Browsing by Subject "COMMUNICATION"

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  • Skogman, Malena E.; Kanerva, Sonja; Manner, Suvi; Vuorela, Pia M.; Fallarero, Adyary (2016)
    Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors from natural compound libraries. In this system, QS is correlated with the production of violacein, which is directly controlled by the LuxI/LuxR system in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532. The parallel use of C. violaceum Tn5-mutant CV026, which depends on auto-inducer addition, allows simultaneous discrimination of compounds that act as quenchers of the AHL signal (quorum quenchers). The incorporation of a redox stain into the platform allowed further distinction between QS inhibitors, quorum quenchers and antibacterial compounds. A pilot screening was performed with 465 natural and synthetic flavonoids. All the most active compounds were flavones and they displayed potencies (IC50) in the range of 3.69 to 23.35 M. These leads were particularly promising as they inhibited the transition from microcolonies into mature biofilms from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach can be very effective in identifying new antimicrobials posing lesser risks of resistance.
  • Virtanen, Mikko J.; Salmivaara, Saara (2021)
    In the present study, we examine socio-cultural and practical aspects of human papillomavirus vaccination (HPVV) through a multi-sited study of framings. We ask how HPVV is framed in the daily lives of vaccination-aged Finnish girls and in school nurses' everyday work. We then mirror these framings against both each other and Finland's official vaccination campaign. Based on analysis of interviews with 24 nurses and 12 girls and the campaign materials, we argue first that the campaign frames vaccination as an individual, knowledge-based decision reflecting the informed consent principle. Second, however, the vaccination is framed in the everyday lives of eligible girls through gendered social ties and as a gendered and cohort-specific event pivoting around the needle prick. Third, HPVV is not primarily framed in the school nurses' work as preparing the girls for the vaccination decision by sharing official information but through trust-based social relationships with the girls and their parents. We conclude that, as the vaccination is not an issue of individually reflected and knowledge-based decision-making for the two interviewed key groups, the official Finnish HPVV campaign and the undergirding informed consent principle drift into problems in their practical implementation.
  • Mustajoki, Marianne; Eriksson, Johan G.; Forsen, Tom (2020)
    Objective: We assessed the prevalence and consequences of discordant language communication between bilingual Swedish speaking emergency patients and general practitioners (GPs) in Finnish healthcare. We compared the results with Finnish speaking emergency patients provided with language concordant healthcare. Materials and Methods: A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collect data about both Swedish and Finnish speaking emergency patients' health and socioeconomic status, reason for emergency visits and use of healthcare. Furthermore, the Swedish speakers' nonnative language proficiency and preferred communication language were examined. The study was performed in 16 healthcare centers and outpatient departments in bilingual regions in Finland. Results: The Swedish speakers (n = 139) visited healthcare centers less than the Finnish speakers (n = 736) (P = 0.001) and communicated less frequently with the GP in their native language (P < 0.001). The Swedish speakers more often planned to revisit their assigned GP (P < 0.001) after the emergency visit. No differences in health conditions and socioeconomic status between the language groups were observed. Conclusion: Although Swedish and Finnish speaking emergency patients report a similar prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, Swedish speakers make fewer annual visits to a physician. We suggest that discordant language communication might relate to decreased healthcare visits among bilingual Swedish speaking emergency patients.
  • Harju, Eeva; Rantanen, Anja; Helminen, Mika; Kaunonen, Marja; Isotalo, Taina; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi (2018)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore changes in HRQoL (health-related quality of life) and identify the associated factors in patients with prostate cancer and their spouses during the year following their diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: The longitudinal study design consisted of 179 patients and 166 spouses, using discretionary sampling, at five Finnish central hospitals. Participants completed a self-reported RAND-36-Item Health Survey at three time-points: time of diagnosis and 6 and 12 months later. Changes in HRQoL were analysed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify the factors associated with the changes in HRQoL in the patients and their spouses. Results: On average, the HRQoL of patients with prostate cancer changed in physical functioning (p = 0.015), emotional well-being (p = 0.029) and general health (p = 0.038) were statistically significant over the 12 month study period. In spouses, statistically significant changes in HRQoL were not observed. Interaction between the age of participants and changes in HRQoL were statistically significant. Conclusions: Findings in this study suggest that interventions aimed at improving the HRQoL of patients should support a few different dimensions of HRQoL for the patients themselves than for their spouses. Nurses should pay more attention to elderly couples.
