Browsing by Subject "Cardiovascular disease"

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  • Parente, Erika B; Harjutsalo, Valma; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Groop, Per-Henrik (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background ABO blood groups have previously been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between ABO blood groups and CVD in individuals with type 1 diabetes according to diabetic nephropathy (DN) status. Methods Adults with type 1 diabetes (4531 individuals) from the FinnDiane Study were evaluated. DN was determined by two out of three measurements of urinary albumin excretion rate. Albuminuria was defined as an excretion rate above 20 µg/min. CVD events were identified by linking the data with the Finnish Care Register for Health Care and the Finnish Cause of Death Register. Follow-up ranged from the baseline visit until a CVD event, death or the end of 2017. The impact of ABO blood groups on CVD risk was estimated by multivariable Cox-regression analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors. Results At baseline, the median age was 38.5 (IQR 29.2–47.9) years, 47.5% were female and median duration of diabetes was 20.9 (11.4–30.7) years. There were 893 incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) events, 301 ischemic strokes (IS), and 415 peripheral artery disease (PAD) events during a median follow up of 16.5 (IQR 12.8–18.6) years. The A blood group showed the highest risk of IHD versus the O blood group, when microalbuminuria was present. Comparing the population with microalbuminuria with those with normoalbuminuria, only the A blood group elevated the risk of IHD. This increased risk was neither explained by the FUT2 secretor phenotype nor by the A-genotype distribution. The risk of IS or PAD was no different among the ABO blood groups regardless of diabetic nephropathy stage. Conclusion The A blood group is a risk factor for IHD in individuals with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
  • Finndiane Study Grp; Parente, Erika B.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    Background ABO blood groups have previously been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between ABO blood groups and CVD in individuals with type 1 diabetes according to diabetic nephropathy (DN) status. Methods Adults with type 1 diabetes (4531 individuals) from the FinnDiane Study were evaluated. DN was determined by two out of three measurements of urinary albumin excretion rate. Albuminuria was defined as an excretion rate above 20 mu g/min. CVD events were identified by linking the data with the Finnish Care Register for Health Care and the Finnish Cause of Death Register. Follow-up ranged from the baseline visit until a CVD event, death or the end of 2017. The impact of ABO blood groups on CVD risk was estimated by multivariable Cox-regression analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors. Results At baseline, the median age was 38.5 (IQR 29.2-47.9) years, 47.5% were female and median duration of diabetes was 20.9 (11.4-30.7) years. There were 893 incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) events, 301 ischemic strokes (IS), and 415 peripheral artery disease (PAD) events during a median follow up of 16.5 (IQR 12.8-18.6) years. The A blood group showed the highest risk of IHD versus the O blood group, when microalbuminuria was present. Comparing the population with microalbuminuria with those with normoalbuminuria, only the A blood group elevated the risk of IHD. This increased risk was neither explained by the FUT2 secretor phenotype nor by the A-genotype distribution. The risk of IS or PAD was no different among the ABO blood groups regardless of diabetic nephropathy stage. Conclusion The A blood group is a risk factor for IHD in individuals with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
  • Veronese, Nicola; Cereda, Emanuele; Stubbs, Brendon; Solmi, Marco; Luchini, Claudio; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manu, Peter; Harris, Tamara; Fontana, Luigi; Strandberg, Timo; Amieva, Helene; Dumurgier, Julien; Elbaz, Alexis; Tzourio, Christophe; Eicholzer, Monika; Rohrmann, Sabine; Moretti, Claudio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Quadri, Giorgio; Polidoro, Alessandro; Lourenco, Roberto Alves; Moreira, Virgilio Garcia; Sanchis, Juan; Scotti, Valeria; Maggi, Stefania; Correll, Christoph U. (2017)
