for cortisol analyses, at awakening, 15 and 30 min thereafter, 10:30AM, 12:00PM, 5:30PM and at bedtime. Maternal BMI was calculated from weight and height verified by a measurement in the first antenatal clinic visit before 12 weeks of gestation derived from healthcare records. Results Per each one kg/m(2) higher maternal early pregnancy BMI offspring diurnal average salivary cortisol was -1.4% (95% CI:-2.6, -0.2, p(FDR) = 0.033) lower, at awakening it was -2.4% (95% CI:-4.0, -0.7, p(FDR) = 0.025) lower and the morning average salivary cortisol was -2.0% (95% CI:-3.4,-0.5, p(FDR) = 0.017) lower. These associations were independent of the offspring's own young adulthood BMI, and other important covariates. Conclusion Our findings show that young adult offspring born to mothers with higher early pregnancy BMI show lower average levels of diurnal cortisol, especially in the morning. Whether these findings reflect prenatal programming of the offspring HPA-axis activity warrants further investigation.
  • Mina, Theresia H.; Lahti, Marius; Drake, Amanda J.; Forbes, Shareen; Denison, Fiona C.; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2017)
    Prenatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has long term implications for offspring health. Biological mechanisms underlying programming of the offspring HPA axis are poorly understood. We hypothesised that altered maternal metabolism including higher maternal obesity, glucose and lipids are novel programming factors for altered offspring HPA axis activity. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 54 children aged 3-5 years under experimental conditions (before and after a delay of self-gratification test). Associations of child cortisol responses with maternal obesity in early pregnancy and with fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol measured in each pregnancy trimester were tested. Higher levels of maternal triglycerides and total cholesterol throughout pregnancy were associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity. The associations were independent of maternal obesity and other confounders, suggesting that exposure to maternal lipids could be a biological mechanism of in utero programming of the offspring's HPA axis.
  • Kaseva, Nina; Vääräsmaki, Marja; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Sipola, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kanerva, Noora; Heinonen, Kati; Lano, Aulikki; Wolke, Dieter; Andersson, Sture; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Männistö, Satu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Background/Objectives Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with increased fat deposition in adult offspring. The purpose of this study was to identify if maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)) or GDM are associated with dietary quality or intake in adult offspring. Subjects/Methods Participants (n = 882) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study) completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a mean age of 24.2 years (SD 1.3). Diet quality was evaluated by a Recommended Finnish Diet Index (RDI). The study sample included offspring of normoglycaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO = 155), offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of BMI (OGDM = 190) and offspring of mothers with normal weight and no GDM (controls;n = 537). Results Among men, daily energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in ONO and controls. However, after adjusting for current offspring characteristics, including BMI, daily carbohydrate intake relative to total energy intake was higher in ONO-men [2.2 percentages of total energy intake (95% confidence interval 0.4, 4.0)]. In ONO-women, macronutrient intakes relative to total energy intake were similar with controls, while total daily energy intake seemed lower [-587.2 kJ/day (-1192.0, 4.4)]. After adjusting for confounders, this difference was attenuated. Adherence to a healthy diet, as measured by RDI, was similar in ONO and controls [mean difference: men 0.40 (-0.38, 1.18); women 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00)]. In OGDM vs. controls, total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar for both men and women. Also adherence to a healthy diet was similar [RDI: men 0.09 (-0.62, 0.80); women -0.17 (-0.93, 0.59)]. Conclusions Our study suggested higher daily carbohydrate intake in male offspring exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, compared with controls. Prenatal exposure to GDM was not associated with adult offspring dietary intakes.
  • Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Alenius, Suvi; Näsänen-Gilmore, Pieta; Nurhonen, Markku; Haaramo, Peija; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Gissler, Mika; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero (2021)
    Objective Being born preterm is related to adverse health effects later in life. We studied whether preterm birth predicts the risk of migraine. Methods In this nationwide register study, we linked data from six administrative registers for all 235,624 children live-born in Finland (January 1987 to September 1990) and recorded in the Finnish Medical Birth Register. n = 228,610 (97.0%) had adequate data and were included. Migraine served as primary outcome variable and was stringently defined as a diagnosis from specialised health care and/or >= 2 reimbursed purchases of triptans. We applied sex- and birth year-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute hazard ratios and confidence intervals (95% confidence intervals) for the association between preterm categories and migraine. The cohort was followed up until an average age of 25.1 years (range: 23.3-27.0). Results Among individuals born extremely preterm (23-27 completed weeks of gestation), the adjusted hazard ratios for migraine was 0.55 (0.25-1.24) when compared with the full-term reference group (39-41 weeks). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the other preterm categories were: Very preterm (28-31 weeks); 0.95 (0.68-1.31), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks); 0.96 (0.73-1.27), late preterm (34-36 weeks); 1.01 (0.91-1.11), early term (37-38 weeks); 0.98 (0.93-1.03), and post term (42 weeks); 0.98 (0.89-1.08). Migraine was predicted by parental migraine, lower socioeconomic position, maternal hypertensive disorder and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion We found no evidence for a higher risk of migraine among individuals born preterm.
  • Risnes, Kari; Bilsteen, Josephine Funck; Brown, Paul; Pulakka, Anna; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Opdahl, Signe; Kajantie, Eero; Sandin, Sven (2021)
    IMPORTANCE Adverse long-term outcomes in individuals born before full gestation are not confined to individuals born at extreme gestational ages. Little is known regarding mortality patterns among individuals born in the weeks close to ideal gestation, and the exact causes are not well understood; both of these are crucial for public health, with the potential for modification of risk. OBJECTIVE To examine the risk of all-cause and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) deaths among young adults born preterm and early term. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multinational population-based cohort study used nationwide birth cohorts from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland for individuals born between 1967 and 2002. Individuals identified at birth who had not died or emigrated were followed up for mortality from age 15 years to 2017. Analyses were performed from June 2019 to May 2020. EXPOSURES Categories of gestational age (ie, moderate preterm birth and earlier [23-33 weeks], late preterm [34-36 weeks], early term [37-38 weeks], full term [39-41 weeks] and post term [42-44 weeks]). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality from NCD, defined as cancer, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS A total of 6 263 286 individuals were followed up for mortality from age 15 years. Overall, 339 403 (5.4%) were born preterm, and 3 049 100 (48.7%) were women. Compared with full-term birth, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for all-cause mortality were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.34-1.55) for moderate preterm birth and earlier; 1.23 (95% CI, 1.18-1.29) for late preterm birth; and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09-1.15) for early-term birth. The association between gestational age and all-cause mortality were stronger in women than in men (P for interaction = .03). Preterm birth was associated with 2-fold increased risks of death from CVD (aHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.47), diabetes (aHR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.44-2.73), and chronic lung disease (aHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.36-3.82). The main associations were replicated across countries and could not be explained by familial or individual confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings of this study strengthen the evidence of increased risk of death from NCDs in young adults born preterm. Importantly, the increased death risk was found across gestational ages up to the ideal term date and includes the much larger group with early-term birth. Excess mortality associated with shorter gestational age was most pronounced for CVDs, chronic lung disease, and diabetes.
  • Ellfolk, Maria; Leinonen, Maarit K.; Gissler, Mika; Lahesmaa-Korpinen, Anna-Maria; Saastamoinen, Leena; Nurminen, Marja-Leena; Malm, Heli (2020)
    Purpose To study if second-generation antipsychotic (S-GA) use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy and neonatal complications. Methods A population-based birth cohort study using national register data extracted from the "Drugs and Pregnancy" database in Finland, years 1996-2016. The sampling frame included 1,181,090 pregnant women and their singleton births. Women were categorized into three groups: exposed to S-GAs during pregnancy (n = 4225), exposed to first-generation antipsychotics (F-GAs) during pregnancy (n = 1576), and unexposed (no purchases of S-GAs or F-GAs during pregnancy, n = 21,125). Pregnancy outcomes in S-GA users were compared with those in the two comparison groups using multiple logistic regression models. Results Comparing S-GA users with unexposed ones, the risk was increased for gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.25-1.65), cesarean section (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.18-1.53), being born large for gestational age (LGA) (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.14-2.16), and preterm birth (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62). The risk for these outcomes increased further with continuous S-GA use. Infants in the S-GA group were also more likely to suffer from neonatal complications. Comparing S-GA users with the F-GA group, the risk of cesarean section and LGA was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.51; and OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.20-2.99, respectively). Neonatal complications did not differ between the S-GA and F-GA groups. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to S-GAs is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications related to impaired glucose metabolism. Neonatal problems are common and occur similarly in S-GA and F-GA users.