  • Peignier, Mélissa; Pokorny, Tamara; Heinze, Jürgen; Lindgren, Rosanna; Helanterä, Heikki; Schultner, Eva (2019)
    Social insects live in highly complex societies with efficient communication systems. Begging is one display commonly used by offspring to signal their nutritional state, however begging behavior has received very little attention in social insects. Theory predicts that begging can be either an honest (i.e., honest-signaling strategy) or a dishonest (i.e., scrambling competition) signal of need, with dishonest signals expected to be more likely when relatedness within the group is low. To investigate the presence and honesty of begging, as well as the nature of the involved signals, we used a comparative approach with four species of the ant genus Formica known to differ in the degree of intra-colony relatedness. We investigated the behavior of starved and non-starved larvae of F. aquilonia, F. pressilabris (both low intra-colony relatedness), F. exsecta (intermediate relatedness), and F. fusca (high relatedness). In addition, we assessed the attraction of conspecific workers toward odors extracted from these two classes of larvae and analyzed the larval cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. We found that in F. fusca and F. exsecta, larvae signaled significantly more when starved. In contrast, larvae of F. aquilonia signaled significantly more when they were non-starved, while there was no significant difference in the behavior of starved vs. non-starved larvae in F. pressilabris. Our results show that workers were not preferentially attracted to the odor of starved larvae, and we also did not detect any differences between the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of starved and non-starved larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates among species variation in larval hunger signaling in Formica ants, and encourages further studies to confirm the link between kin structure variation and the honesty of begging signals.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Online hate is widely identified as a social problem, but its social psychological dimensions are yet to be explored. We used an integrative social psychological framework for analyzing online hate offending and found that both personal risk factors and online group behavior were associated with online hate offending. Study 1, based on socio-demographically balanced survey data (N = 1200) collected from Finnish adolescents and young adults, found that impulsivity and internalizing symptoms were positively associated with online hate offending. Furthermore, social homophily was positively associated with online hate offending but only among those with average or high level of internalizing symptoms. Social identification with online communities was not associated with hate offending. In Study 2, based on a vignette experiment (N = 160), online hate offenders were more likely than others to rely on in-group stereotypes (i.e. self-stereotype) in anonymous online interaction and, as a consequence, follow perceived group norms. These associations were found only when a shared group identity was primed. We conclude that both personal risk factors and group behavior are related to online hate but they have different implications for reducing hateful communication in social media.
  • Kailaheimo-Lönnqvist, Linda; Virtala, Paula; Fandakova, Yana; Partanen, Eino; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Thiede, Anja; Kujala, Teija (2020)
    Neural auditory processing and prelinguistic communication build the foundation for later language development, but how these two are associated is not well known. The current study investigated how neural speech processing is associated with the level and development of prelinguistic skills in 102 infants. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 6-months-olds to assess the neural detection of a pseudoword (obligatory responses), as well as the neural discrimination of changes in the pseudoword (mismatch responses, MMRs). Prelinguistic skills were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age with a parental questionnaire (Infant-Toddler Checklist). The association between the ERPs and prelinguistic skills was examined using latent change score models, a method specifically constructed for longitudinal analyses and explicitly modeling intra-individual change. The results show that a large obligatory P1 at 6 months of age predicted strong improvement in prelinguistic skills between 6 and 12 months of age. The MMR to a frequency change was associated with the concurrent level of prelinguistic skills, but not with the improvement of the skills. Overall, our results highlight the strong association between ERPs and prelinguistic skills, possibly offering opportunities for early detection of atypical linguistic and communicative development.
