Browsing by Subject "CALIBRATION"

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  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, E.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J. -E; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L. -Y; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, E.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Desert, F. -X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneiss, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, E.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, E.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauve, A.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, E.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A-S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A. (2014)
  • Akrami, Y.; Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Väliviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2017)
    Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100-857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn at the three frequencies of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (30, 44, and 70 GHz). The results provide constraints on the intrinsic brightness and the brightness time-variability of these planets. The majority of the planet flux density estimates are limited by systematic errors, but still yield better than 1% measurements in many cases. Applying data from Planck HFI, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to a model that incorporates contributions from Saturn's rings to the planet's total flux density suggests a best fit value for the spectral index of Saturn's ring system of beta(ring) = 2 : 30 +/- 0 : 03 over the 30-1000 GHz frequency range. Estimates of the polarization amplitude of the planets have also been made in the four bands that have polarization-sensitive detectors (100-353 GHz); this analysis provides a 95% confidence level upper limit on Mars's polarization of 1.8, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.7% at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, respectively. The average ratio between the Planck-HFI measurements and the adopted model predictions for all five planets (excluding Jupiter observations for 353 GHz) is 1.004, 1.002, 1.021, and 1.033 for 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, respectively. Model predictions for planet thermodynamic temperatures are therefore consistent with the absolute calibration of Planck-HFI detectors at about the three-percent level. We compare our measurements with published results from recent cosmic microwave background experiments. In particular, we observe that the flux densities measured by Planck HFI and WMAP agree to within 2%. These results allow experiments operating in the mm-wavelength range to cross-calibrate against Planck and improve models of radiative transport used in planetary science.
  • Leahy, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Ganga, K.; Leach, S. M.; Moss, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Tauber, J.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Wilkinson, A.; Zonca, A.; Baccigalupi, C.; Borrill, J.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; Davis, R. J.; Frailis, M.; Francheschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Leonardi, R.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Prezeau, G.; Rocha, G.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M. (2010)
  • Tauber, J. A.; Mandolesi, N.; Puget, J. -L.; Banos, T.; Bersanelli, M.; Bouchet, F. R.; Butler, R. C.; Charra, J.; Crone, G.; Dodsworth, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Gispert, R.; Guyot, G.; Gregorio, A.; Juillet, J. J.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Passvogel, T.; Reix, J. M.; Texier, D.; Vibert, L.; Zacchei, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aja, B.; Alippi, E.; Aloy, L.; Armand, P.; Arnaud, M.; Arondel, A.; Arreola-Villanueva, A.; Artal, E.; Artina, E.; Arts, A.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Azzaro, M.; Bacchetta, A.; Baccigalupi, C.; Baker, M.; Balasini, M.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barbier, G.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartelmann, M.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Beney, J. -L.; Beneyton, R.; Bennett, K.; Benoit, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bhandari, P.; Bhatia, R.; Biggi, M.; Biggins, R.; Billig, G.; Blanc, Y.; Blavot, H.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, R.; Bonis, J.; Borders, J.; Borrill, J.; Boschini, L.; Boulanger, F.; Bouvier, J.; Bouzit, M.; Bowman, R.; Breelle, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Braghin, M.; Bremer, M.; Brienza, D.; Broszkiewicz, D.; Burigana, C.; Burkhalter, M.; Cabella, P.; Cafferty, T.; Cairola, M.; Caminade, S.; Camus, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Carr, R.; Catalano, A.; Cayon, L.; Cesa, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chambelland, J. P.; Charra, M.; Chiang, L. -Y.; Chlewicki, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Ciancietta, E.; Cibrario, M.; Cizeron, R.; Clements, D.; Collaudin, B.; Colley, J. -M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, A.; Colombo, F.; Corre, O.; Couchot, F.; Cougrand, B.; Coulais, A.; Couzin, P.; Crane, B.; Crill, B.; Crook, M.; Crumb, D.; Cuttaia, F.; Doerl, U.; da Silva, P.; Daddato, R.; Damasio, C.; Danese, L.; d'Aquino, G.