Browsing by Subject "BODY-MASS INDEX"

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  • Biesiekierski, Jessica R.; Jalanka, Jonna; Staudacher, Heidi M. (2019)
    Dietary intervention is a challenge in clinical practice because of inter-individual variability in clinical response. Gut microbiota is mechanistically relevant for a number of disease states and consequently has been incorporated as a key variable in personalised nutrition models within the research context. This paper aims to review the evidence related to the predictive capacity of baseline microbiota for clinical response to dietary intervention in two specific health conditions, namely, obesity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical trials and larger predictive modelling studies were identified and critically evaluated. The findings reveal inconsistent evidence to support baseline microbiota as an accurate predictor of weight loss or glycaemic response in obesity, or as a predictor of symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome, in dietary intervention trials. Despite advancement in quantification methodologies, research in this area remains challenging and larger scale studies are needed until personalised nutrition is realistically achievable and can be translated to clinical practice.
  • Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Berry, Diane J.; Lu, Chen; Tikkanen, Emmi; Pilz, Stefan; Hiraki, Linda T.; Cooper, Jason D.; Dastani, Zari; Li, Rui; Houston, Denise K.; Wood, Andrew R.; Michaelsson, Karl; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Zgaga, Lina; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Dupuis, Josee; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Jameson, Karen; Arden, Nigel; Raitakari, Olli; Viikari, Jorma; Lohman, Kurt K.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Melhus, Hakan; Ingelsson, Erik; Byberg, Liisa; Lind, Lars; Lorentzon, Mattias; Salomaa, Veikko; Campbell, Harry; Dunlop, Malcolm; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ohlsson, Claes; Frayling, Timothy M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Spector, Timothy D.; Richards, J. Brent; Lehtimaki, Terho; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Kraft, Peter; Genetic Invest Anthropometric Trai; Lokki, Marja-Liisa (2013)
  • Kolehmainen, Anne; Pasanen, Annukka; Tuomi, Taru; Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Bützow, Ralf; Loukovaara, Mikko (2020)
    Background Clinical factors may influence endometrial cancer survival outcomes. We examined the prognostic significance of age, body mass index (BMI), and type 2 diabetes among molecular subgroups of endometrial cancer. Methods This was a single institution retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery for endometrial carcinoma between January 2007 and December 2012. Tumors were classified into four molecular subgroups by immunohistochemistry of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53, and sequencing of polymerase-epsilon (POLE). Overall, cancer-related, and non-cancer-related mortality were estimated using univariable and multivariable survival analyses. Results Age >65 years was associated with increased mortality rates in the whole cohort (n = 515) and in the "no specific molecular profile" (NSMP) (n = 218) and MMR deficient (MMR-D) (n = 191) subgroups during a median follow-up time of 81 months (range 1-136). However, hazard ratios for cancer-related mortality were non-significant for NSMP and MMR-D. Diabetes was associated with increased overall and non-cancer-related mortality in the whole cohort and MMR-D subgroup. Overweight/obesity had no effect on outcomes in the whole cohort, but was associated with decreased overall and cancer-related mortality in the NSMP subgroup, and increased overall and non-cancer-related mortality in the MMR-D subgroup. Overweight/obesity effect on cancer-related mortality in the NSMP subgroup remained unchanged after controlling for confounders. High-risk uterine factors were more common, and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression less common in NSMP subtype cancers of normal-weight patients compared with overweight/obese patients. No clinical factors were associated with outcomes in p53 aberrant (n = 69) and POLE mutant (n = 37) subgroups. No cancer-related deaths occurred in the POLE mutant subgroup. Conclusions The prognostic effects of age, BMI, and type 2 diabetes do not appear to be uniform for the molecular subgroups of endometrial cancer. Our data support further evaluation of BMI combined with genomics-based risk-assessment.
