Browsing by Subject "CYCLE"

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  • Makela, Jarmo; Minunno, Francesco; Aalto, Tuula; Makela, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Mikko (2020)
    Forest ecosystems are already responding to changing environmental conditions that are driven by increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These developments affect how societies can utilise and benefit from the woodland areas in the future, be it for example climate change mitigation as carbon sinks, lumber for wood industry, or preserved for nature tourism and recreational activities. We assess the effect and the relative magnitude of different uncertainty sources in ecosystem model simulations from the year 1980 to 2100 for two Finnish boreal forest sites. The models used in this study are the land ecosystem model JSBACH and the forest growth model PREBAS. The considered uncertainty sources for both models are model parameters and four prescribed climates with two RCP (representative concentration pathway) scenarios. Usually, model parameter uncertainty is not included in these types of uncertainty studies. PREBAS simulations also include two forest management scenarios. We assess the effect of these sources of variation at four different points in time on several ecosystem indicators, e.g. gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration, soil moisture, recurrence of drought, length of the vegetation active period (VAP), length of the snow melting period and the stand volume. The uncertainty induced by the climate models remains roughly the same throughout the simulations and is overtaken by the RCP scenario impact halfway through the experiment. The management actions are the most dominant uncertainty factors for Hyytiala and as important as RCP scenarios at the end of the simulations, but they contribute only half as much for Sodankyla. The parameter uncertainty is the least influential of the examined uncertainty sources, but it is also the most elusive to estimate due to non-linear and adverse effects on the simulated ecosystem indicators. Our analysis underlines the importance of carefully considering the implementation of forest use when simulating future ecosystem conditions, as human impact is evident and even increasing in boreal forested regions.
  • Sharma, Vivek; Wikstrom, Marten (2016)
    The active site of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) comprises an oxygen-binding heme, a nearby copper ion (Cue), and a tyrosine residue that is covalently linked to one of the histidine ligands of Cu-B. Two proton-conducting pathways are observed in CcO, namely the D-and the K-channels, which are used to transfer protons either to the active site of oxygen reduction (substrate protons) or for pumping. Proton transfer through the D-channel is very fast, and its role in efficient transfer of both substrate and pumped protons is well established. However, it has not been fully clear why a separate K-channel is required, apparently for the supply of substrate protons only. In this work, we have analysed the available experimental and computational data, based on which we provide new perspectives on the role of the K-channel. Our analysis suggests that proton transfer in the K-channel may be gated by the protonation state of the active-site tyrosine (Tyr244) and that the neutral radical form of this residue has a more general role in the CcO mechanism than thought previously. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Castro-Morales, Karel; Schuermann, Gregor; Koestler, Christoph; Roedenbeck, Christian; Heimann, Martin; Zaehle, Soenke (2019)
    During the last decade, carbon cycle data assimilation systems (CCDAS) have focused on improving the simulation of seasonal and mean global carbon fluxes over a few years by simultaneous assimilation of multiple data streams. However, the ability of a CCDAS to predict longer-term trends and variability of the global carbon cycle and the constraint provided by the observations have not yet been assessed. Here, we evaluate two near-decade-long assimilation experiments of the Max Planck Institute-Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (MPI-CCDAS v1) using spaceborne estimates of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations from the global network of flask measurement sites from either 1982 to 1990 or 1990 to 2000. We contrast these simulations with independent observations from the period 1982-2010, as well as a third MPI-CCDAS assimilation run using data from the full 1982-2010 period, and an atmospheric inversion covering the same data and time. With 30 years of data, MPI-CCDAS is capable of representing land uptake to a sufficient degree to make it compatible with the atmospheric CO2 record. The long-term trend and seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at station level over the period 1982 to 2010 is considerably improved after assimilating only the first decade (1982-1990) of observations. After 15-19 years of prognostic simulation, the simulated CO2 mixing ratio in 2007-2010 diverges by only 2 +/- 1.3 ppm from the observations, the atmospheric inversion, and the MPI-CCDAS assimilation run using observations from the full period. The long-term trend, phenological seasonality, and interannual variability (IAV) of FAPAR in the Northern Hemisphere over the last 1 to 2 decades after the assimilation were also improved. Despite imperfections in the representation of the IAV in atmospheric CO2, model-data fusion for a decade of data can already contribute to the prognostic capacity of land carbon cycle models at relevant timescales.