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Dassas, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davies, W.; Davis, R. J.; De Bernardis, P.; de Chambure, D.; de Gasperis, G.; De la Fuente, M. L.; De Paco, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Troia, G.; De Zotti, G.; Dehamme, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Desert, F. -X.; di Girolamo, G.; Dickinson, C.; Doelling, E.; Dolag, K.; Domken, I.; Douspis, M.; Doyle, D.; Du, S.; Dubruel, D.; Dufour, C.; Dumesnil, C.; Dupac, X.; Duret, P.; Eder, C.; Elfving, A.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eng, P.; English, K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Estaria, P.; Falvella, M. C.; Ferrari, F.; Finelli, F.; Fishman, A.; Fogliani, S.; Foley, S.; Fonseca, A.; Forma, G.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J. -J.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Francois, S.; Frerking, M.; Gomez-Renasco, M. F.; Gorski, K. M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Lazaro, J. Garcia; Gavila, E.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gienger, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Glorian, J. -M.; Griffin, M.; Gruppuso, A.; Guglielmi, L.; Guichon, D.; Guillaume, B.; Guillouet, P.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hardy, J.; Harrison, D.; Hazell, A.; Hechler, M.; Heckenauer, V.; Heinzer, D.; Hell, R.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Herreros, J. M.; Hervier, V.; Heske, A.; Heurtel, A.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hollert, D.; Holmes, W.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hughes, N.; Israelsson, U.; Jackson, B.; Jaffe, A.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jagemann, T.; Jessen, N. C.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.; Juvela, M.; Kaplan, J.; Karlman, P.; Keck, F.; Keihanen, E.; King, M.; Kisner, T. S.; Kletzkine, P.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Koch, T.; Krassenburg, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lagache, G.; Lagorio, E.; Lami, P.; Lande, J.; Lange, A.; Langlet, F.; Lapini, R.; Lapolla, M.; Lasenby, A.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lefebvre, M.; Legrand, F.; Le Meur, G.; Leonardi, R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Leutenegger, P.; Levin, S. M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lindensmith, C.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Loc, A.; Longval, Y.; Lubin, P. M.; Luchik, T.; Luthold, I.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Magneville, C.; Maino, D.; Mambretti, A.; Mansoux, B.; Marchioro, D.; Maris, M.; Marliani, F.; Marrucho, J. -C.; Marti-Canales, J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Martin-Polegre, A.; Martin, P.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGrath, P.; Mediavilla, A.; Meinhold, R.; Melin, J. -B.; Melot, F.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mervier, C.; Meslier, L.; Miccolis, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montet, D.; Montier, L.; Mora, J.; Morgante, G.; Morigi, G.; Morinaud, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Mulder, J.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Murphy, P.; Musi, P.; Narbonne, J.; Naselsky, P.; Nash, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, B.; Newell, J.; Nexon, M.; Nicolas, C.; Nielsen, P. H.; Ninane, N.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Oldeman, P.; Olivier, P.; Ouchet, L.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Perez-Cuevas, L.; Pagan, L.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pancher, F.; Panh, J.; Parks, G.; Parnaudeau, P.; Partridge, B.; Parvin, B.; Pascual, J. P.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, D. P.; Pearson, T.; Pecora, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piersanti, O.; Plaige, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poulleau, G.; Poutanen, T.; Prezeau, G.; Pradell, L.; Prina, M.; Prunet, S.; Rachen, J. P.; Rambaud, D.; Rame, F.; Rasmussen, I.; Rautakoski, J.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Reiter, J.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Rideau, P.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Riti, J. B.; Rocha, G.; Roche, Y.; Pons, R.; Rohlfs, R.; Romero, D.; Roose, S.; Rosset, C.; Rouberol, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusconi, P.; Rusholme, B.; Salama, M.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sanz, J. L.; Sauter, L.; Sauvage, F.; Savini, G.; Schmelzel, M.; Schnorhk, A.; Schwarz, W.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Shih, C.; Sias, M.; Silk, J. I.; Silvestri, R.; Sippel, R.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J. -L.; Stassi, P.; Sternberg, J.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Stringhetti, L.; Strommen, D.; Stute, T.; Sudiwala, R.; Sugimura, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tuerler, M.; Taddei, E.; Tallon, J.; Tamiatto, C.; Taurigna, M.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thuerey, S.; Tillis, J.; Tofani, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tommasi, E.; Tomasi, M.; Tonazzini, E.; Torre, J. -P.; Tosti, S.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vallee, D.; van der Vlis, M.; Van Leeuwen, F.; Vanel, J. -C.; Van-Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vassallo, E.; Vescovi, C.; Vezzu, F.; Vibert, D.; Vielva, P.; Vierra, J.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Vuerli, C.; Wade, L. A.; Walker, A. R.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, C.; Werner, D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Wilson, P.; Woodcraft, A.; Yoffo, B.; Yun, M.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zhang, B.; Zimmermann, O.; Zonca, A.; Zorita, D. (2010)
