Browsing by Subject "CLIMATE"

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  • Melnikov, Vladimir; Gennadinik, Viktor; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zilitinkevich, Sergej (2018)
    The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below 0 degrees C and pronounced H2O phase changes. In spite of its strong variability in space and time, the cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat, keeping the thermal regime on the Earth within rather narrow limits, affording continuation of the conditions needed for the maintenance of life. Objects and processes related to cryosphere are very diverse, due to the following basic reasons: the anomalous thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of H2O, the intermediate intensity of hydrogen bonds and the wide spread of cryogenic systems all over the Earth. However, these features attract insufficient attention from research communities. Cryology is usually understood as a descriptive discipline within physical geography, limited to glaciology and permafrost research. We emphasise its broad interdisciplinary landscape involving physical, chemical and biological phenomena related to the H2O phase transitions and various forms of ice. This paper aims to draw the attention of readers to the crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies, which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system very special, if not unique, objects in the universe.
  • Walker, Anthony P.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Soeke; Iversen, Colleen M.; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna; Hickler, Thomas; Hungate, Bruce A.; Jain, Atul K.; Luo, Yiqi; Lu, Xingjie; Lu, Meng; Luus, Kristina; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Oren, Ram; Ryan, Edmund; Shu, Shijie; Talhelm, Alan; Wang, Ying-Ping; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Yang, Bai; Zak, Donald R.; Norby, Richard J. (2019)
    Increasing atmospheric CO2 stimulates photosynthesis which can increase net primary production (NPP), but at longer timescales may not necessarily increase plant biomass. Here we analyse the four decade-long CO2-enrichment experiments in woody ecosystems that measured total NPP and biomass. CO2 enrichment increased biomass increment by 1.05 +/- 0.26 kg C m(-2) over a full decade, a 29.1 +/- 11.7% stimulation of biomass gain in these early-secondary-succession temperate ecosystems. This response is predictable by combining the CO2 response of NPP (0.16 +/- 0.03 kg C m(-2) y(-1)) and the CO2-independent, linear slope between biomass increment and cumulative NPP (0.55 +/- 0.17). An ensemble of terrestrial ecosystem models fail to predict both terms correctly. Allocation to wood was a driver of across-site, and across-model, response variability and together with CO2-independence of biomass retention highlights the value of understanding drivers of wood allocation under ambient conditions to correctly interpret and predict CO2 responses.
  • Lee, Laura M.; Wallace, Roberta S.; Clyde, Victoria L.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D.; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O'Connor, David H.; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P.; Goldberg, Tony L. (2016)
    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.
  • Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Okuljar, Magdalena; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Demaria, Giorgia; Liangsupree, Thanaporn; Zagatti, Elisa; Aalto, Juho; Hartonen, Kari; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2021)
    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in the interaction between biosphere, atmosphere, and climate, affecting cloud and precipitation formation processes. The presence of pollen, plant fragments, spores, bacteria, algae, and viruses in PBAPs is well known. In order to explore the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical tracers (amino acids, saccharides), gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions (< 1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and > 10 mu m) were collected at the SMEAR II station, Finland, in autumn 2017. The gene copy numbers and size distributions of bacteria, Pseudomonas, and fungi in biogenic aerosols were determined by DNA extraction and amplification. In addition, free amino acids (19) and saccharides (8) were analysed in aerosol samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS). Different machine learning (ML) approaches, such as cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, neural network analysis, and multiple linear regression (MLR), were used for the clarification of several aspects related to the composition of biogenic aerosols. Clear variations in composition as a function of the particle size were observed. In most cases, the highest concentration values and gene copy numbers (in the case of microbes) were observed for 2.5-10 mu m particles, followed by > 10, 1-2.5, and < 1.0 mu m particles. In addition, different variables related to the air and soil temperature, the UV radiation, and the amount of water in the soil affected the composition of biogenic aerosols. In terms of interpreting the results, MLR provided the greatest improvement over classical statistical approaches such as Pearson correlation among the ML approaches considered. In all cases, the explained variance was over 91 %. The great variability of the samples hindered the clarification of common patterns when evaluating the relation between the presence of microbes and the chemical composition of biogenic aerosols. Finally, positive correlations were observed between gas-phase VOCs (such as acetone, toluene, methanol, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol) and the gene copy numbers of microbes in biogenic aerosols.