  • Hameen-Anttila, K.; Pietilä, K.; Pylkkänen, L.; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, M. (2018)
    Background: The internet is widely and increasingly used to search for health information. Previous studies have focused mainly on health information on the internet and not specifically on medicines information (MI). Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the internet as a source of MI compared to other sources of MI; to identify those who use the internet as a source of MI; and to describe patterns of use of the internet as a source of MI. Methods: A cross-sectional design employed a web-based questionnaire posted by patients' and other organizations as well as pharmacies on their websites during six weeks in the beginning of 2014. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations of background variables to the use of different MI sources. Results: The most frequently used MI sources among respondents (n = 2489) were package leaflets (90%), pharmacists (83%), physicians (72%), and the internet (68%). According to a multivariate analysis, internet use for MI was associated with female gender, age <65 years, higher education, daily use of the internet, and continuous use of vitamins or herbals. MI was most commonly searched from a Finnish health portal (56%) and websites of pharmacies (41%). Of the respondents, nearly half (43%) used search engines to find information from the internet. The names of the medicinal product, symptom or disease were the most commonly used search terms. Conclusions: Well-educated, young women tend to search MI on the internet. Health care professionals should discuss reliable MI websites and tools that can help patients evaluate the reliability of information.
  • Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Mohammadrezaei, Mahsa; Hunt, Julian; Zakeri, Behnam (2020)
    Integration of renewable energy and optimization of energy use are key enablers of sustainable energy transitions and mitigating climate change. Modern technologies such the Internet of Things (IoT) offer a wide number of applications in the energy sector, i.e, in energy supply, transmission and distribution, and demand. IoT can be employed for improving energy efficiency, increasing the share of renewable energy, and reducing environmental impacts of the energy use. This paper reviews the existing literature on the application of IoT in in energy systems, in general, and in the context of smart grids particularly. Furthermore, we discuss enabling technologies of IoT, including cloud computing and different platforms for data analysis. Furthermore, we review challenges of deploying IoT in the energy sector, including privacy and security, with some solutions to these challenges such as blockchain technology. This survey provides energy policy-makers, energy economists, and managers with an overview of the role of IoT in optimization of energy systems.
  • Lähdesmäki, Merja; Matilainen, Anne; Siltaoja, Marjo (2016)
    Recent demographic changes in the forest-owner structure are suspected to have led to the increasing number of owners with no specific objectives for their forests. In addition, the continuous fragmentation of the forest holdings has increased the threat of the passiveness related to forest management. To decrease the tendency towards passiveness, new policy tools and initiatives have been suggested. In the Finnish context, the idea of an investor-based jointly owned forest has been introduced as facilitating the effective utilization of the forest resource. However, collective ownership has faced prejudice and scepticism among private forest owners. In order to expand, the forest owners need to see the idea of jointly owned forests as a socially legitimate. Thus, by adopting Van Leeuwen's framework for analyzing the legitimation of new social practices, we examine how Finnish forest owners legitimate their participation in jointly owned forests. The qualitative data of the study consist of 20 in-depth interviews with private forest owners who have joined a jointly owned forest. Our study contributes to the recent discussion on jointly owned forests. We show how a change in the type of ownership results in moral, authoritative and rational justifications over the decision while simultaneously renewing the identity of the forest owner. Accordingly, we suggest that forest ownership is not only driven by rational prospects, but the moral and emotional nature of ownership should be better taken into account at the policy level and in structural designs when discussing the promotion of new types of forest ownership.