  • Määttä, Suvi; Konttinen, Hanna; Lehto, Reetta; Haukkala, Ari; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Preschool children's high levels of sedentary time (ST) is a public health concern. As preschool reaches a large population of children from different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, more knowledge on how the preschool setting is associated with children's ST is relevant. Our aims were to examine (1) the associations of preschool setting (covering social, physical, and organizational level) with children's ST, and (2) the moderating role of the setting on the association between parental SES and children's ST. In the cross-sectional DAGIS (increased health and wellbeing in preschools) study, the participating children (n = 864, aged 3-6 years) were asked to wear an accelerometer for one week. In total, 779 children had valid ST accelerometer data during preschool hours. Preschool setting and parental SES was assessed by questionnaires and observation. Multilevel linear regression models with cross-level interactions were applied to examine the associations. Early educators' practice of breaking children's ST often, more frequent physical activity (PA) theme weeks, and higher number of physical education (PE) lessons were associated with lower children's ST. Higher parental SES was associated with higher children's ST in preschools (1) with organized sedentary behavior theme weeks, (2) with a lower number of PA theme weeks, and (3) with a lower number of PE lessons. The factors identified in this study could be targeted in future interventions.
  • Chazot, Nicolas; Wahlberg, Niklas; Lucci Freitas, Andre Victor; Mitter, Charles; Labandeira, Conrad; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Seraphim, Noemy; de Jong, Rienk; Heikkilä, Maria (2019)
    The need for robust estimates of times of divergence is essential for downstream analyses, yet assessing this robustness is still rare. We generated a time-calibrated genus-level phylogeny of butterflies (Papilionoidea), including 994 taxa, up to 10 gene fragments and an unprecedented set of 12 fossils and 10 host-plant node calibration points. We compared marginal priors and posterior distributions to assess the relative importance of the former on the latter. This approach revealed a strong influence of the set of priors on the root age but for most calibrated nodes posterior distributions shifted from the marginal prior, indicating significant information in the molecular data set. Using a very conservative approach we estimated an origin of butterflies at 107.6 Ma, approximately equivalent to the latest Early Cretaceous, with a credibility interval ranging from 89.5 Ma (mid Late Cretaceous) to 129.5 Ma (mid Early Cretaceous). In addition, we tested the effects of changing fossil calibration priors, tree prior, different sets of calibrations and different sampling fractions but our estimate remained robust to these alternative assumptions. With 994 genera, this tree provides a comprehensive source of secondary calibrations for studies on butterflies.
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Leleev, Yevgeny; Demaria, Giorgia; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2021)
    Our second generation air sampling drone system, allowing the simultaneous use of four solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow and four in-tube extraction (ITEX) units, was employed for collection of atmospheric air samples at different spatial and temporal dimensions. SPME Arrow coated with two types of materials and ITEX with 10% polyacrylonitrile as sorbent were used to give a more comprehensive chemical characterization of the collected air samples. Before field sampling, miniaturized samplers went through quality control and assurance in terms of reproducibility (RSD = 10 min), breakthrough volume (1.8 L) and storage time (up to 48 h). 128 air samples were collected under optimal sampling conditions from July to September 2019 at the SMEAR II station and Qvidja farm, Finland. 347 VOCs were identified in the air samples either on-site or in the laboratory by thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, and they were quantified/semiquantified using Partial Least Squares Regression models. Individual models were developed for the different coatings and packing materials using gas phase standards obtained by an automatic permeation system. Average gas phase VOC concentrations ranged from 0.1 (toluene, the SMEAR II station) to 680 ng L-1 (acetone, Qvidja farm). Average VOC concentrations in aerosols ranged from 0.1 (1,4-cyclohexadiene, the SMEAR II station) to 2287 ng L-1 (megastigma-4,6,8-triene, Qvidja farm). Clear differences in results were seen for samples collected at the SMEAR II station and Qvidja farm, between VOC compositions in gas phase and aerosols, and between the sampling site and height.
