Browsing by Subject "COST-EFFECTIVENESS"

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  • Saarela, Ville; Karvonen, Elina; Stoor, Katri; Hagg, Pasi; Luodonpaa, Marja; Kuoppala, Jaana; Taanila, Anja; Tuulonen, Anja (2013)
  • IN PACT Global Investigators; IN.PACT Global Study Collaborators; Torsello, Giovanni; Stavroulakis, Konstantinos; Brodmann, Marianne; Zeller, Thomas; Venermo, Maarit (2020)
    Purpose:To report the 36-month outcomes from the prospective, multicenter, single-arm IN.PACT Global Study (ClinicalTrials.govidentifier NCT01609296) evaluating the performance of the IN.PACT Admiral drug-coated balloon (DCB) in real-world patients with femoropopliteal occlusive disease.Materials and Methods:The IN.PACT Global Study was conducted at 64 international sites and enrolled 1535 patients with complex lesions, which included bilateral disease, multiple lesions, de novo in-stent restenosis, long lesions, and chronic total occlusions. The predefined full clinical cohort included 1406 patients (mean age 68.6 years; 67.8% men) with claudication or rest pain treated with the study DCB. Mean lesion length was 12.09 +/- 9.54 cm; 18.0% had in-stent restenosis, 35.5% were totally occluded, and 68.7% were calcified. Freedom from clinically-driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) was evaluated through 36 months. The safety composite endpoint was freedom from device- and procedure-related death through 30 days and freedom from major target limb amputation and clinically-driven target vessel revascularization within 36 months. All safety and revascularization events were reviewed by an independent clinical events committee.Results:The Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from CD-TLR through 36 months was 76.9%. The composite safety endpoint was achieved in 75.6% of patients. The 36-month all-cause mortality rate was 11.6%, and the major target limb amputation rate was 1.0%. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from CD-TLR through 36 months was significantly lower in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) compared with claudicants (67.6% vs 78.0%; p=0.003). Lesions affecting both the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal artery had lower Kaplan-Meier freedom from CD-TLR through 36 months (69.2%) than either isolated SFA (79.7%) or popliteal artery lesions (76.5%; log- rank p
  • Rehm, Juergen; Anderson, Peter; Prieto, Jose Angel Arbesu; Armstrong, Iain; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bachmann, Michael; Bastus, Nuria Bastida; Brotons, Carlos; Burton, Robyn; Cardoso, Manuel; Colom, Joan; Duprez, Daniel; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni; Kraus, Ludwig; Kreutz, Reinhold; Liira, Helena; Manthey, Jakob; Moller, Lars; Okruhlica, Lubomir; Roerecke, Michael; Scafato, Emanuele; Schulte, Bernd; Segura-Garcia, Lidia; Shield, Kevin David; Sierra, Cristina; Vyshinskiy, Konstantin; Wojnarand, Marcin; Zarco, Jose (2017)
    Background: Hazardous and harmful alcohol use and high blood pressure are central risk factors related to premature non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality worldwide. A reduction in the prevalence of both risk factors has been suggested as a route to reach the global NCD targets. This study aims to highlight that screening and interventions for hypertension and hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary healthcare can contribute substantially to achieving the NCD targets. Methods: A consensus conference based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical guidelines, experimental studies, and statisticalmodelling which had been presented and discussed in five preparatory meetings, was undertaken. Specifically, we modelled changes in blood pressure distributions and potential lives saved for the five largest European countries if screening and appropriate intervention rates in primary healthcare settings were increased. Recommendations to handle alcohol-induced hypertension in primary healthcare settings were derived at the conference, and their degree of evidence was graded. Results: Screening and appropriate interventions for hazardous alcohol use and use disorders could lower blood pressure levels, but there is a lack in implementing these measures in European primary healthcare. Recommendations included (1) an increase in screening for hypertension (evidence grade: high), (2) an increase in screening and brief advice on hazardous and harmful drinking for people with newly detected hypertension by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals (evidence grade: high), (3) the conduct of clinical management of less severe alcohol use disorders for incident people with hypertension in primary healthcare (evidence grade: moderate), and (4) screening for alcohol use in hypertension that is not well controlled (evidence grade: moderate). The first three measures were estimated to result in a decreased hypertension prevalence and hundreds of saved lives annually in the examined countries. Conclusions: The implementation of the outlined recommendations could contribute to reducing the burden associated with hypertension and hazardous and harmful alcohol use and thus to achievement of the NCD targets. Implementation should be conducted in controlled settings with evaluation, including, but not limited to, economic evaluation.
