Browsing by Subject "CARBON-DIOXIDE"

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  • Montagnani, Leonardo; Gruenwald, Thomas; Kowalski, Andrew; Mammarella, Ivan; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Stefan; Sedlak, Pavel; Siebicke, Lukas (2018)
    In eddy covariance measureinents, the storage flux represents the variation in time of the dry molar fraction of a given gas in the control volume representative of turbulent flux. Depending on the time scale considered, and on the height above ground of the measurements, it can either be a major component of the overall net ecosystem exchange or nearly negligible. Instrumental configuration and computational procedures must be optimized to measure this change at the time step used for the turbulent flux measurement Three different configurations are suitable within the Integrated Carbon Observation System infrastructure for the storage flux determination: separate sampling, subsequent sampling and mixed sampling. These configurations have their own advantages and disadvantages, and must be carefully selected based on the specific features of the considered station. In this paper, guidelines about number and distribution of vertical and horizontal sampling points are given. Details about suitable instruments, sampling devices, and computational procedures for the quantification of the storage flux of different GHG gases are also provided.
  • Mäkelä, Minna; Kabir, Kazi Md. Jahangir; Kanerva, Sanna; Yli-Halla, Markku; Simojoki, Asko (2022)
    Factors limiting the production of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were investigated in three incubation experiments conducted with soil from top- and subsoil horizons of a peatland which had an acid sulphate mineral subsoil derived from black schists. The effect of moisture was investigated by equilibrating undisturbed soil samples from three horizons (H-2, Cg and Cr) at -10, -60 or -100 cm matric potential and measuring the gas production. In the second experiment, the effects of temperature and various substrates were studied by incubating disturbed soil samples in aerobic conditions at 5 or 20 degrees C, and measuring basal respiration and N2O production before and after adding water, glucose or ammonium into the soil. In the third experiment, the effects of added glucose and/or nitrate on the denitrification in soil samples from four horizons (H1, H2, Cg and Cr were investigated by acetylene inhibition and monitoring of N2O production during a 48-h anaerobic incubation. The production of CO2 in the topmost peat horizon was largest at -10 cm matric potential, and it was larger than those in the mineral subsoil also at -60 and -100 cm potentials. In contrast, drainage seemed to increase N2O production, whereas in the wettest condition the production of N2O in the mineral subsoil was small and the peat horizon was a sink of N2O. Lowering of temperature (from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C) decreased CO2 production, as expected, but it had almost no role in the production of N2O in aerobic conditions. Glucose addition increased the aerobic production of CO2 in peat, but it had a minor effect in the mineral horizons. Lack of C source (glucose) was limiting anaerobic N2O production in the uppermost peat horizon, while in all other horizons, nitrate proved to be the most limiting factor. It is concluded that peatlands with black schist derived acid sulphate subsoil horizons, such as in this study, have high microbial activity in the peaty topsoil horizons but little microbial activity in the mineral subsoil. These findings are contrary to previous results obtained in sediment-derived acid sulphate soils.
  • Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Tuovinen, J. -P.; Vesala, T.; Bäck, Jaana; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.; Hari, P. (2006)
  • Mander, Ulo; Krasnova, Alisa; Escuer-Gatius, Jordi; Espenberg, Mikk; Schindler, Thomas; Machacova, Katerina; Parn, Jaan; Maddison, Martin; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Pihlatie, Mari; Kasak, Kuno; Niinemets, Ulo; Junninen, Heikki; Soosaar, Kaido (2021)
    Riparian forests are known as hot spots of nitrogen cycling in landscapes. Climate warming speeds up the cycle. Here we present results from a multi-annual high temporal-frequency study of soil, stem, and ecosystem (eddy covariance) fluxes of N2O from a typical riparian forest in Europe. Hot moments (extreme events of N2O emission) lasted a quarter of the study period but contributed more than half of soil fluxes. We demonstrate that high soil emissions of N2O do not escape the ecosystem but are processed in the canopy. Rapid water content change across intermediate soil moisture was a major determinant of elevated soil emissions in spring. The freeze-thaw period is another hot moment. However, according to the eddy covariance measurements, the riparian forest is a modest source of N2O. We propose photochemical reactions and dissolution in canopy-space water as reduction mechanisms.
  • Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Page, Susan E.; Vasander, Harri (2016)
    Agricultural and other land uses on ombrotrophic lowland tropical peat swamps typically lead to reduced vegetation biomass and water table drawdown. We review what is known about greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics in natural and degraded tropical peat systems in south-east Asia, and on this basis consider what can be expected in terms of GHG dynamics under restored conditions. Only limited in situ data are available on the effects of restoration and the consequences for peat carbon (C) dynamics. Hydrological restoration seeks to bring the water table closer to the peat surface and thus re-create near-natural water table conditions, in order to reduce wildfire risk and associated fire impacts on the peat C store, as well as to reduce aerobic peat decomposition rates. However, zero emissions are unlikely to be achieved due to the notable potential for carbon dioxide (CO2) production from anaerobic peat decomposition processes. Increased vegetation cover (ideally woody plants) resulting from restoration will increase shading and reduce peat surface temperatures, and this may in turn reduce aerobic decomposition rates. An increase in litter deposition rate will compensate for C losses by peat decomposition but also increase the supply of labile C, which may prime decomposition, especially in peat enriched with recalcitrant substrates. The response of tropical peatland GHG emissions to peatland restoration will also vary according to previous land use and land use intensity.
  • Rovelli, L.; Attard, K. M.; Heppell, C. M.; Binley, A.; Trimmer, M.; Glud, R. N. (2018)
    Headwater streams are important in the carbon cycle and there is a need to better parametrize and quantify exchange of carbon-relevant gases. Thus, we characterized variability in the gas exchange coefficient (k(2)) and dissolved oxygen (O-2) gas transfer velocity (k) in two lowland headwaters of the River Avon (UK). The traditional one-station open-water method was complemented by in situ quantification of riverine sources and sinks of O-2 (i.e., groundwater inflow, photosynthesis, and respiration in both the water column and benthic compartment) enabling direct hourly estimates of k(2) at the reach-scale (similar to 150 m) without relying on the nighttime regression method. Obtained k(2) values ranged from 0.001 h(-1) to 0.600 h(-1). Average daytime k(2) were a factor two higher than values at night, likely due to diel changes in water temperature and wind. Temperature contributed up to 46% of the variability in k on an hourly scale, but clustering temperature incrementally strengthened the statistical relationship. Our analysis suggested that k variability is aligned with dominant temperature trends rather than with short-term changes. Similarly, wind correlation with k increased when clustering wind speeds in increments correspondent with dominant variations (1 m s(-1)). Time scale is thus an important consideration when resolving physical drivers of gas exchange. Mean estimates of k(600) from recent parametrizations proposed for upscaling, when applied to the settings of this study, were found to be in agreement with our independent O-2 budget assessment (within <10%), adding further support to the validity of upscaling efforts aiming at quantifying large-scale riverine gas emissions.
  • Kittler, Fanny; Eugster, Werner; Foken, Thomas; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Göckede, Mathias (2017)
    This study aimed at quantifying potential negative effects of instrument heating to improve eddy-covariance flux data quality in cold environments. Our overarching objective was to minimize heating-related bias in annual CO2 budgets from an Arctic permafrost system. We used continuous eddy-covariance measurements covering three full years within an Arctic permafrost ecosystem with parallel sonic anemometers operation with activated heating and without heating as well as parallel operation of open- and closed-path gas analyzers, the latter serving as a reference. Our results demonstrate that the sonic anemometer heating has a direct effect on temperature measurements while the turbulent wind field is not affected. As a consequence, fluxes of sensible heat are increased by an average 5 W m(-2) with activated heating, while no direct effect on other scalar fluxes was observed. However, the biased measurements in sensible heat fluxes can have an indirect effect on the CO2 fluxes in case they are used as input for a density-flux WPL correction of an open-path gas analyzer. Evaluating the self-heating effect of the open-path gas analyzer by comparing CO2 flux measurements between open- and closed-path gas analyzers, we found systematically higher CO2 uptake recorded with the open-path sensor, leading to a cumulative annual offset of 96 g Cm-2, which was not only the result of the cold winter season but also due to substantial self-heating effects during summer. With an inclined sensor mounting, only a fraction of the self-heating correction for vertically mounted instruments is required.