  • Hong, J.; Kim, J.; Nieminen, T.; Duplissy, J.; Ehn, M.; Äijälä, M.; Hao, L. Q.; Nie, W.; Sarnela, N.; Prisle, N. L.; Kulmala, M.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V. -M. (2015)
    Measurements of the hygroscopicity of 15145 nm particles in a boreal forest environment were conducted using two Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) systems during the Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) campaign in spring 2013. Measurements of the chemical composition of non-size segregated particles were also performed using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) in parallel with hygroscopicity measurements. On average, the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of particles was observed to increase from the morning until afternoon. In case of accumulation mode particles, the main reasons for this behavior were increases in the ratio of sulfate to organic matter and oxidation level (O : C ratio) of the organic matter in the particle phase. Using an O : C dependent hygroscopic growth factor of organic matter (HGF(org)), fitted using the inverse Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule, clearly improved the agreement between measured HGF and that predicted based on HR-AMS composition data. Besides organic oxidation level, the influence of inorganic species was tested when using the ZSR mixing rule to estimate the hygroscopic growth factor of organics in the aerosols. While accumulation and Aitken mode particles were predicted fairly well by the bulk aerosol composition data, the hygroscopicity of nucleation mode particles showed little correlation. However, we observed them to be more sensitive to the gas phase concentration of condensable vapors: the more sulfuric acid in the gas phase, the more hygroscopic the nucleation mode particles were. No clear dependence was found between the extremely low-volatility organics concentration (ELVOC) and the HGF of particles of any size.
  • Makela, Jarmo; Minunno, Francesco; Aalto, Tuula; Makela, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Mikko (2020)
    Forest ecosystems are already responding to changing environmental conditions that are driven by increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These developments affect how societies can utilise and benefit from the woodland areas in the future, be it for example climate change mitigation as carbon sinks, lumber for wood industry, or preserved for nature tourism and recreational activities. We assess the effect and the relative magnitude of different uncertainty sources in ecosystem model simulations from the year 1980 to 2100 for two Finnish boreal forest sites. The models used in this study are the land ecosystem model JSBACH and the forest growth model PREBAS. The considered uncertainty sources for both models are model parameters and four prescribed climates with two RCP (representative concentration pathway) scenarios. Usually, model parameter uncertainty is not included in these types of uncertainty studies. PREBAS simulations also include two forest management scenarios. We assess the effect of these sources of variation at four different points in time on several ecosystem indicators, e.g. gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration, soil moisture, recurrence of drought, length of the vegetation active period (VAP), length of the snow melting period and the stand volume. The uncertainty induced by the climate models remains roughly the same throughout the simulations and is overtaken by the RCP scenario impact halfway through the experiment. The management actions are the most dominant uncertainty factors for Hyytiala and as important as RCP scenarios at the end of the simulations, but they contribute only half as much for Sodankyla. The parameter uncertainty is the least influential of the examined uncertainty sources, but it is also the most elusive to estimate due to non-linear and adverse effects on the simulated ecosystem indicators. Our analysis underlines the importance of carefully considering the implementation of forest use when simulating future ecosystem conditions, as human impact is evident and even increasing in boreal forested regions.
  • Falconi, Marta Tecla; von Lerber, Annakaisa; Ori, Davide; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Moisseev, Dmitri (2018)
    Radar-based snowfall intensity retrieval is investigated at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths using co-located ground-based multi-frequency radar and video-disdrometer observations. Using data from four snowfall events, recorded during the Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) campaign in Finland, measurements of liquid-water-equivalent snowfall rate S are correlated to radar equivalent reflectivity factors Z(e), measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) cloud radars operating at X, Ka and W frequency bands. From these combined observations, power-law Z(e)-S relationships are derived for all three frequencies considering the influence of riming Using microwave radiometer observations of liquid water path, the measured precipitation is divided into lightly, moderately and heavily rimed snow. Interestingly lightly rimed snow events show a spectrally distinct signature of Z(e)-S with respect to moderately or heavily rimed snow cases. In order to understand the connection between snowflake microphysical and multi-frequency backscattering properties, numerical simulations are performed by using the particle size distribution provided by the in situ video disdrometer and retrieved ice particle masses. The latter are carried out by using both the T-matrix method (TMM) applied to soft-spheroid particle models with different aspect ratios and exploiting a pre-computed discrete dipole approximation (DDA) database for rimed aggregates. Based on the presented results, it is concluded that the soft-spheroid approximation can be adopted to explain the observed multifrequency Z(e)-S relations if a proper spheroid aspect ratio is selected. The latter may depend on the degree of riming in snowfall. A further analysis of the backscattering simulations reveals that TMM cross sections are higher than the DDA ones for small ice particles, but lower for larger particles. The differences of computed cross sections for larger and smaller particles are compensating for each other. This may explain why the soft-spheroid approximation is satisfactory for radar reflectivity simulations under study.