  • Ketonen, Elina E.; Hotulainen, Risto (2019)
    The development of students' learning and test-taking behavior may derive from the social context and the group of peers they associate with daily for years. Consequently, it is assumed that students' academic achievements are to some degree affected by their classmates and the composition of the classroom. The present study provides evidence on how Finnish students (N = 5071) from different classrooms (N = 435) develop distinct patterns regarding their mathematics and literacy achievement during lower secondary school. We analysed longitudinal large-scale educational assessment data using a multilevel latent profile analysis (MLPA) to investigate the impact of classroom effect on students' achievement patterns, that is, on the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores from 7th to 9th grade. The results demonstrated the added value of modelling the multilevel structure inherent in educational assessment data: we identified four student achievement patterns that displayed different distributions across the school classes. More precisely, besides individual characteristics, the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores was associated with class-level factors and some of the classrooms seemed to have a stronger effect on students' test scores. These results suggest that classroom context is associated with students' achievement patterns, especially regarding the worst achieving students. The findings may reflect a combination of class placement practices as well as classroom and peer effect. Although the differences between Finnish schools have been one of the lowest in the OECD countries, the findings of the present study suggest that the classroom membership may create class level quality differences in both the preconditions and the development of learning.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2017)
    The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health "and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The indepth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.
  • Pietikainen, Risto; Nordling, Stig; Jokiranta, Sakari; Saari, Seppo; Heikkinen, Petra; Gardiner, Chris; Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Kantanen, Tiina; Nikanorova, Anna; Laaksonen, Sauli; Lavikainen, Antti; Oksanen, Antti (2017)
    Background: The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. Results: Herein, we describe an autochthonous D. repens infection in a Finnish woman. We also present two cases of D. repens infection in imported dogs indicating the life-cycle in the Russian Vyborg and St Petersburg areas, close to the Finnish border. Conclusions: The most obvious limiting factor of the northern distribution of D. repens is the summer temperature, due to the temperature-dependent development of larvae in vectors. With continuing climate change, further spread of D. repens in Fennoscandia can be expected.
  • Broman, Elias; Asmala, Eero; Carstensen, Jacob; Pinhassi, Jarone; Dopson, Mark (2019)
    Coastal zones are important transitional areas between the land and sea, where both terrestrial and phytoplankton supplied dissolved organic matter (DOM) are respired or transformed. As climate change is expected to increase river discharge and water temperatures, DOM from both allochthonous and autochthonous sources is projected to increase. As these transformations are largely regulated by bacteria, we analyzed microbial community structure data in relation to a 6-month long time-series dataset of DOM characteristics from Roskilde Fjord and adjacent streams, Denmark. The results showed that the microbial community composition in the outer estuary (closer to the sea) was largely associated with salinity and nutrients, while the inner estuary formed two clusters linked to either nutrients plus allochthonous DOM or autochthonous DOM characteristics. In contrast, the microbial community composition in the streams was found to be mainly associated with allochthonous DOM characteristics. A general pattern across the land-to-sea interface was that Betaproteobacteria were strongly associated with humic-like DOM [operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to family Comamonadaceae], while distinct populations were instead associated with nutrients or abiotic variables such as temperature (Cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus) and salinity (Actinobacteria family Microbacteriaceae). Furthermore, there was a stark shift in the relative abundance of OTUs between stream and marine stations. This indicates that as DOM travels through the land-to-sea interface, different bacterial guilds continuously degrade it.
  • Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne; Norkko, Alf (2020)
    Aim Global biodiversity loss has raised interest in understanding variation in diversity at different scales. In particular, studies conducted across large spatial gradients are crucial, because they can increase perspectives on how ecological patterns change relative to environmental factors and facilitate predictions of possible responses to environmental change. We explored the full extent of a brackish sea to test the hypotheses that: (a) benthic communities are defined by the limited ranges of species, controlled by varying drivers along a large environmental gradient; (b) the responses of taxonomic and functional community composition and turnover to the environmental gradient are different, thus highlighting the need to include both measures in ecological studies; and (c) diversity reaches the minimum at intermediate salinities (Remane curve) owing to the low adaptation of freshwater and marine species. Location A large environmental and spatial gradient spanning the entire Swedish coastline (c. 2,300 km; salinity 1.2-27.6), the Baltic Sea. Time period August 2018. Major taxa studied Benthic diatoms. Methods We assessed environmental drivers for the communities and calculated the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity along the gradient. We also compared the taxonomic and functional composition and diversity of communities among areas with different salinity. Results We found support for the hypothesis of limited species ranges, because taxonomic beta diversity, mainly induced by changes in salinity and climate, was high, whereas functional beta diversity remained considerably lower, and the composition and diversity of communities, in addition to environmental drivers controlling the communities, differed between regions with different salinity. The lowest taxonomic diversity was found at intermediate salinities of 5-6. Main conclusions These findings advance understanding of large-scale patterns of benthic diversity, emphasize the importance of large gradient studies for a better understanding of general ecological patterns and highlight the vulnerability of brackish water ecosystems as ecologically important tipping-point realms.
  • Ordynets, Alexander; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Savchenko, Anton; Baessler, Claus; Volobuev, Sergey; Akulov, Olexander; Karadelev, Mitko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Saitta, Alessandro; Langer, Ewald; Abrego, Nerea (2018)
    Aim: Aphyllophoroid fungi are associated with plants, either using plants as a resource (as parasites or decomposers) or as symbionts (as mycorrhizal partners). In spite of their strong association with plants, it is unknown how much plant distributions determine their biogeographical patterns compared with environmental factors such as climate and human land use. In this study, our aims are to (1) describe the spatial diversity patterns of aphyllophoroid fungi in Europe and (2) identify the factors shaping these patterns. Location: Europe, as well as the adjacent Subarctic to Arctic islands (Greenland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Svalbard), Palestine and the south-east coast of the Caspian Sea. Methods: We compiled a dataset consisting of 14,030 fruitbody occurrences of 1,491 aphyllophoroid fungal species from 39 geographical areas (17 countries) belonging to eight biogeographical regions. We assessed the differences in fungal species richness and overall diversity and its nestedness and turnover components across biogeographical regions of Europe, as well as between southern and northern Europe (based on geographical latitude of 50 degrees as threshold). We used cluster and ordination analyses to classify the European aphyllophoroid communities biogeographically and evaluated the importance of climate, host-tree species, topography and human land-use intensity in explaining biogeographical variation. Results: The importance of biogeographical regions in determining European aphyllophoroid fungal communities varies for different diversity components. Species richness and nestedness are best explained by plant-based biogeographical regions, whereas overall beta diversity and species turnover are driven mostly by variation in climate, and nestedness mostly by tree species occupancy. Beta-diversity patterns of aphyllophoroid fungi do not differ between southern and northern Europe. Main conclusions: At the continental scale, aphyllophoroid fungi are less shaped by historical legacies than vascular plant and animal communities, and trends of overall beta diversity in southern and northern Europe are similar to patterns found for bryophytes.