  • Raivonen, Maarit; Smolander, Sampo; Backman, Leif; Susiluoto, Jouni; Aalto, Tuula; Markkanen, Tiina; Mäkelä, Jarmo; Rinne, Janne; Peltola, Olli; Aurela, Mika; Lohila, Annalea; Tomasic, Marin; Li, Xuefei; Larmola, Tuula; Juutinen, Sari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Heimann, Martin; Sevanto, Sanna; Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Vesala, Timo (2017)
    Wetlands are one of the most significant natural sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. They emit CH4 because decomposition of soil organic matter in waterlogged anoxic conditions produces CH4, in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2). Production of CH4 and how much of it escapes to the atmosphere depend on a multitude of environmental drivers. Models simulating the processes leading to CH4 emissions are thus needed for upscaling observations to estimate present CH4 emissions and for producing scenarios of future atmospheric CH4 concentrations. Aiming at a CH4 model that can be added to models describing peatland carbon cycling, we composed a model called HIMMELI that describes CH4 build-up in and emissions from peatland soils. It is not a full peatland carbon cycle model but it requires the rate of anoxic soil respiration as input. Driven by soil temperature, leaf area index (LAI) of aerenchymatous peat-land vegetation, and water table depth (WTD), it simulates the concentrations and transport of CH4, CO2, and oxygen (O-2) in a layered one-dimensional peat column. Here, we present the HIMMELI model structure and results of tests on the model sensitivity to the input data and to the description of the peat column (peat depth and layer thickness), and demonstrate that HIMMELI outputs realistic fluxes by comparing modeled and measured fluxes at two peatland sites. As HIMMELI describes only the CH4-related processes, not the full carbon cycle, our analysis revealed mechanisms and dependencies that may remain hidden when testing CH4 models connected to complete peatland carbon models, which is usually the case. Our results indicated that (1) the model is flexible and robust and thus suitable for different environments; (2) the simulated CH4 emissions largely depend on the prescribed rate of anoxic respiration; (3) the sensitivity of the total CH4 emission to other input variables is mainly mediated via the concentrations of dissolved gases, in particular, the O-2 concentrations that affect the CH4 production and oxidation rates; (4) with given input respiration, the peat column description does not significantly affect the simulated CH4 emissions in this model version.
  • Ribeiro-Kumara, Christine; Köster, Egle; Aaltonen, Heidi; Köster, Kajar (2020)
    Wildfires strongly regulate carbon (C) cycling and storage in boreal forests and account for almost 10% of global fire C emissions. However, the anticipated effects of climate change on fire regimes may destabilize current C-climate feedbacks and switch the systems to new stability domains. Since most of these forests are located in upland soils where permafrost is widespread, the expected climate warming and drying combined with more active fires may alter the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets of boreal forests and trigger unprecedented changes in the global C balance. Therefore, a better understanding of the effects of fires on the various spatial and temporal patterns of GHG fluxes of different physical environments (permafrost and nonpermafrost soils) is fundamental to an understanding of the role played by fire in future climate feedbacks. While large amounts of C are released during fires, postfire GHG fluxes play an important role in boreal C budgets over the short and long term. The timescale over which the vegetation cover regenerates seems to drive the recovery of C emissions after both low- and high-severity fires, regardless of fire-induced changes in soil decomposition. In soils underlain by permafrost, fires increase the active layer depth for several years, which may alter the soil dynamics regulating soil GHG exchange. In a scenario of global warming, prolonged exposition of previously immobilized C could result in higher carbon dioxide emission during the early fire succession. However, without knowledge of the contribution of each respiration component combined with assessment of the warming and drying effects on both labile and recalcitrant soil organic matter throughout the soil profile, we cannot advance on the most relevant feedbacks involving fire and permafrost. Fires seem to have either negligible effects on methane (CH4) fluxes or a slight increase in CH4 uptake. However, permafrost thawing driven by climate or fire could turn upland boreal soils into temporary CH4 sources, depending on how fast the transition from moist to drier soils occurs. Most studies indicate a slight decrease or no significant change in postfire nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes. However, simulations have shown that the temperature sensitivity of denitrification exceeds that of soil respiration; thus, the effects of warming on soil N2O emissions may be greater than on C emissions.