  • Huovelin, J.; Vainio, R.; Kilpua, E.; Lehtolainen, A.; Korpela, S.; Esko, E.; Muinonen, K.; Bunce, E.; Martindale, A.; Grande, M.; Andersson, H.; Nenonen, S.; Lehti, J.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vihavainen, T.; Saari, J.; Peltonen, J.; Valtonen, E.; Talvioja, M.; Portin, P.; Narendranath, S.; Järvinen, R.; Okada, T.; Milillo, A.; Laurenza, M.; Heino, E.; Oleynik, P. (2020)
    The Solar Intensity X-ray and particle Spectrometer (SIXS) on the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter ("Bepi") measures the direct solar X-rays, energetic protons, and electrons that bombard, and interact with, the Hermean surface. The interactions result in X-ray fluorescence and scattering, and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), i.e. "glow" of the surface in X-rays. Simultaneous monitoring of the incident and emitted radiation enables derivation of the abundances of some chemical elements and scattering properties of the outermost surface layer of the planet, and it may reveal other sources of X-ray emission, due to, for example, weak aurora-like phenomena in Mercury's exosphere. Mapping of the Hermean X-ray emission is the main task of the MIXS instrument onboard BepiColombo. SIXS data will also be used for investigations of the solar X-ray corona and solar energetic particles (SEP), both in the cruise phase and the passes of the Earth, Venus and Mercury before the arrival at Mercury's orbit, and the final science phase at Mercury's orbit. These observations provide the first-ever opportunity for in-situ measurements of the propagation of SEPs, their interactions with the interplanetary magnetic field, and space weather phenomena in multiple locations throughout the inner solar system far away from the Earth, and more extensively at Mercury's orbit. In this paper we describe the scientific objectives, design and calibrations, operational principles, and scientific performance of the final SIXS instrument launched to the mission to planet Mercury onboard BepiColombo. We also provide the first analysis results of science observations with SIXS, that were made during the Near-Earth Commissioning Phase and early cruise phase operations in 2018-19, including the background X-ray sky observations and "first light" observations of the Sun with the SIXS X-ray detection system (SIXS-X), and in-situ energetic electron and proton observations with the SIXS Particle detection system (SIXS-P).
  • Holmberg, Maria; Akujärvi, Anu; Anttila, Saku; Autio, Iida; Haakana, Markus; Junttila, Virpi; Karvosenoja, Niko; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mäkelä, Annikki; Minkkinen, Kari; Minunno, Francesco; Rankinen, Katri; Ojanen, Paavo; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Rasilo, Terhi; Sallantaus, Tapani; Savolahti, Mikko; Tuominen, Sakari; Tuominen, Seppo; Vanhala, Pekka; Forsius, Martin (2021)
    Climate change mitigation is a global response that requires actions at the local level. Quantifying local sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) facilitate evaluating mitigation options. We present an approach to collate spatially explicit estimated fluxes of GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) for main land use sectors in the landscape, to aggregate, and to calculate the net emissions of an entire region. Our procedure was developed and tested in a large river basin in Finland, providing information from intensively studied eLTER research sites. To evaluate the full GHG balance, fluxes from natural ecosystems (lakes, rivers, and undrained mires) were included together with fluxes from anthropogenic activities, agriculture and forestry. We quantified the fluxes based on calculations with an anthropogenic emissions model (FRES) and a forest growth and carbon balance model (PREBAS), as well as on emission coefficients from the literature regarding emissions from lakes, rivers, undrained mires, peat extraction sites and cropland. Spatial data sources included CORINE land use data, soil map, lake and river shorelines, national forest inventory data, and statistical data on anthropogenic activities. Emission uncertainties were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations. Artificial surfaces were the most emission intensive land-cover class. Lakes and rivers were about as emission intensive as arable land. Forests were the dominant land cover in the region (66%), and the C sink of the forests decreased the total emissions of the region by 72%. The region's net emissions amounted to 4.37 ± 1.43 Tg CO2-eq yr−1, corresponding to a net emission intensity 0.16 Gg CO2-eq km−2 yr−1, and estimated per capita net emissions of 5.6 Mg CO2-eq yr−1. Our landscape approach opens opportunities to examine the sensitivities of important GHG fluxes to changes in land use and climate, management actions, and mitigation of anthropogenic emissions.