  • Pulliainen, Jouni; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Aalto, Tuula; Takala, Matias; Salminen, Miia; Kulmala, Markku; Barr, Alan; Heimann, Martin; Lindroth, Anders; Laaksonen, Ari; Derksen, Chris; Mäkelä, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Susiluoto, Jouni; Dengel, Sigrid; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Vesala, Timo (2017)
    We determine the annual timing of spring recovery from space-borne microwave radiometer observations across northern hemisphere boreal evergreen forests for 1979-2014. We find a trend of advanced spring recovery of carbon uptake for this period, with a total average shift of 8.1 d (2.3 d/decade). We use this trend to estimate the corresponding changes in gross primary production (GPP) by applying in situ carbon flux observations. Micrometeoro-logical CO2 measurements at four sites in northern Europe and North America indicate that such an advance in spring recovery would have increased the January-June GPP sum by 29 g.C.m(-2) [8.4 g.C.m(-2) (3.7%)/decade]. We find this sensitivity of the measured springtime GPP to the spring recovery to be in accordance with the corresponding sensitivity derived from simulations with a land ecosystem model coupled to a global circulation model. The model-predicted increase in springtime cumulative GPP was 0.035 Pg/decade [15.5 g.C.m(-2) (6.8%)/decade] for Eurasian forests and 0.017 Pg/decade for forests in North America [9.8 g.C.m(-2) (4.4%)/decade]. This change in the springtime sum of GPP related to the timing of spring snowmelt is quantified here for boreal evergreen forests.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz (2019)
    Understanding local patterns and large-scale processes in past climate necessitates a detailed network of temperature reconstructions. In this study, a merged temperature inference model using fossil chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) datasets from Finland and Poland was constructed to fill the lack of an applicable training set for East European sites. The developed weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) inference model showed favorable performance statistics, suggesting that the model can be useful for downcore reconstructions. The combined calibration model includes 212 sites, 142 taxa, and a temperature gradient of 11.3-20.1 degrees C. The 2-component WA-PLS model has a cross-validated coefficient of determination of 0.88 and a root mean squared prediction error of 0.88 degrees C. We tested the new East European temperature transfer function in chironomid stratigraphies from a Finnish high-resolution short-core sediment record and a Polish paleolake (Zabieniec) covering the past similar to 20 000 yr. In the Finnish site, the chironomid-inferred temperatures correlated closely with the observed instrumental temperatures, showing improved accuracy compared to estimates by the original Finnish calibration model. In addition, the long-core reconstruction from the Polish site showed logical results in its general trends compared to existing knowledge on the past regional climate trends; however, it had distinct differences when compared with hemispheric climate oscillations. Hence, based on these findings, the new temperature model will enable more detailed examination of long-term temperature variability in Eastern Europe, and consequently, reliable identification of local and regional climate variability of the past.
  • Gennaretti, Fabio; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Boucher, Etienne; Berninger, Frank; Arseneault, Dominique; Guiot, Joel (2017)
    A better understanding of the coupling between photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the boreal forest, together with its associated environmental factors and mechanistic rules, is crucial to accurately predict boreal forest carbon stocks and fluxes, which are significant components of the global carbon budget. Here, we adapted the MAIDEN ecophysiological forest model to consider important processes for boreal tree species, such as nonlinear acclimation of photosynthesis to temperature changes, canopy development as a function of previous-year climate variables influencing bud formation and the temperature dependence of carbon partition in summer. We tested these modifications in the eastern Canadian taiga using black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) gross primary production and ring width data. MAIDEN explains 90% of the observed daily gross primary production variability, 73% of the annual ring width variability and 20-30% of its high-frequency component (i.e., when decadal trends are removed). The positive effect on stem growth due to climate warming over the last several decades is well captured by the model. In addition, we illustrate how we improve the model with each introduced model adaptation and compare the model results with those of linear response functions. Our results demonstrate that MAIDEN simulates robust relationships with the most important climate variables (those detected by classical response-function analysis) and is a powerful tool for understanding how environmental factors interact with black spruce ecophysiol-ogy to influence present-day and future boreal forest carbon fluxes.