  • Tang, Xuguang; Li, Hengpeng; Desai, Ankur R.; Nagy, Zoltan; Luo, Juhua; Kolb, Thomas E.; Olioso, Albert; Xu, Xibao; Yao, Li; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Köstner, Barbara; Ammann, Christof (2014)
  • Rebmann, Corinna; Aubinet, Marc; Schmid, Hape; Arriga, Nicola; Aurela, Mika; Burba, George; Clement, Robert; De Ligne, Anne; Fratini, Gerardo; Gielen, Bert; Grace, John; Graf, Alexander; Gross, Patrick; Haapanala, Sami; Herbst, Mathias; Hortnagl, Lukas; Ibrom, Andreas; Joly, Lilian; Kljun, Natascha; Kolle, Olaf; Kowalski, Andrew; Lindroth, Anders; Loustau, Denis; Mammarella, Ivan; Mauder, Matthias; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Stefan; Molder, Meelis; Montagnani, Leonardo; Papale, Dario; Pavelka, Marian; Peichl, Matthias; Roland, Marilyn; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Siebicke, Lukas; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Vesala, Timo; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Franz, Daniela (2018)
    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Re-search Infrastructure aims to provide long-term, continuous observations of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. At ICOS ecosystem stations, the principal technique for measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of GHGs is the eddy-covariance technique. The establishment and setup of an eddy-covariance tower have to be carefully reasoned to ensure high quality flux measurements being representative of the investigated ecosystem and comparable to measurements at other stations. To fulfill the requirements needed for flux determination with the eddy-covariance technique, variations in GHG concentrations have to be measured at high frequency, simultaneously with the wind velocity, in order to fully capture turbulent fluctuations. This requires the use of high-frequency gas analysers and ultrasonic anemometers. In addition, to analyse flux data with respect to environmental conditions but also to enable corrections in the post-processing procedures, it is necessary to measure additional abiotic variables in close vicinity to the flux measurements. Here we describe the standards the ICOS ecosystem station network has adopted for GHG flux measurements with respect to the setup of instrumentation on towers to maximize measurement precision and accuracy while allowing for flexibility in order to observe specific ecosystem features.
  • Nieminen, Mervi; Hurme, Timo; Mikola, Juha Tapio; Regina, Kristiina; Nuutinen, Visa (2015)
    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15-week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32% higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13% higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions in the laboratory. In the field, the significantly elevated macrofaunal densities in the vicinity of middens likely contributed to the higher emissions from areas occupied by L. terrestris. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18 %, but only 6 and 2% of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-till soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.