  • Oliviero, Claudio; Junnikkala, Sami; Peltoniemi, Olli (2019)
    The use of hyperprolific sow lines has increased litter size considerably in the last three decades. Nowadays, in some countries litters can reach up to 18-20 piglets being a major challenge for the sow's physiology during pregnancy, parturition and lactation. The increased number of piglets born per litter prolongs sensibly the duration of farrowing, decreases the piglets' average weight at birth and their vitality, increases the competition for colostrum intake and can affect negatively piglets' survival. This review aims to describe how large litters can affect the immune system of the sow and the piglets and proposes measures to improve this condition.
  • Early Genetics Lifecourse; EGG Consortium; EGG Membership; EAGLE Membership; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Auvinen, Juha; Eriksson, Johan G.; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lahti, Jari; Palviainen, Teemu; Strandberg, Timo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth E. (2019)
    The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.
  • LifeCycle Project Group; Pinot de Moira, Angela; Haakma, Sido; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie (2021)
    The Horizon2020 LifeCycle Project is a cross-cohort collaboration which brings together data from multiple birth cohorts from across Europe and Australia to facilitate studies on the influence of early-life exposures on later health outcomes. A major product of this collaboration has been the establishment of a FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable) data resource known as the EU Child Cohort Network. Here we focus on the EU Child Cohort Network’s core variables. These are a set of basic variables, derivable by the majority of participating cohorts and frequently used as covariates or exposures in lifecourse research. First, we describe the process by which the list of core variables was established. Second, we explain the protocol according to which these variables were harmonised in order to make them interoperable. Third, we describe the catalogue developed to ensure that the network’s data are findable and reusable. Finally, we describe the core data, including the proportion of variables harmonised by each cohort and the number of children for whom harmonised core data are available. EU Child Cohort Network data will be analysed using a federated analysis platform, removing the need to physically transfer data and thus making the data more accessible to researchers. The network will add value to participating cohorts by increasing statistical power and exposure heterogeneity, as well as facilitating cross-cohort comparisons, cross-validation and replication. Our aim is to motivate other cohorts to join the network and encourage the use of the EU Child Cohort Network by the wider research community.
  • LifeCycle Project Grp; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Duijts, Liesbeth (2020)
    Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that exposure to adverse stressors during early life leads to developmental adaptations, which subsequently affect disease risk in later life. Also, geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic differences are related to health inequalities from early life onwards. To address these important public health challenges, many European pregnancy and childhood cohorts have been established over the last 30 years. The enormous wealth of data of these cohorts has led to important new biological insights and important impact for health from early life onwards. The impact of these cohorts and their data could be further increased by combining data from different cohorts. Combining data will lead to the possibility of identifying smaller effect estimates, and the opportunity to better identify risk groups and risk factors leading to disease across the lifecycle across countries. Also, it enables research on better causal understanding and modelling of life course health trajectories. The EU Child Cohort Network, established by the Horizon2020-funded LifeCycle Project, brings together nineteen pregnancy and childhood cohorts, together including more than 250,000 children and their parents. A large set of variables has been harmonised and standardized across these cohorts. The harmonized data are kept within each institution and can be accessed by external researchers through a shared federated data analysis platform using the R-based platform DataSHIELD, which takes relevant national and international data regulations into account. The EU Child Cohort Network has an open character. All protocols for data harmonization and setting up the data analysis platform are available online. The EU Child Cohort Network creates great opportunities for researchers to use data from different cohorts, during and beyond the LifeCycle Project duration. It also provides a novel model for collaborative research in large research infrastructures with individual-level data. The LifeCycle Project will translate results from research using the EU Child Cohort Network into recommendations for targeted prevention strategies to improve health trajectories for current and future generations by optimizing their earliest phases of life.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H.; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, Jose Antonio; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkila, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G.; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H.; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2015)
    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.