    Frailty is common and associated with poorer outcomes in the elderly, but its role as potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor requires clarification. We thus aimed to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence of frailty and pre-frailty as risk factors for CVD. Two reviewers selected all studies comparing data about CVD prevalence or incidence rates between frail/pre-frail vs. robust. The association between frailty status and CVD in cross-sectional studies was explored by calculating and pooling crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs)+/- 95% confidence intervals (CIs); the data from longitudinal studies were pooled using the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Eighteen cohorts with a total of 31,343 participants were meta-analyzed. Using estimates from 10 cross-sectional cohorts, both frailty and pre-frailty were associated with higher odds of CVD than robust participants. Longitudinal data were obtained from 6 prospective cohort studies. After a median follow-up of 4.4 years, we identified an increased risk for faster onset of any type CVD in the frail (HR= 1.70 [95%CI, 1.18-2.45]; I-2 = 66%) and pre-frail (HR= 1.23 [95%CI, 1.07-1.36]; I-2 = 67%) vs. robust groups. Similar results were apparent for time to CVD mortality in the frail and pre-frail groups. In conclusion, frailty and pre-frailty constitute addressable and independent risk factors for CVD in older adults. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mujahid, Mahasin S.; James, Sherman A.; Kaplan, George A.; Salonen, Jukka (2017)
    Previous cross-sectional studies examining whether John Henryism (JH), or high-effort coping with socioeconomic adversity, potentiates the inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular health have focused mainly on hypertension in African Americans. We conducted the first longitudinal test of this hypothesis on incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using data from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study in Finland (N = 1405 men, 42-60 years). We hypothesized that the expected inverse gradient between SEP and AMI risk would be stronger for men scoring high on JH than for those scoring low. John Henryism was measured by a Finnish version of the JH Scale for Active Coping. Four different measures of SEP were used: childhood SEP, education, income, and occupation. AMI hazard ratios (HR) by SEP and JH were estimated using COX proportional hazard models, before and after adjustment for study covariates. 205 cases of AMI occurred over a median of 14.9 years. Men employed in lower rank (farmer, blue-collar) occupations who scored high on JH had significantly higher age-adjusted risks of AMI than men in higher rank (white-collar) occupations (HR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.65-5.98 for blue collar; HR = 2.33, 95% Cl: 1.04-5.22 for farmers) who also scored high on JH. No socioeconomic differences in AMI were observed for men who scored low on JH (HR = 136, 95% CI: 0.74 2.47 for blue collar; HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.59-1.48 for farmers; p = 0.002 for the SEP x JH interaction). These findings persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological factors. Results for other SEP measures were in the same direction, but did not reach statistical significance. Repetitive high-effort coping with adversity (John Henryism) was independently associated with increased risk for AMI in Finnish men, underscoring the potential relevance of the John Henryism hypothesis to CVD outcomes other than hypertension and to populations other than African Americans. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Mujahid, Mahasin S.; James, Sherman A.; Kaplan, George A.; Salonen, Jukka (2017)
    Previous cross-sectional studies examining whether John Henryism (JH), or high-effort coping with socioeconomic adversity, potentiates the inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular health have focused mainly on hypertension in African Americans. We conducted the first longitudinal test of this hypothesis on incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using data from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study in Finland (N = 1405 men, 42-60 years). We hypothesized that the expected inverse gradient between SEP and AMI risk would be stronger for men scoring high on JH than for those scoring low. John Henryism was measured by a Finnish version of the JH Scale for Active Coping. Four different measures of SEP were used: childhood SEP, education, income, and occupation. AMI hazard ratios (HR) by SEP and JH were estimated using COX proportional hazard models, before and after adjustment for study covariates. 205 cases of AMI occurred over a median of 14.9 years. Men employed in lower rank (farmer, blue-collar) occupations who scored high on JH had significantly higher age-adjusted risks of AMI than men in higher rank (white-collar) occupations (HR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.65-5.98 for blue collar; HR = 2.33, 95% Cl: 1.04-5.22 for farmers) who also scored high on JH. No socioeconomic differences in AMI were observed for men who scored low on JH (HR = 136, 95% CI: 0.74 2.47 for blue collar; HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.59-1.48 for farmers; p = 0.002 for the SEP x JH interaction). These findings persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological factors. Results for other SEP measures were in the same direction, but did not reach statistical significance. Repetitive high-effort coping with adversity (John Henryism) was independently associated with increased risk for AMI in Finnish men, underscoring the potential relevance of the John Henryism hypothesis to CVD outcomes other than hypertension and to populations other than African Americans. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Lallukka, Tea; Ervasti, Jenni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Pentti, Jaana; Pietiläinen, Olli; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background: Whether low occupational class amplifies the risk of disability retirement among employees with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. We examined this issue in two prospective cohort studies. Methods: In the Finnish Public Sector Study and the Helsinki Health Study (n = 50.799 employees), prevalent CVD (coronary heart disease or stroke, n= 1269) was ascertained using records from national health registers, self-reported doctor-diagnosed diseases, and Rose Angina Questionnaire. Data linkage to national pension registers allowed the follow up of disability retirement among the participants for a mean of six years. We analysed the associations of occupational class and CVD with disability retirement using Cox regression, tested interactions between occupational class and prevalent CVD in predicting disability retirement by calculating the Synergy Index, and pooled the results from the two studies using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Compared with the participants from high occupational class and no CVD, the participants from the low occupational class without CVD had a 2.13-fold (95% CI 1.97-2.30), those with high occupational class and CVD a 2.18-fold (1.73-2.74); and those with both low occupational class and CVD a 4.49-fold (3.83-5.26) risk of disability retirement. A Synergy Index of 1.55 (1.16-2.06) suggested a greater than additive effect for low occupational class and CVD in combination. Conclusions: Individuals with both low occupational class and CVD are at a particularly high risk of premature exit from the labour market due to work disability. These findings suggest that better preventive strategies are needed to improve prognosis in this risk group. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Slagter, Sandra N.; Doiron, Dany; Fischer, Krista; Foco, Luisa; Gaye, Amadou; Gogele, Martin; Heier, Margit; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Joensuu, Anni; Newby, Christopher; Pang, Chao; Partinen, Eemil; Reischl, Eva; Schwienbacher, Christine; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Swertz, Morris A.; Burton, Paul; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel; Giepmans, Lisette; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Jostein; Jula, Antti; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Maunitso, Satu; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Murtagh, Madeleine J.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Saaristo, Timo; Salomaa, Veikko; Stolk, Ronald P.; Uusitupa, Matti; Van der Harst, Pim; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Perola, Markus; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R. (2014)
  • Xu, Tianwei; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis; Westerlund, Hugo; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Hansen, Ase M.; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Rod, Naja H. (2019)
    Aims To assess the associations between bullying and violence at work and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results Participants were 79201 working men and women, aged 18-65years and free of CVD and were sourced from three cohort studies from Sweden and Denmark. Exposure to workplace bullying and violence was measured at baseline using self-reports. Participants were linked to nationwide health and death registers to ascertain incident CVD, including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Study-specific results were estimated by marginal structural Cox regression and were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Nine percent reported being bullied at work and 13% recorded exposure to workplace violence during the past year. We recorded 3229 incident CVD cases with a mean follow-up of 12.4years (765 in the first 4years). After adjustment for age, sex, country of birth, marital status, and educational level, being bullied at work vs. not was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.98] for CVD. Experiencing workplace violence vs. not was associated with a HR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.12-1.40) for CVD. The population attributable risk was 5.0% for workplace bullying and 3.1% for workplace violence. The excess risk remained similar in analyses with different follow-up lengths, cardiovascular risk stratifications, and after additional adjustments. Dose-response relations were observed for both workplace bullying and violence (P-trend <0.001). There was only negligible heterogeneity in study-specific estimates. Conclusion Bullying and violence are common at workplaces and those exposed to these stressors are at higher risk of CVD.