  • Laiti, Minna; Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Sariola, Salla; Hayter, Mark; Salanterä, Sanna (2021)
    Previous research shows that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and other (LGBTQ+) students can experience substantial emotional- and health-related issues at school, but research into LGBTQ+ students' experiences of school nursing is limited. This qualitative study describes the experiences of Finnish LGBTQ+ students engaging with junior high school nurses. Data were collected from 35 LGBTQ+ students using an online survey tool comprising of a set of open-ended questions. Two interconnecting themes were identified following thematic analysis: (1) junior high school nurse engagement: a mixed or unsatisfactory experience and (2) LGBTQ+ students' needs for diversity-affirming junior high school nursing. Findings show that LGBQT+ students felt junior high school nurse engagement was often unsupportive with issues around their sexuality and gender identity. LGBTQ+ students expressed the need for diversity-affirming information and support in school settings. Further research from school nurses' perspective is needed to increase understanding of this topic.
  • Li, Tong; Braud, Tristan; Li, Yong; Hui, Pan (2021)
    The current explosion of video traffic compels service providers to deploy caches at edge networks. Nowadays, most caching systems store data with a high programming voltage corresponding to the largest possible ‘expiry date’, typically on the order of years, which maximizes the cache damage. However, popular videos rarely exhibit lifecycles longer than a couple of months. Consequently, the programming voltage can instead be adapted to fit the lifecycle and mitigate the cache damage accordingly. In this paper, we propose LiA-cache, a Lifecycle-Aware caching policy for online videos. LiA-cache finds both near-optimal caching retention times and cache eviction policies by optimizing traffic delivery cost and cache damage cost conjointly. We first investigate temporal patterns of video access from a real-world dataset covering 10 million online videos collected by one of the largest mobile network operators in the world. We next cluster the videos based on their access lifecycles and integrate the clustering into a general model of the caching system. Specifically, LiA-cache analyzes videos and caches them depending on their cluster label. Compared to other popular policies in real-world scenarios, LiA-cache can reduce cache damage up to 90%, while keeping a cache hit ratio close to a policy purely relying on video popularity.
  • Vepsalainen, K.; Riikonen, P.; Lassila, R.; Arola, M.; Huttunen, P.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Mottonen, M.; Selander, T.; Martikainen, J. (2018)
    AimFor previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A in Finland for the past 2 decades, the standard practice has been to start early primary prophylaxis. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes and costs of treatment with high-dose prophylaxis in PUPs from birth to adolescence, including immune tolerance induction (ITI). MethodsFrom the medical records of all PUPs born between June 1994 and May 2013 in Finland, we retrospectively extracted data on clinical outcomes and healthcare use. Using linear mixed models, we analysed longitudinal clinical outcome data. To analyse skewed cost data, including zero costs, we applied hurdle regression. ResultsAll 62 patients received early regular prophylaxis; totally, they have had treatment for nearly 700 patient-years. The median age of starting home treatment was 1.1years. The mean (SD) annual treatment costs (Europerkg) were 4391Euro (3852). For ages 1-3, ITI comprised over half of the costs; in other groups, prophylactic FVIII treatment dominated. With these high costs, however, clinical outcomes were desirable; median (IQR) ABR was low at 0.19 (0.07-0.46) and so was AJBR at 0.06 (0-0.24). Thirteen (21%) patients developed a clinically significant inhibitor, 10 (16%) with a high titre. All ITIs were successful. The mean costs for ITI were 383448Euro (259085). The expected ITI payback period was 1.81 (95% CI 0.62-12.12) years. ConclusionsEarly high-dose prophylaxis leads to excellent long-term clinical outcomes, and early childhood ITI therapy seems to turn cost-neutral generally already in 2years.
