Browsing by Subject "BODY-COMPOSITION"

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  • Christensen, Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Poppitt, Sally; Hansen, Sylvia; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Pastor-Sanz, Laura; Sando-Pedersen, Finn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Sundvall, Jouko; Drummen, Mathijs; Taylor, Moira A.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Brodie, Shannon; Silvestre, Marta P.; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne (2018)
    Aims Materials and methods The PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study ( Identifier: NCT01777893) is, to date, the largest, multinational study concerning prevention of type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the initial, fixed low-energy diet (LED) would induce different metabolic outcomes in men vs women. All participants followed a LED (3.4 MJ/810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks (Cambridge Weight Plan). Participants were recruited from 8 sites in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Those eligible for inclusion were overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) individuals with pre-diabetes according to ADA-criteria. Outcomes of interest included changes in insulin resistance, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and metabolic syndrome Z-score. Results Conclusions In total, 2224 individuals (1504 women, 720 men) attended the baseline visit and 2020 (90.8%) completed the follow-up visit. Following the LED, weight loss was 16% greater in men than in women (11.8% vs 10.3%, respectively) but improvements in insulin resistance were similar. HOMA-IR decreased by 1.50 +/- 0.15 in men and by 1.35 +/- 0.15 in women (ns). After adjusting for differences in weight loss, men had larger reductions in metabolic syndrome Z-score, C-peptide, FM and heart rate, while women had larger reductions in HDL cholesterol, FFM, hip circumference and pulse pressure. Following the LED, 35% of participants of both genders had reverted to normo-glycaemia. An 8-week LED induced different effects in women than in men. These findings are clinically important and suggest gender-specific changes after weight loss. It is important to investigate whether the greater decreases in FFM, hip circumference and HDL cholesterol in women after rapid weight loss compromise weight loss maintenance and future cardiovascular health.
  • Kangas, Reeta; Morsiani, Cristina; Pizza, Grazia; Lanzarini, Catia; Aukee, Pauliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Franceschi, Claudio; Kovanen, Vuokko; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Capri, Miriam (2018)
    Tissue-specific effects of 17 beta-estradiol are delivered via both estrogen receptors and microRNAs (miRs). Menopause is known to affect the whole-body fat distribution in women. This investigation aimed at identifying menopause-and hormone replacement therapy (HRT)-associated miR profiles and miR targets in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and serum from the same women. A discovery phase using array technology was performed in 13 women, including monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HRT and premenopausal young controls. Seven miRs, expressed in both adipose tissue and serum, were selected for validation phase in 34 women from a different cohort. An age/menopause-related increase of miRs-16-5p, -451a, -223-3p, -18a-5p, -19a-3p,-486-5p and -363-3p was found in the adipose tissue, but not in serum. MiR-19a-3p, involved in adipocyte development and estrogen signaling, resulted to be higher in HRT users in comparison with non-users. Among the identified targets, AKT1, BCL-2 and BRAF proteins showed lower expression in both HRT and No HRT users in comparison with premenopausal women. Unexpectedly, ESR1 protein expression was not modified although its mRNA was lower in No HRT users compared to premenopausal women and HRT users. Thus, both HRT and menopause appear to affect adipose tissue homeostasis via miR-mediated mechanism.
  • Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Mäkitie, Outi; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kajantie, Eero (2011)
  • Schreier, Nadja; Moltchanova, Elena; Forsen, Tom; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2013)
  • Paldanius, Päivi M.; Ivaska, Kaisa K.; Mäkitie, Outi; Viljakainen, Heli (2021)
    Children and adolescents have high bone turnover marker (BTM) levels due to high growth velocity and rapid bone turnover. Pediatric normative values for BTMs reflecting bone formation and resorption are vital for timely assessment of healthy bone turnover, investigating skeletal diseases, or monitoring treatment outcomes. Optimally, clinically feasible measurement protocols for BTMs would be validated and measurable in both urine and serum. We aimed to (a) establish sex- and age-specific reference intervals for urinary and serum total and carboxylated osteocalcin (OC) in 7- to 19-year-old healthy Finnish children and adolescents (n = 172), (b) validate these against standardized serum and urinary BTMs, and (c) assess the impact of anthropometry, pubertal status, and body composition on the OC values. All OC values in addition to other BTMs increased with puberty and correlated with pubertal growth, which occurred and declined earlier in girls than in boys. The mean serum total and carboxylated OC and urinary OC values and percentiles for sex-specific age categories and pubertal stages were established. Correlation between serum and urinary OC was weak, especially in younger boys, but improved with increasing age. The independent determinants for OC varied, the urinary OC being the most robust while age, height, weight, and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) influenced serum total and carboxylated OC values. Body composition parameters had no influence on any of the OC values. In children and adolescents, circulating and urinary OC reflect more accurately growth status than bone mineral density (BMD) or body composition. Thus, validity of OC, similar to other BTMs, as a single marker of bone turnover, remains limited. Yet, serum and urinary OC similarly to other BTMs provide a valuable supplementary tool when assessing longitudinal changes in bone health with repeat measurements, in combination with other clinically relevant parameters.