  • Ercan, Fabian E. Z.; Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Myller, Kristiina; Vainio, Elina; Slowinska, Sandra; Slowinski, Michal; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Blok, Daan; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike (2021)
    Numerous long-term, free-air plant growth facilities currently explore vegetation responses to the ongoing climate change in northern latitudes. Open top chamber (OTC) experiments as well as the experimental set-ups with active warming focus on many facets of plant growth and performance, but information on morphological alterations of plant cells is still scarce. Here we compare the effects of in-situ warming on leaf epidermal cell expansion in dwarf birch, Betula nana in Finland, Greenland, and Poland. The localities of the three in-situ warming experiments represent contrasting regions of B. nana distribution, with the sites in Finland and Greenland representing the current main distribution in low and high Arctic, respectively, and the continental site in Poland as a B. nana relict Holocene microrefugium. We quantified the epidermal cell lateral expansion by microscopic analysis of B. nana leaf cuticles. The leaves were produced in paired experimental treatment plots with either artificial warming or ambient temperature. At all localities, the leaves were collected in two years at the end of the growing season to facilitate between-site and within-site comparison. The measured parameters included the epidermal cell area and circumference, and using these, the degree of cell wall undulation was calculated as an Undulation Index (UI). We found enhanced leaf epidermal cell expansion under experimental warming, except for the extremely low temperature Greenland site where no significant difference occurred between the treatments. These results demonstrate a strong response of leaf growth at individual cell level to growing season temperature, but also suggest that in harsh conditions other environmental factors may limit this response. Our results provide evidence of the relevance of climate warming for plant leaf maturation and underpin the importance of studies covering large geographical scales.
  • Petäjä, T.; Järvi, L.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Ding, A. J.; Sun, J. N.; Nie, W.; Kujansuu, J.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X. -Q.; Fu, C. B.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Kulmala, M. (2016)
    Severe air pollution episodes have been frequent in China during the recent years. While high emissions are the primary reason for increasing pollutant concentrations, the ultimate cause for the most severe pollution episodes has remained unclear. Here we show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM) will enhance the stability of an urban boundary layer, which in turn decreases the boundary layer height and consequently cause further increases in PM concentrations. We estimate the strength of this positive feedback mechanism by combining a new theoretical framework with ambient observations. We show that the feedback remains moderate at fine PM concentrations lower than about 200 mu g m(-3), but that it becomes increasingly effective at higher PM loadings resulting from the combined effect of high surface PM emissions and massive secondary PM production within the boundary layer. Our analysis explains why air pollution episodes are particularly serious and severe in megacities and during the days when synoptic weather conditions stay constant.
  • Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti J.; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus (2016)
    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.
  • Riihimäki, Henri; Luoto, Miska; Heiskanen, Janne (2019)
    Fractional cover of green vegetation (FCover) is a key variable when observing Arctic vegetation under a changing climate. Vegetation changes over large areas are traditionally monitored by linking plot-scale measurements to satellite data. However, integrating field and satellite data is not straightforward. Typically, the satellite data are at a much coarser scale in comparison to field measurements. Here, we studied how Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) can be used to bridge this gap. We covered three 250 m x 250 m sites in Fennoscandian tundra with varying productivity ana FCover, ranging from barren vegetation to shrub tundra. The UAS sites were then used to train satellite data-based FCover models. First, we created a binary vegetation classification (absent, present) by using UAS-derived RGB-orthomosaics and logistic regression. Secondly, we used the classification to calculate FCover to Planet CubeSat (3 m), Sentinel-2A MSI (10 m, 20 m), and Landsat 8 OLI (30 m) grids, and examined how well FCover is explained by various spectral vegetation indices (VI) derived from satellite data. The overall classification accuracies for the UAS sites were >= 90%. The UAS-FCover were strongly related to the tested VIs (D-2 89% at best). The explained deviance was generally higher for coarser resolution data, indicating that the effect of data resolution should be taken into account when comparing results from different sensors. VIs based on red-edge (at 740 nm, 783 nm), or near-infrared and shortwave infrared (SWIR) had the highest performance. We recommend wider inspection of red-edge and SWIR bands for future Arctic vegetation research. Our results demonstrate that UASs can be used for observing FCover at multiple scales. Individual UAS sites can serve as focus areas, which provide information at the finest resolution (e.g. individual plants), whereas a sample of several UAS sites can be used to train satellite data and examine vegetation over larger extents.