  • Ćwiek, Aleksandra; Fuchs, Susanne; Draxler, Christoph; Asu, Eva Liina; Dediu, Dan; Hiovain, Katri; Kawahara, Shigeto; Koutalidis, Sofia; Krifka, Manfred; Lippus, Pärtel; Lupyan, Gary; Oh, Grace E.; Paul, Jing; Petrone, Caterina; Ridouane, Rachid; Reiter, Sabine; Schümchen, Nathalie; Szalontai, Ádám; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem; Zeller, Jochen; Winter, Bodo; Perlman, Marcus (2021)
    Linguistic communication requires speakers to mutually agree on the meanings of words, but how does such a system first get off the ground? One solution is to rely on iconic gestures: visual signs whose form directly resembles or otherwise cues their meaning without any previously established correspondence. However, it is debated whether vocalizations could have played a similar role. We report the first extensive cross-cultural study investigating whether people from diverse linguistic backgrounds can understand novel vocalizations for a range of meanings. In two comprehension experiments, we tested whether vocalizations produced by English speakers could be understood by listeners from 28 languages from 12 language families. Listeners from each language were more accurate than chance at guessing the intended referent of the vocalizations for each of the meanings tested. Our findings challenge the often-cited idea that vocalizations have limited potential for iconic representation, demonstrating that in the absence of words people can use vocalizations to communicate a variety of meanings.
  • Paverd, Andrew; Tamrakar, Sandeep; Hoang Long Nguyen,; Pendyala, Praveen Kumar; Thien Duc Nguyen,; Stobert, Elizabeth; Grondahl, Tommi; Asokan, N.; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza (2018)
    Two attractive features of cloud storage services are (1) the automatic synchronization of files between multiple devices and (2) the possibility of sharing files with other users. However, many users are concerned about the security and privacy of data stored in the cloud. Client-side encryption is an effective safeguard, but it requires all client devices to have the decryption key. Current solutions derive these keys from user-chosen passwords, which are easily guessed. We present OmniShare, the first scheme to combine strong client-side encryption with intuitive key distribution mechanisms to enable access from multiple client devices and sharing between users. OmniShare uses a novel combination of out-of-band channels (including QR codes and ultrasonic communication), as well as the cloud storage service itself, to authenticate new devices. We describe the design and implementation of OmniShare and explain how we evaluated its security (using formal methods), its performance (benchmarks), and its usability (cognitive walkthrough).
  • Laakso, Minna; Salmenlinna, Inkeri; Aaltonen, Tarja; Koskela, Inka; Ruusuvuori, Johanna (2019)
    Background To manage conversational breakdowns, individuals with hearing loss (HL) often have to request their interlocutors to repeat or clarify. Aims To examine how middle-aged hearing aid (HA) users manage conversational breakdowns by using open-class repair initiations (e.g., questions such as sorry, what and huh), and whether their use of repair initiations differs from their normally hearing interlocutors. Methods & Procedures Eighteen 45-64-year-old adults with acquired mild to moderate HL participated in the study. The participants were videotaped in everyday interactions at their homes and workplaces and in clinical encounters with hearing health professionals. Interactions were transcribed and open-class repair initiations of participants with HL and their interlocutors were identified using conversation analysis. The frequencies of initiations were analyzed statistically between the groups, and the contexts and structure of repair sequences dealing with communication breakdown were analyzed. Outcomes & Results Before acquiring HA the participants with HL reported intense use of open-class repair initiation. After HAs were acquired, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of open-class repair initiations between HA users and their interlocutors. The most common means for open-class repair initiation in the data was interrogative word mita ('what'). Vocalization ha ('huh'), apologetic expression anteeksi ('sorry') and clausal initiations (e.g., 'what did you say'/'I didn't hear') occurred less often. Open-class repair initiations emerged in contexts where they typically occur in conversation, such as topical shifts, overlapping talk and action, background noise, and disagreements. When used, open-class repair initiations most often led to repetition by the interlocutor, which immediately repaired the conversational breakdown. Long clarification sequences with multiple repair initiations did not occur. Conclusions & Implications Participants with mild to moderate HL using hearing amplification initiate open-class repair similarly to their normally hearing conversational partners when the frequency, types, contexts and structure of repair are considered. The findings diminish the stigma related to HL, HAs and the use of open-class repair. The findings suggest that HA amplifies hearing successfully in everyday conversation when the level of HL is mild to moderate. However, the evidence for the benefit of HAs remains indirect.