  • Sarin, H. V.; Lee, J. H.; Jauhiainen, M.; Joensuu, A.; Borodulin, K.; Männistö, S.; Jin, Z.; Terwilliger, J. D.; Isola, V.; Ahtiainen, J. P.; Häkkinen, K.; Kristiansson, K.; Hulmi, J. J.; Perola, M. (2019)
    ( )The accumulation of fat, especially in visceral sites, is a significant risk factor for several chronic diseases with altered cardiometabolic homeostasis. We studied how intensive long-term weight loss and subsequent weight regain affect physiological changes, by longitudinally interrogating the lipid metabolism and white blood cell transcriptomic markers in healthy, normal-weight individuals. The current study examined 42 healthy, young (age: 27.5 +/- 4.0 years), normal-weight (body mass index, BMI: 23.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) female athletes, of which 25 belong to the weight loss and regain group (diet group), and 17 to the control group. Participants were evaluated, and fasting blood samples were drawn at three time points: at baseline (PRE); at the end of the weight loss period (MID: 21.1 +/- 3.1 weeks after PRE); and at the end of the weight regain period (POST: 18.4 +/- 2.9 weeks after MID). Following the weight loss period, the diet group experienced a similar to 73% reduction (similar to 0.69 kg) in visceral fat mass (false discovery rate, FDR <2.0 x 10(-16)), accompanied by anti-atherogenic effects on transcriptomic markers, decreased low-grade inflammation (e.g., as alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (FDR = 3.08 x 10(-13)) and hs-CRP (FDR = 2.44 x 10(-3))), and an increase in functionally important anti-atherogenic high-density lipoprotein -associated metabolites (FDR <0.05). This occurred even though these values were already at favorable levels in these participants, who follow a fitness-lifestyle compared to age- and BMI-matched females from the general population (n = 58). Following the weight regain period, most of the observed beneficial changes in visceral fat mass, and meta bolomic and transcriptomic profiles dissipated. Overall, the beneficial anti-atherogenic effects of weight loss can be observed even in previously healthy, normal-weight individuals.
  • Paldanius, Paivi M.; Ivaska, Kaisa K.; Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vaananen, Kalervo; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi (2013)
  • Liimatta, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Karvonen, Anne M.; Remes, Sami; Voutilainen, Raimo; Pekkanen, Juha (2020)
    Context: Adrenarche is a gradual process, but its programming is unknown. Objective: The objective of this article is to examine the trajectory of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) from age 1 to 6 years and the associations of early growth with DHEAS concentration by age 6 years. Design and participants: Longitudinal data from a population sample of 78 children (43 girls) with serum samples for DHEAS and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) measurements available at ages 1 and 6 years. Main outcome measure: Serum DHEAS concentration at age 6 years. Results: DHEAS concentration at age 1 year correlated with DHEAS concentration at age 6 years (r = 0.594, P <.001). DHEAS levels at age 6 years increased with tertiles of DHEAS at age 1 year (medians (mu g/dL); 4.2, 14.4, 22.6; P <.001) and with those of greater increase in length by age 1 year (6.0, 11.7, 16.4; P = .047), and decreased with Wailes of birth length (17.7, 13.3, 7.1; P = .042). In a regression model including birth size, biochemical covariates at age 1 year, and growth measures by age 6 years, higher DHEAS concentration at age 1 year was an independent determinant of falling into the highest DHEAS tertile at age 6 years. Conclusions: Higher serum DHEAS concentrations already at age 1 year are associated with those at age 6 years. Also, shorter birth length and rapid catch-up growth in length by age 1 year are associated with higher DHEAS concentrations at age 6 years. These results corroborate the early origin of adrenarche and strongly suggest that part of adrenarchal programming already takes place by the end of infancy. (C) Endocrine Society 2020.
  • Pekkinen, Minna; Viljakainen, Heli; Saarnio, Elisa; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Mäkitie, Outi (2012)