  • Mace, Aurelien; Tuke, Marcus A.; Deelen, Patrick; Kristiansson, Kati; Mattsson, Hannele; Noukas, Margit; Sapkota, Yadav; Schick, Ursula; Porcu, Eleonora; Rueger, Sina; McDaid, Aaron F.; Porteous, David; Winkler, Thomas W.; Salvi, Erika; Shrine, Nick; Liu, Xueping; Ang, Wei Q.; Zhang, Weihua; Feitosa, Mary F.; Venturini, Cristina; van der Most, Peter J.; Rosengren, Anders; Wood, Andrew R.; Beaumont, Robin N.; Jones, Samuel E.; Ruth, Katherine S.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tyrrell, Jessica; Havulinna, Aki S.; Boers, Harmen; Magi, Reedik; Kriebel, Jennifer; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Perola, Markus; Nieminen, Markku; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Geller, Frank; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Koponen, Paivikki; Lundqvist, Annamari; Rissanen, Harri; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Afaq, Saima; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lenzini, Petra; Nolte, Ilja M.; Sparso, Thomas; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare; Perls, Thomas T.; Newman, Anne B.; Werge, Thomas; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Chambers, John C.; Koskinen, Seppo; Melbye, Mads; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Tobin, Martin D.; Wain, Louise V.; Sinisalo, Juha; Peters, Annette; Meitinger, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wray, Naomi R.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Swertz, Morris A.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Borodulin, Katja; Mannisto, Satu; Murray, Anna; Bochud, Murielle; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hansen, Thomas F.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mangino, Massimo; Province, Michael A.; Deloukas, Panos; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Pennell, Craig; Feenstra, Bjarke; Strachan, David P.; Lettre, Guillaume; Hirschhorn, Joel; Cusi, Daniele; Heid, Iris M.; Hayward, Caroline; Mannik, Katrin; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Metspalu, Andres; Eriksson, Johan G.; Weedon, Michael N.; Salomaa, Veikko; Franke, Lude; Reymond, Alexandre; Frayling, Timothy M.; Kutalik, Zoltan (2017)
    There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (> 2.4 cm), weight ( 5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (> 3.5 kg/m(2)). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 x 10(-10), 6.0 x 10(-5), and 2.9 x 10(-3)). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Lauper, Kim; Mongin, Denis; Iannone, Florenzo; Kristianslund, Eirik Klami; Kvien, Tore K.; Nordström, Dan; Pavelka, Karel; Pombo-Suarez, Manuel; Rotar, Ziga; Santos, Maria Jose; Codreanu, Catalin; Lukina, Galina; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Gabay, Cem (2018)
    Objective To compare the real-word effectiveness of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) and intravenous tocilizumab (TCZ-IV) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA with TCZ from eight European registries were included. Drug retention was compared using unadjusted Kaplan-Meier and Cox models adjusted for baseline patient, disease and treatment characteristics, using a strata term for year of treatment initiation and country of registry. The proportions of patients achieving Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission and low disease activity (LDA) at 1 year were compared using samples matched on the same covariates and corrected for attrition using LUNDEX. Results 3448 patients were retrieved, 2414 with TCZ-IV and 1034 with TCZ-SC. Crude median retention was 3.52 years (95% CI 3.22 to 3.85) for TCZ-IV and 2.12 years for TCZ-SC (95% CI 1.88 to 2.38). In a country-stratified and year of treatment initiation-stratified, covariate-adjusted analysis, hazards of discontinuation were similar between TCZ-SC and TCZ-IV treated patients (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.09). The average adjusted CDAI change at 1 year was similar in both groups (-6.08). After matching, with 560 patients in each group, CDAI remission corrected for attrition at 1 year was also similar between TCZ-SC and TCZ-IV (10.4% in TCZ-IV vs 12.8% in TCZ-SC (difference: 2.4%, bootstrap 95% CI -2.1% to 7.6%)), but CDAI LDA was lower in TCZ-IV patients: 41.0% in TCZ-IV versus 49.1% in TCZ-SC (difference: 8.0 %; bootstrap 95% CI 2.4% to 12.4%). Conclusion With similar retention and effectiveness, TCZ-SC is an adequate alternative to TCZ-IV for RA. When possible, considering the costs of the TCZ-IV route, TCZ-SC should be the preferred mode of administration.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Wild, Sarah H.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. Methods Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. Results Offspring of obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.
  • Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019)
    We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0-12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (beta = -0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p <0.001), waist circumference (beta = -0.34, p <0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p <0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.
  • Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major, rapidly increasing global public health challenge. The major risk factors for T2D include overweight and obesity, lifestyle-related factors and genetic factors. Early life exposures shape the developmental trajectories and alter susceptibility to T2D. Based on epidemiological studies it has been suggested that fetal undernutrition plays a role in the etiology of T2D. A low birth weight has been considered a proxy for fetal undernutrition. A meta-analysis reported that a 1 kg increase in birth weight is associated with a roughly 20% lower risk of T2D. Although fetal life is of major importance for future health, the period spanning the first 1000 days of life, is characterized by great plasticity and largely influencing later health. Different growth trajectories during this time period have also been associated with an increased risk of T2D. Studies assessing the association between age at BMI rebound in childhood and later risk for T2D have reported a fivefold difference in T2D according to age at BMI rebound. Developmental and epidemiological cohort studies focusing on T2D have major public health implications supporting a paradigm shift; a shift from focusing upon risk factor modification in adult life to adopting a life course perspective when studying T2D. This paradigm shift will not only help us in getting a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying T2D, but it will also open new possibilities and opportunities in the prevention of T2D and related disorders.
  • Bronsveld, Heleen K.; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L.; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersee, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K. (2017)
    Background Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select similar to 300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%C1:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%C1:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%C1:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95`)/X1:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. Conclusions We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated with or without insulin, develop different breast cancer subtypes than women without diabetes. However, premenopausal women with diabetes tended to develop breast tumors that do not express hormonal receptors, which are typically associated with poor prognosis.
  • Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana (2012)
  • Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Siani, Alfonso; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hunsberger, Monica; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pigeot, Iris; I Family Consortium (2017)
    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Piirtola, Maarit; Aaltonen, Sari; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L.; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Spector, Timothy D.; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Goldberg, Jack H.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hopper, John L.; Sung, Joohon; Maes, Hermine H.; Turkheimer, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins >= 20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 2029 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.
  • Horikoshi, Momoko; Maegi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Haegg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Willems, Sara M.; Tsernikova, Natalia; Esko, Tonu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P.; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R.; Groves, Christopher J.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Lehtimaeki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M.; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Mihailov, Evelin; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, Johan G.; Groop, Leif; Ripatti, Samuli; ENGAGE Consortium (2015)
    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency >= 0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.
  • Häkkänen, Paula; But, Anna; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina (2020)
    Aim We aimed to identify groups of primary school children with similar overweight development, reveal age-related patterns of overweight development in the resulting groups and analyse overweight-related school healthcare interventions. Methods This retrospective longitudinal register study utilised electronic health records from six primary school years. From a random sample of 2000 sixth graders, we derived a study cohort of 508 children meeting criteria for overweight at least once during primary school. We investigated how many different groups (latent classes) of children with similar weight development would emerge by applying flexible latent class mixed models on body mass index standard deviation score. We also explored the resulting groups with respect to offered overweight-related interventions. Results Per child, the data consisted in median 7 growth measurements over 5.4 years. We identified five overweight development groups for girls and four for boys. The groups converged temporarily around age 10 after which only some continued into obesity. School nurses and physicians offered overweight-related interventions to children with obesity, less to children gaining weight or with overweight. Conclusion Obesity prevention might benefit from awareness of typical overweight development patterns when designing intervention studies or planning and timing multidisciplinary school health check programmes.
  • Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Daniel; Shirai, Kokoro; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Pajulahti, Riikka; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lehto, Reetta; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Roos, Eva; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ray, Carola (2021)
    Consistently linked with children?s food consumption are food availability and accessibility. However, less is known about potential individual differences among young children in their susceptibility to home food environments. The purpose of the study was to examine whether the association between home food availability and accessibility of sugar-rich foods and drinks (SFD) or fruits and vegetables (FV) and children?s consumption of these foods differ according to their temperament. The study used two cross-sectional datasets collected as part of the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) study: 1) a cross-sectional data of 864 children aged 3?6 years old collected between fall 2015 and spring 2016, and 2) an intervention baseline data of 802 children aged 3?6 collected in fall 2017. Parents reported their children?s temperament, consumption of FV and SFD, and home availability and accessibility of SFD and FV. Examination of whether associations between home availability and accessibility of FV and their consumption differ according to children?s temperament involved using linear regression models. Similar models were used to examine association between home availability and accessibility of SFD and their consumption, and the moderating role of temperament. The association between home accessibility of SFD and their consumption frequency was dependent on the level of children?s negative affectivity. More frequent consumption of SFD was observed with higher home accessibility of SFD. The association was stronger in children with higher scores in negative affectivity. No other interactions were found. Children with higher negative affectivity are possibly more vulnerable to food cues in the home environment than children with lower negative affectivity. Consideration of children?s individual characteristics is necessary in supporting their healthy eating.
  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Cutler, Tessa L.; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Pang, Zengchang; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Hjelmborg, Jacob van B.; Rebato, Esther; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Busjahn, Andreas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hopper, John L.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs. Methods: The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese. Results: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance. Conclusions: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.
  • Viljakainen, Jannina; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Viljakainen, Hell; Roos, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Rounge, Trine B. (2019)
    Objective: To investigate the association between eating habits and weight status in adolescents in Finland. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) study is a cohort study conducted in adolescents attending third to sixth grade in 496 schools in forty-four municipalities in Southern, Middle and Northern Finland in 2011-2014. Participants: Analyses included 10 569 adolescents from the Fin-HIT study aged 9-14 years (5005 boys and 5564 girls). Adolescents were categorized by their eating habits: healthy eaters (44 center dot 1 %; n 4661), unhealthy eaters (12 center dot 3 %; n 1298), and fruit and vegetable avoiders (43 center dot 6 %; n 4610); and they were grouped into weight status: underweight (11 center dot 1 %), normal weight (73 center dot 6 %) and excess weight (15 center dot 3 %). Results: We found an increased risk of underweight in fruit and vegetable avoiders (OR = 1 center dot 28; 95 % CI 1 center dot 12, 1 center dot 46). An irregular breakfast pattern showed an inverse association with underweight (OR = 0 center dot 70; 95 % CI 0 center dot 59, 0 center dot 84) and an increased risk of excess weight (OR = 1 center dot 56; 95 % CI 1 center dot 37, 1 center dot 77) compared with a regular breakfast pattern. An irregular dinner pattern was inversely associated with underweight (OR = 0 center dot 83; 95 % CI 0 center dot 69, 0 center dot 99) compared with a regular dinner pattern. Conclusions: Avoiding fruits and vegetables and following irregular breakfast and dinner patterns were associated with underweight and excess weight in adolescents.