  • Heponiemi, Tarja; Hyppönen, Hannele; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vehko, Tuulikki; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Background: Among the important stress factors for physicians nowadays are poorly functioning, time consuming and inadequate information systems. The present study examined the predictors of physicians' stress related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians. The examined predictors were cognitive workload, staffing problems, time pressure, problems in teamwork and job satisfaction, adjusted for baseline levels of SRIS, age, gender and employment sector. Methods: The study has a follow-up design with two survey data collection waves, one in 2006 and one in 2015, based on a random sample of Finnish physicians was used. The present study used a sample that included 1109 physicians (61.9% women; mean age in 2015 was 54.5; range 34-72) who provided data on the SRIS in both waves. The effects of a) predictor variable levels in 2006 on SRIS in 2015 and b) the change in the predictor variables from 2006 to 2015 on SRIS in 2015 were analysed with linear regression analyses. Results: Regression analyses showed that the higher level of cognitive workload in 2006 significantly predicted higher level of SRIS in 2015 (beta = 0.08). The reciprocity of this association was tested with cross-lagged structural equation model analyses which showed that the direction of the association was from cognitive workload to SRIS, not from SRIS to cognitive workload. Moreover, increases in time pressure (beta = 0.16) and problems in teamwork (beta = 0.10) were associated with higher levels of SRIS in 2015, whereas job satisfaction increase was associated with lower SRIS (beta = -0.06). Conclusions: According to our results, physicians' cognitive workload may have long-lasting negative ramifications in regard to how stressful physicians experience their health information systems to be. Thus, organisations should pay attention to physicians workload if they wish physicians to master all the systems they need to use. It is also important to provide physicians with enough time and collegial support in their system-related problems, and in learning new systems and system updates.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Kaakinen, Markus; Savela, Nina; Ellonen, Noora; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Social media enables information sharing and social interaction within organization. This research aims to analyze how both work- and nonwork-related communication with colleagues and the work community on social media is associated with work engagement among Finnish professionals. A total of five Finnish professional organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of the Finnish working population (N = 1817) contributed to the survey data, which was analyzed with structural equation modeling. We found a direct positive association between work-related communication and work engagement among Finnish working population, and a positive indirect associations between both work- and nonwork-related communication and work engagement via organizational identification and social support. Findings suggest that communication in social media supports work engagement via organizational identification and social support. Organizations should pay more attention to social media communication practices and provide opportunities to build organizational identification and receive social support in social media.
  • Andreassen, Trude; Hansen, Bo T.; Engesaeter, Birgit; Hashim, Dana; Stoer, Nathalie C.; Trope, Ameli; Moen, Kare; Ursin, Giske; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
    From 2015, Norway has implemented high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing in primary screening for cervical cancer. Women aged 34-69 years, living in four counties, have been pseudo-randomly assigned (1:1 randomization) to either hrHPV testing every 5 years (followed by cytology if hrHPV is positive), or cytology testing every 3 years (followed by hrHPV testing if low-grade cytology is detected). We compared anxiety and depression scores among participants by screening arm and results. In total, 1,008 women answered a structured questionnaire that included the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). The Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) of mild vs. normal anxiety and depression scores, and moderate/severe vs. normal anxiety and depression scores, were estimated by multinomial logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Compared to women who were screened with cytology, women randomized to hrHPV testing were not more likely to have mild anxiety and depression scores (RRR 0.96, CI 0.70-1.31) nor more likely to have moderate/severe anxiety and depression scores (RRR 1.14, CI 0.65-2.02). Women with five different combinations of abnormal screening test results were not more likely to have mild or moderate/severe vs. normal anxiety and depression scores than women with normal screening results. The likelihood of having abnormal long-term (4-24 months after the screening) anxiety or depression scores among women 34 years and older was not affected by screening method or screening results. The results of our study suggest that a change to hrHPV testing in primary screening would not increase psychological distress among participants.