  • Linnakaari, R.; Helle, N.; Mentula, M.; Bloigu, A.; Gissler, M.; Heikinheimo, O.; Niinimäki, M. (2019)
    STUDY QUESTION: What changes have occurred in the incidence of miscarriage, its treatment options, and the profile of the women having miscarriages in Finland between 1998 and 2016? SUMMARY ANSWER: The annual incidence of registry-identified miscarriage has declined significantly between 1998 and 2016, and non-surgical management has become the dominant treatment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Miscarriage occurs in 8-15% of clinically recognized pregnancies and in similar to 30% of all pregnancies. Increasing maternal age is associated with an increasing risk of miscarriage. The treatment of miscarriage has evolved significantly in recent years: previously, surgical evacuation of the uterus was the standard of care, but nowadays medical and expectant management are increasingly used. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 128381 women that had experienced a miscarriage that was managed in public healthcare between 1998 and 2016 in Finland. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We used the National Hospital Discharge Registry for the data. Women aged 15-49 years that had experienced their first miscarriage during the follow-up period and had miscarriage-related diagnoses during their admission to public hospital were included in the study. Miscarriages were defined by the 10(th) Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related Medical Problems (ICD-10) diagnostic codes O02*, O03* and O08*. Women with ectopic, molar and continuing pregnancies and induced abortions were excluded. Treatment was divided into surgical and non-surgical treatment using the surgical procedure codes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The annual incidence of registry-identified miscarriage has declined from 6.8/1000 15-49-year-old women in 1998 to 5.0/1000 in 2016 (P <0.001). Also, the incidence rate of registry-identified miscarriage (i.e. the proportion of miscarriages of registry-identified pregnancies [i.e. deliveries, induced abortions, and miscarriages]) has declined from 112/1000 15-49-year-old pregnant women in 1998 to 83/1000 in 2016 (P <0.001). The largest decrease in this proportion occurred among women over 40 years of age, among whom 26.5% of registry-identified pregnancies in 1998 ended in miscarriage compared to that of 16.4% in 2016. The proportion of missed abortion has increased (30.3 to 38.8%, P <0.001) whereas that of blighted ovum has decreased (25.4 to 12.8%, P <0.001). The proportion of registry-identified miscarriages seen among nulliparous women has increased from 43.7 to 49.6% (P <0.001). Mean age at the time of miscarriage remained at 31 years throughout the study. Altogether, 29% of all miscarriages were treated surgically and 71% underwent medical or expectant management. The proportion of surgical management has decreased from 38.0 to 1.6% for spontaneous abortion, from 60.7 to 9.4% for blighted ovum and 70.9 to 11.2% for missed abortion between 1998 and 2016. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This study includes only women with registry-identified pregnancies, i.e. women who were treated in public hospitals. However, the number of women treated elsewhere is presumed to be small. Neither can this study estimate the number of women having spontaneous miscarriage with no hospital contact. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Both the annual incidence and incidence rate of miscarriage of all registry-identified pregnancies has decreased, and non-surgical management has become the standard of care. These findings are of value when planning allocation of healthcare resources and at individual level considering fertility and miscarriage questions. We speculate that improving ultrasound diagnostics explains the increasing proportion of missed abortion relative to other types of miscarriage. More investigation is needed to examine potential risk factors, complications and morbidity associated with miscarriages.
  • Välimäki, Maritta; Anttila, Katriina; Anttila, Minna; Lahti, Mari (2017)
    Background: Although previous studies on information and communication technology (ICT)-based intervention on mental health among adolescents with depressive symptoms have already been combined in a number of systematic reviews, coherent information is still missing about interventions used, participants' engagement of these interventions, and how these interventions work. Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials to describe the effectiveness of Web-based interventions to support adolescents with depression or depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. We also explored the content of the interventions, as there has previously been a lack of coherent understanding of the detailed content of the Web-based interventions for these purposes. Methods: We included parallel randomized controlled trials targeted at adolescents, or young people in the age range of 10 and 24 years, with symptoms or diagnoses of depression and anxiety. The interventions were from original studies aimed to support mental health among adolescents, and they were delivered via Web-based information and communication technology. Results: Out of 2087 records identified, 27 papers (22 studies) met the inclusion criteria. On the basis of a narrative analysis of 22 studies, a variety of Web-based interventions were found; the most commonly used intervention was based on cognitive behavioral therapy. Meta-analysis was further conducted with 15 studies (4979 participants). At the end of the intervention, a statistically significant improvement was found in the intervention group (10 studies) regarding depressive symptoms (P=.02, median 1.68, 95% CI 3.11-0.25) and after 6 months (3 studies; P=.01, median 1.78, 95% CI 3.20-0.37). Anxiety symptoms (8 studies; P Conclusions: Despite widely reported promises that information technology use is beneficial to adolescents with depression, the results of our review show only short-term effects on adolescents' mental well-being, whereas long-term effects remain questionable because of the limited number of studies reviewed. Information about the economic benefits of Web-based interventions is still lacking. The quality of the studies, especially biases related to attrition rates and selective reporting, still needs serious attention.