  • Bach, Lennart T.; Taucher, Jan; Boxhammer, Tim; Ludwig, Andrea; Achterberg, Eric P.; Alguero-Muniz, Maria; Anderson, Leif G.; Bellworthy, Jessica; Buedenbender, Jan; Czerny, Jan; Ericson, Ylva; Esposito, Mario; Fischer, Matthias; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Horn, Henriette G.; Hornick, Thomas; Meyer, Jana; Sswat, Michael; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Kristineberg KOSMOS Consortium (2016)
    Every year, the oceans absorb about 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to a re-equilibration of the marine carbonate system and decreasing seawater pH. Today, there is increasing awareness that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-could differentially affect the competitive ability of marine organisms, thereby provoking a restructuring of marine ecosystems and biogeochemical element cycles. In winter 2013, we deployed ten pelagic mesocosms in the Gullmar Fjord at the Swedish west coast in order to study the effect of OA on plankton ecology and biogeochemistry under close to natural conditions. Five of the ten mesocosms were left unperturbed and served as controls (similar to 380 mu atm pCO(2)), whereas the others were enriched with CO2-saturated water to simulate realistic end-of-the-century carbonate chemistry conditions (mu 760 mu atm pCO(2)). We ran the experiment for 113 days which allowed us to study the influence of high CO2 on an entire winter-to-summer plankton succession and to investigate the potential of some plankton organisms for evolutionary adaptation to OA in their natural environment. This paper is the first in a PLOS collection and provides a detailed overview on the experimental design, important events, and the key complexities of such a "long-term mesocosm" approach. Furthermore, we analyzed whether simulated end-of-the-century carbonate chemistry conditions could lead to a significant restructuring of the plankton community in the course of the succession. At the level of detail analyzed in this overview paper we found that CO2-induced differences in plankton community composition were non-detectable during most of the succession except for a period where a phytoplankton bloom was fueled by remineralized nutrients. These results indicate: (1) Long-term studies with pelagic ecosystems are necessary to uncover OA-sensitive stages of succession. (2) Plankton communities fueled by regenerated nutrients may be more responsive to changing carbonate chemistry than those having access to high inorganic nutrient concentrations and may deserve particular attention in future studies.
  • Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kolari, Pasi; Dengel, Sigrid; Berninger, Frank; Köster, Kajar; Matkala, Laura; Vanhatalo, Anni; Vesala, Timo; Bäck, Jaana (2019)
    We studied the inter- and intra-annual dynamics of the photosynthesis of forest floor vegetation and tree canopy in a subarctic Scots pine stand at the northern timberline in Finland. We tackled the issue using three different approaches: 1) measuring carbon dioxide exchange above and below canopy with the eddy covariance technique, 2) modelling the photosynthesis of the tree canopy based on shoot chamber measurements, and 3) upscaling the forest floor photosynthesis using biomass estimates and available information on the annual cycle of photosynthetic capacity of those species. The studied ecosystem was generally a weak sink of carbon but the sink strength showed notable year-to-year variation. Total ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis indicated a clear temperature limitation for the carbon exchange. However, the increase in photosynthetic production was steeper than the increase in respiration with temperature, indicating that warm temperatures increase the sink strength and do not stimulate the total ecosystem respiration as much in the 4-year window studied. The interannual variation in the photosynthetic production of the forest stand mainly resulted from the forest floor vegetation, whereas the photosynthesis of the tree canopy seemed to be more stable from year to year. Tree canopy photosynthesis increased earlier in the spring, whereas that of the forest floor increased after snowmelt, highlighting that models for photosynthesis in the northern area should also include snow cover in order to accurately estimate the seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis in these forests.
  • Riutta, Terhi; Korrensalo, Aino; Laine, Anna M.; Laine, Jukka; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2020)
    Vegetation and hydrology are important controlling factors in peatland methane dynamics. This study aimed at investigating the role of vegetation components, sedges, dwarf shrubs, and Sphagnum mosses, in methane fluxes of a boreal fen under natural and experimental water level draw-down conditions. We measured the fluxes during growing seasons 2001-2004 using the static chamber technique in a field experiment where the role of the ecosystem components was assessed via plant removal treatments. The first year was a calibration year after which the water level draw-down and vegetation removal treatments were applied. Under natural water level conditions, plant-mediated fluxes comprised 68%-78% of the mean growing season flux (1:73 +/- 0:17 gCH(4) m(-2) month 1 from June to September), of which Sphagnum mosses and sedges accounted for one-fourth and three-fourths, respectively. The presence of dwarf shrubs, on the other hand, had a slightly attenuating effect on the fluxes. In water level drawdown conditions, the mean flux was close to zero (0:03 +/- 0:03 gCH(4) m(-2) month(-1)) and the presence and absence of the plant groups had a negligible effect. In conclusion, water level acted as a switch; only in natural water level conditions did vegetation regulate the net fluxes. The results are relevant for assessing the response of fen peatland fluxes to changing climatic conditions, as water level drawdown and the consequent vegetation succession are the major projected impacts of climate change on northern peatlands.