  • Metsälä, Olli; Kreutzer, Joose; Högel, Heidi; Miikkulainen, Petra; Kallio, Pasi; Jaakkola, Panu M. (2018)
    BackgroundCells in solid tumours are variably hypoxic and hence resistant to radiotherapy - the essential role of oxygen in the efficiency of irradiation has been acknowledged for decades. However, the currently available methods for performing hypoxic experiments in vitro have several limitations, such as a limited amount of parallel experiments, incapability of keeping stable growth conditions and dependence on CO2 incubator or a hypoxia workstation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a novel portable system (Minihypoxy) in performing in vitro irradiation studies under hypoxia, and present supporting biological data.Materials and methodsThis study was conducted on cancer cell cultures in vitro. The cells were cultured in normoxic (similar to 21% O-2) or in hypoxic (1% O-2) conditions either in conventional hypoxia workstation or in the Minihypoxy system and irradiated at dose rate 1.28Gy/min2.9%. The control samples were sham irradiated. To study the effects of hypoxia and irradiation on cell viability and DNA damage, western blotting, immunostainings and clonogenic assay were used. The oxygen level, pH, evaporation rate and osmolarity of the culturing media on cell cultures in different conditions were followed.ResultsThe oxygen concentration in interest (5, 1 or 0% O-2) was maintained inside the individual culturing chambers of the Minihypoxy system also during the irradiation. The radiosensitivity of the cells cultured in Minihypoxy chambers was declined measured as lower phosphorylation rate of H2A.X and increased clonogenic capacity compared to controls (OER similar to 3).Conclusions The Minihypoxy system allows continuous control of hypoxic environment in multiple wells and is transportable. Furthermore, the system maintains the low oxygen environment inside the individual culturing chambers during the transportation and irradiation in experiments which are typically conducted in separate facilities.
  • Willamo, T.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A. (2017)
    Aims. Sunspot number series are composed from observations of hundreds of different observers that require careful normalization to standard conditions. Here we present a new normalized series of the number of sunspot groups for the period 1749-1996. Methods. The reconstruction is based on the active day fraction (ADF) method. which is slightly updated with respect to previous works, and a revised database of sunspot group observations. Results. Stability of some key solar observers has been evaluated against the composite series. The Royal Greenwich Observatory dataset appears relatively stable since the 1890s but is approximately 10% too low before that. A declining trend of 10-15% in the quality of Wolfer's observations is found between the 1880s and 1920s, suggesting that using him as the reference observer may lead to additional uncertainties. Wolf (small telescope) appears relatively stable between the 1860s and 1890s, without any obvious trend. The new reconstruction reflects the centennial variability of solar activity as evaluated using the singular spectrum analysis method. It depicts a highly significant feature of the modern grand maximum of solar activity in the second half of the 20th century, being a factor 1.33-1.77 higher than during the 18 and 19th centuries. Conclusions. The new series of the sunspot group numbers with monthly and annual resolution is provided forming a basis for new studies of the solar variability and solar dynamo for the last 250 yr.
  • Savijärvi, Hannu; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Paton, Mark (2019)
    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Environmental Monitoring Station humidity instrument (REMS-H) onboard the Curiosity rover is measuring daily minimum water vapor mixing ratios (min vmr), the respective pre-dawn air temperatures (T), and vmr at 2200LT. These are displayed for nearly three martian years (sols 10-2003) and compared with adsorptive column model simulations. The model was initialized with MSL-observed local column water contents, optical depths and surface pressures from sols 230-1291, assuming the same annual cycle outside this period. The first two and a half MSL years present rather similar annual cycles in the REMS-H data, whereas from about sol 1800 onward the min vmr and T suddenly increase and the 2200LT vmr values get closer to the min vmr, indicating less depletion of water vapor during the nights. Model experiments with typical regolith (ground thermal inertia of 300 SI units and porosity of 30% for adsorption) match the observed min vmr and T relatively well for the first 2.5 years. However, from about sol 1800 onward, when Curiosity started to climb onto Mt. Sharp, simulations with higher thermal inertia of about 400 SI units and very low porosity of similar to 0.3%, suggesting exposed bedrock, provide a far better fit. Some other periods of bedrock- and dune-dominated ground can be detected from the REMS-H vmr and air-T data along the Curiosity traverse.