  • Wu, Kai; Yang, Xianyu; Chen, Dean; Gu, Shan; Lu, Yaqiong; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Kun; Ou, Yihan; Qian, Yan; Shao, Ping; Lu, Shihua (2020)
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play an important role in global environmental chemistry and climate. In the present work, biogenic emissions from China in 2017 were estimated based on the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). The effects of BVOC emissions on ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were investigated using the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Three parallel scenarios were developed to assess the impact of BVOC emissions on China's ozone and SOA formation in July 2017. Biogenic emissions were estimated at 23.54 Tg/yr, with a peak in the summer and decreasing from southern to northern China. The high BVOC emissions across eastern and southwestern China increased the surface ozone levels, particularly in the BTH (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei), SCB (Sichuan Basin), YRD (Yangtze River Delta) and central PRD (Pearl River Delta) regions, with increases of up to 47 μg m−3 due to the sensitivity of VOC-limited urban areas. In summer, most SOA concentrations formed over China are from biogenic sources (national average of 70%). And SOA concentrations in YRD and SCB regions are generally higher than other regions. Excluding anthropogenic emissions while keeping biogenic emissions unchanged results that SOA concentrations reduce by 60% over China, which indicates that anthropogenic emissions can interact with biogenic emissions then facilitate biogenic SOA formation. It is suggested that controlling anthropogenic emissions would result in reduction of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA.
  • Tupek, Boris; Launiainen, Samuli; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sievanen, Risto; Perttunen, Jari; Kulmala, Liisa; Penttila, Timo; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Lehtonen, Aleksi (2019)
    We can curb climate change by improved management decisions for the most important terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon stock (SOC). However, we need to be confident we can obtain the correct representation of the simultanous effect of the input of plant litter, soil temperature and water (which could be altered by climate or management) on the decomposition of soil organic matter. In this research, we used regression and Bayesian statistics for testing process-based models (Yasso07, Yasso15 and CENTURY) with soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and SOC, measured at four sites in Finland during 2015 and 2016. We extracted climate modifiers for calibration with Rh. The Rh values of Yasso07, Yasso15 and CENTURY models estimated with default parameterization correlated with measured monthly heterotrophic respiration. Despite a significant correlation, models on average underestimated measured soil respiration by 43%. After the Bayesian calibration, the fitted climate modifier of the Yasso07 model outperformed the Yasso15 and CENTURY models. The Yasso07 model had smaller residual mean square errors and temperature and water functions with fewer, thus more efficient, parameters than the other models. After calibration, there was a small overestimate of Rh by the models that used monotonic moisture functions and a small generic underestimate in autumn. The mismatch between measured and modelled Rh indicates that the Yasso and CENTURY models should be improved by adjusting climate modifiers of decomposition or by accounting for missing controls in, for example, microbial growth.
  • Luoma, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2019)
    Exact knowledge over tree growth is valuable information for decision makers when considering the purposes of sustainable forest management and planning or optimizing the use of timber, for example. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can be used for measuring tree and forest attributes in very high detail. The study aims at characterizing changes in individual tree attributes (e.g., stem volume growth and taper) during a nine year-long study period in boreal forest conditions. TLS-based three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data were used for identifying and quantifying these changes. The results showed that observing changes in stem volume was possible from TLS point cloud data collected at two different time points. The average volume growth of sample trees was 0.226 m(3) during the study period, and the mean relative change in stem volume was 65.0%. In addition, the results of a pairwise Student's t-test gave strong support (p-value 0.0001) that the used method was able to detect tree growth within the nine-year period between 2008-2017. The findings of this study allow the further development of enhanced methods for TLS-based single tree and forest growth modeling and estimation, which can thus improve the accuracy of forest inventories and offer better tools for future decision-making processes.