  • Sampaio, E.; Franco Rodil, Ivan; Vaz-Pinto, F.; Fernandez, A.; Arenas, F. (2017)
    Since the past century, rising CO2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects. Within this context, we aimed to assess the combined effects of warming gradients and acidification on macroalgae-herbivore interactions, using three cosmopolitan species, abundant in the Iberian Peninsula and closely associated in nature: the amphipod Melita palmata, the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis, and the green macroalga Ulva rigida. Under two CO2 treatments (triangle CO2 similar or equal to 450 mu atm) across a temperature gradient (13.5, 16.6, 19.9 and 22.1 degrees C), two mesocosm experiments were performed to assess grazer consumption rates and macroalgae-herbivore interaction, respectively. Warming (Experiment I and II) and acidification (Experiment II) prompted negative effects in grazer's survival and species-specific differences in consumption rates. M. palmata was shown to be the stronger grazer per biomass (but not per capita), and also the most affected by climate stressors. Macroalgae-herbivore interaction strength was markedly shaped by the temperature gradient, while simultaneous acidification lowered thermal optimal threshold. In the near future, warming and acidification are likely to strengthen top-down control, but further increases in disturbances may lead to bottom-up regulated communities. Finally, our results suggest that grazer assemblage composition may modulate future macroalgae-herbivore interactions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rannik, U.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, Narasinha; Mammarella, I.; Lind, Saara; Hyvönen, Niina; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, Mark; Martikainen, Pertti; Vesala, T. (2015)
    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring until winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O / CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emissions, lasting for about 2 weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterized by an up to 2 orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.01 to 1 nmol m−2 s−1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced the cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher values during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reasons for systematic differences were not identified, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and any other factors that can systematically affect the accuracy of flux measurements. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterized by the lowest noise level (with a standard deviation of around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate) as compared to N2O / CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). We identified that for all instruments except CW-TILDAS-CS the random error due to instrumental noise was an important source of uncertainty at the 30 min averaging level and the total stochastic error was frequently of the same magnitude as the fluxes when N2O exchange was small at the measurement site. Both instruments based on continuous-wave quantum cascade laser, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, were able to determine the same sample of low N2O fluxes with a high mutual coefficient of determination at the 30 min averaging level and with minor systematic difference over the observation period of several months. This enables us to conclude that the new-generation instrumentation is capable of measuring small N2O exchange with high precision and accuracy at sites with low fluxes.
  • Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Räsänen, Aleksi; Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikola, Juha; Ivakhov, Viktor; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Laurila, Tuomas (2019)
    The non-uniform spatial integration, an inherent feature of the eddy covariance (EC) method, creates a challenge for flux data interpretation in a heterogeneous environment, where the contribution of different land cover types varies with flow conditions, potentially resulting in biased estimates in comparison to the areally averaged fluxes and land cover attributes. We modelled flux footprints and characterized the spatial scale of our EC measurements in Tiksi, a tundra site in northern Siberia. We used leaf area index (LAI) and land cover class (LCC) data, derived from very-high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery and field surveys, and quantified the sensor location bias. We found that methane (CH4) fluxes varied strongly with wind direction (-0.09 to 0.59 mu gCH(4)m(-2) s(-1) on average) during summer 2014, reflecting the distribution of different LCCs. Other environmental factors had only a minor effect on short-term flux variations but influenced the seasonal trend. Using footprint weights of grouped LCCs as explanatory variables for the measured CH4 flux, we developed a multiple regression model to estimate LCC group-specific fluxes. This model showed that wet fen and graminoid tundra patches in locations with topography-enhanced wetness acted as strong sources (1.0 mu gCH(4) m(-2) s(-1) during the peak emission period), while mineral soils were significant sinks (-0.13 mu gCH(4) m(-2) s(-1)). To assess the representativeness of measurements, we upscaled the LCC group-specific fluxes to different spatial scales. Despite the landscape heterogeneity and rather poor representativeness of EC data with respect to the areally averaged LAI and coverage of some LCCs, the mean flux was close to the CH4 balance upscaled to an area of 6.3 km(2), with a location bias of 14 %. We recommend that EC site descriptions in a heterogeneous environment should be complemented with footprint-weighted high-resolution data on vegetation and other site characteristics.
  • Potes, M.; Salgado, R.; Costa, M. J.; Morais, M.; Bortoli, D.; Kostadinov, I.; Mammarella, I. (2017)
    The study of lake-atmosphere interactions was the main purpose of a 2014 summer experiment at Alqueva reservoir in Portugal. Near-surface fluxes of momentum, heat and mass [water vapour (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)] were obtained with the new Campbell Scientific's IRGASON Integrated Open-Path CO2/H2O Gas Analyser and 3D Sonic Anemometer between 2 June and 2 October. On average, the reservoir was releasing energy in the form of sensible and latent heat flux during the study period. At the end of the 75 d, the total evaporation was estimated as 490.26 mm. A high correlation was found between the latent heat flux and the wind speed (R = 0.97). The temperature gradient between air and water was positive between 12 and 21 UTC, causing a negative sensible heat flux, and negative during the rest of the day, triggering a positive sensible heat flux. The reservoir acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 with an average rate of -0.026 mg m(-2) s(-1). However, at a daily scale we found an unexpected uptake between 0 and 9 UTC and almost null flux between 13 and 19 UTC. Potential reasons for this result are further discussed. The net radiation was recorded for the same period and water column heat storage was estimated using water temperature profiles. The energy balance closure for the analysed period was 81%. In-water solar spectral downwelling irradiance profiles were measured with a new device allowing measurements independent of the solar zenith angle, which enabled the computation of the attenuation coefficient of light in the water column. The average attenuation coefficient for the photosynthetically active radiation spectral region varied from 0.849 +/- 0.025 m(-1) on 30 July to 1.459 +/- 0.007 m(-1) on 25 September.
  • Kittler, Fanny; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergei; Gockede, Mathias (2017)
    Permafrost landscapes in northern high latitudes with their massive organic carbon stocks are an important, poorly known, component of the global carbon cycle. However, in light of future Arctic warming, the sustainability of these carbon pools is uncertain. To a large part, this is due to a limited understanding of the carbon cycle processes because of sparse observations in Arctic permafrost ecosystems. Here we present an eddy covariance data set covering more than 3 years of continuous CO2 and CH4 flux observations within a moist tussock tundra ecosystem near Chersky in north-eastern Siberia. Through parallel observations of a disturbed (drained) area and a control area nearby, we aim to evaluate the long-term effects of a persistently lowered water table on the net vertical carbon exchange budgets and the dominating biogeochemical mechanisms. Persistently drier soils trigger systematic shifts in the tundra ecosystem carbon cycle patterns. Both, uptake rates of CO2 and emissions of CH4 decreased. Year-round measurements emphasize the importance of the non-growing seasonin particular the zero-curtain period in the fallto the annual budget. Approximately 60% of the CO2 uptake in the growing season is lost during the cold seasons, while CH4 emissions during the non-growing season account for 30% of the annual budget. Year-to-year variability in temperature conditions during the late growing season was identified as the primary control of the interannual variability observed in the CO2 and CH4 fluxes.