  • Heikkinen, Terho; Kassamakov, I.; Viitala, T.; Järvinen, M.; Vainikka, T.; Nolvi, A.; Bermudez, C.; Artigas, R.; Martinez, P.; Korpelainen, Raija; Lassila, A.; Haeggström, E. (2020)
    Modern microscopes and profilometers such as the coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) approach sub-nm precision in height measurements. Transfer standards at all measured size scales are needed to guarantee traceability at any scale and utilize the full potential of these instruments, but transfer standards with similar characteristics upon reflection to those of the measured samples are preferred. This is currently not the case for samples featuring dimensions of less than 10 nm and for biosamples with different optical charasteristics to silicon, silica or metals. To address the need for 3D images of biosamples with traceable dimensions, we introduce a transfer standard with dimensions guaranteed by natural self-assembly and a material that is optically similar to that in typical biosamples. We test the functionality of these transfer standards by first calibrating them using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and then using them to calibrate a CSI. We investigate whether a good enough calibration accuracy can be reached to enable a useful calibration of the CSI system. The result is that the calibration uncertainty is only marginally increased due to the sample.
  • Käfer, Florian; Finoguenov, Alexis; Eckert, Dominique; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Nandra, Kirpal (2019)
    Context. In the framework of the hierarchical model the intra-cluster medium properties of galaxy clusters are tightly linked to structure formation, which makes X-ray surveys well suited for cosmological studies. To constrain cosmological parameters accurately by use of galaxy clusters in current and future X-ray surveys, a better understanding of selection effects related to the detection method of clusters is needed. Aims. We aim at a better understanding of the morphology of galaxy clusters to include corrections between the different core types and covariances with X-ray luminosities in selection functions. In particular, we stress the morphological deviations between a newly described surface brightness profile characterization and a commonly used single beta-model. Methods. We investigated a novel approach to describe surface brightness profiles, where the excess cool-core emission in the centers of the galaxy clusters is modeled using wavelet decomposition. Morphological parameters and the residuals were compared to classical single beta-models, fitted to the overall surface brightness profiles. Results. Using single beta-models to describe the ensemble of overall surface brightness profiles leads on average to a non-zero bias (0.032 +/- 0.003) in the outer part of the clusters, that is an approximate 3% systematic difference in the surface brightness at large radii. Furthermore, beta-models show a general trend toward underestimating the flux in the outskirts for smaller core radii. Fixing the beta parameter to 2/3 doubles the bias and increases the residuals from a single beta-model up to more than 40%. Modeling the core region in the fitting procedure reduces the impact of these two effects significantly. In addition, we find a positive scaling between shape parameters and temperature, as well as a negative correlation of approximately -0.4 between extent and luminosity. Conclusion. We demonstrate the caveats in modeling galaxy clusters with single beta-models and recommend using them with caution, especially when the systematics are not taken into account. Our non-parametric analysis of the self-similar scaled emission measure profiles indicates no systematic core-type differences of median profiles in the galaxy cluster outskirts.
  • Holzinger, Rupert; Acton, W. Joe F.; Bloss, William J.; Breitenlechner, Martin; Crilley, Leigh R.; Dusanter, Sebastien; Gonin, Marc; Gros, Valerie; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kramer, Louisa J.; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Languille, Baptiste; Locoge, Nadine; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Materic, Dusan; Moreno, Sergi; Nemitz, Eiko; Quelever, Lauriane L. J.; Esteve, Roland Sarda; Sauvage, Stephane; Schallhart, Simon; Sommariva, Roberto; Tillmann, Ralf; Wedel, Sergej; Worton, David R.; Xu, Kangming; Zaytsev, Alexander (2019)
    In September 2017, we conducted a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) intercomparison campaign at the CESAR observatory, a rural site in the central Netherlands near the village of Cabauw. Nine research groups deployed a total of 11 instruments covering a wide range of instrument types and performance. We applied a new calibration method based on fast injection of a gas standard through a sample loop. This approach allows calibrations on timescales of seconds, and within a few minutes an automated sequence can be run allowing one to retrieve diagnostic parameters that indicate the performance status. We developed a method to retrieve the mass-dependent transmission from the fast calibrations, which is an essential characteristic of PTR-MS instruments, limiting the potential to calculate concentrations based on counting statistics and simple reaction kinetics in the reactor/drift tube. Our measurements show that PTR-MS instruments follow the simple reaction kinetics if operated in the standard range for pressures and temperature of the reaction chamber (i.e. 1-4 mbar, 30-120 degrees, respectively), as well as a reduced field strength E/N in the range of 100-160 Td. If artefacts can be ruled out, it becomes possible to quantify the signals of uncalibrated organics with accuracies better than +/- 30 %. The simple reaction kinetics approach produces less accurate results at E/N levels below 100 Td, because significant fractions of primary ions form water hydronium clusters. Deprotonation through reactive collisions of protonated organics with water molecules needs to be considered when the collision energy is a substantial fraction of the exoergicity of the proton transfer reaction and/or if protonated organics undergo many collisions with water molecules.
  • Determinants Diet Phys Act Knowle; Int Children's Accelerometry Datab; IDEFICS Consortium; HELENA Consortium; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Hansen, Bjorge Herman; Dalene, Knut Eirik; Kolle, Elin; Northstone, Kate; Moller, Niels Christian; Grontved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels; Kriemler, Susi; Page, Angie S.; Puder, Jardena J.; Reilly, John J.; Sardinha, Luis B.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Andersen, Lars Bo; van der Ploeg, Hidde; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Flexeder, Claudia; Standl, Marie; Shculz, Holger; Moreno, Luis A.; De Henauw, Stefaan; Michels, Nathalie; Cardon, Greet; Ortega, Francisco B.; Ruiz, Jonatan; Aznar, Susana; Fogelholm, Mikael; Decelis, Andrew; Olesen, Line Gronholt; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Jago, Russ; Basterfield, Laura; Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Eiben, Gabriele; Polito, Angela; Lauria, Fabio; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Konstabel, Kenn; Molnar, Denes; Sprengeler, Ole; Manios, Yannis; Harro, Jaanus; Kafatos, Anthony; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred (2020)
    Background Levels of physical activity and variation in physical activity and sedentary time by place and person in European children and adolescents are largely unknown. The objective of the study was to assess the variations in objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children and adolescents across Europe. Methods Six databases were systematically searched to identify pan-European and national data sets on physical activity and sedentary time assessed by the same accelerometer in children (2 to 9.9 years) and adolescents (>= 10 to 18 years). We harmonized individual-level data by reprocessing hip-worn raw accelerometer data files from 30 different studies conducted between 1997 and 2014, representing 47,497 individuals (2-18 years) from 18 different European countries. Results Overall, a maximum of 29% (95% CI: 25, 33) of children and 29% (95% CI: 25, 32) of adolescents were categorized as sufficiently physically active. We observed substantial country- and region-specific differences in physical activity and sedentary time, with lower physical activity levels and prevalence estimates in Southern European countries. Boys were more active and less sedentary in all age-categories. The onset of age-related lowering or leveling-off of physical activity and increase in sedentary time seems to become apparent at around 6 to 7 years of age. Conclusions Two third of European children and adolescents are not sufficiently active. Our findings suggest substantial gender-, country- and region-specific differences in physical activity. These results should encourage policymakers, governments, and local and national stakeholders to take action to facilitate an increase in the physical activity levels of young people across Europe.
  • Phriksee, Anirut; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Shan, HuanYuan; Finoguenov, Alexis; Komonjinda, Siramas; Wannawichian, Suwicha; Sawangwit, Utane (2020)
    We present the weak-lensing analysis of 279 CODEX clusters using imaging data from 4200 deg(2) of the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) Data Release 3. The cluster sample results from a joint selection in X-ray, optical richness in the range 20 proportional to M-0 (lambda/40)(F lambda). By measuring the CODEX cluster sample as an individual cluster, we obtain the best-fitting values, M-0 = 3.24(-0.27)(+0.29) x 10(14)M(circle dot), and F-lambda = 1.00(-0.22)(+0.22) for the richness scaling index, consistent with a power-law relation. Moreover, we separate the cluster sample into three richness groups; lambda = 20-30, 30-50, and 50-110, and measure the stacked excess surface mass density profile in each group. The results show that both methods are consistent. In addition, we find an excellent agreement between our weak lensing based scaling relation and the relation obtained with dynamical masses estimated from cluster member velocity dispersions measured by the SDSS-IV/SPIDERS team. This suggests that the cluster dynamical equilibrium assumption involved in the dynamical mass estimates is statistically robust for a large sample of clusters.