Browsing by Subject "Class Teacher (education)"

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  • Siltainsuu, Rebekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine in more detail the factors behind the inheritance of the teacher’s profession. This topic has been studied widely in Finland and abroad. The previous studies have shown that the teacher’s profession tends to inherit in the family. The information that one could have from the results, could be used for example in student counselling. The data was collected by sending a questionnaire via email to five teachers who are from families that include teachers. The questionnaire had nine questions which were based on previous studies and this thesis’ research problems. The previous studies that were used in this study were both Finnish and international. Thematizing was used as an analyzing method when questionnaires were analyzed. The Covid-19 pandemic had an impact on the method which was used to collect the data: originally it was planned to collect it via interviews but because of the pandemic the data had to be collected via questionnaire. As a conclusion in this study teacher occupation tends to inherit for example because of the support from the family and information about the occupation that is given by them. Being in a family that has other teachers has positive impacts, like for example common holidays. Knowing that occupations in families have an impact on a child's decision about education and future occupation, give student counsellors important information that they could use when working with the students.
  • Laakkonen, Otso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Geomedia has been part of Finnish elementary school curriculum for five years in grades 3–6. Geomedia as a concept gathers old content with new one in the pursuit of devel-oping geography in school. Success of geomedia in teaching derives from perceptions of teachers, textbooks, and local curriculums. According to expectation value theory teachers perceived competence, task value of content and expectancies for its success in teaching ex-plain the motivation of how teachers invest in teaching of variable teaching contents. The re-search problem was to clarify the state of geomedia in 3rd to 6th grades. Methods. The study was conducted in the form of pragmatic exploratory mixed methods re-search using parallel convergent design. Design combined quantitative and qualitative data and methods. Data consisted 846 quantitative answers and 21 qualitative answers from open-ended question in the survey research conducted in the autumn 2020 by order of the Finnish National Agency for Education. Additional qualitative data was provided through the analysis of three textbook series and five local curricula. Quantitative data was presented though table and analysed using correlation. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The concept of geomedia was not defined in any local curriculum and it was verbalized in one textbook only. Due to the broad formulation of the concept of ge-omedia, all textbooks included geomedia in its mainly older form and in such way, it was not consciously used by teachers and pupils in learning. The perceived expectancy value to teach geomedia was clearly lower compared to other main contents of geography in science teach-ing. This result was explained by the teachers lack of understanding about geomedia. Fur-thermore, teachers didn’t have the applicable teaching materials and had not received any additional training for the usage of geomedia in teaching. Since the poor competence of teachers leads to reliance on learning material, it can be stated that geomedia is not rooted as a conscious concept in teaching. If geomedia was defined and instructed from the pupil’s point of view of using technology in their daily lives, it could renew the teaching of geography. Developing the perceived competence of teachers through additional training and research based-learning materials would, based on expectation value theory and results, increase the importance of how the teachers perceive content in their teaching. In this way, it would be possible to redeem geomedia among the more entrenched teaching content of geography.
  • Yli-Kuivila, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Safe learning environment is a student´s right based on the Finnish law (2013, 29 §) and national curriculum (POPS, 2014, s.29). Taking care of safety is a requirement of student wellbeing (Noble etc., 2008, s.7-10). Safe learning environment is based on physical and mental safety. Physical safety includes state security and physical integrity while mental health includes social, psychological, and pedagogical security. Emotional security is based on all these five areas. (Hurme & Kyllönen, 2014, s.28-29.) My personal interest and the lack of research available in Finnish has led me to study the use of dogs in education. The purpose of this master`s thesis is to describe, analyse and interpret how teachers think service dogs affect safe learning environments. This thesis tries to increase understanding of safe learning environments and describe how service dogs affects those. I researched the following question: How teachers see a service dog affecting a safe learning environment (state security, physical integrity, social, psychological, pedagogical and emotional security)? This thesis is a qualitative research and it is made with semi-structured interview. I interviewed six teachers for this thesis. All teachers have used a service dog in education for at least one and half years and some of them have used service dogs for more than five years. The inter-views are analysed by using content analysis. This thesis shows that a service dog can help students` emotional security and mental security however there are few exceptions. The biggest concern teachers have on the use of service dogs is ensuring the physical security of all students. As the benefits of service dogs on students' wellbeing and safe learning environment exceed the negative effects, I suggest that they should be more widely adopted based on the available research.
  • Leppä, Niklas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this thesis was to find out what kind of experience teachers acquired in an inven- tion project in a special needs school. The thesis also examines the foundations of the ped- agogy of inventing. In this study, the invention project was examined through three central categories: teachers’ views on pedagogy of inventing, teachers’ views on actions of the pu- pils during the invention project and teachers’ experiences in organizing the invention pro- ject. The aim was to give a broad general view about organizing an invention project in a special needs school. The material for this thesis was collected with semi-structured interviews of the teachers in the special needs school. The qualitative analysis was done by thematic arranging and it was data driven. ATLAS.TI was used in the arranging of the data. The data was organized in upper and subcategories around unified themes. During the thematic arrangement 50 subcategories were found and they were organized into 13 different upper categories. The teachers saw the pedagogy of inventing as an approach that utilizes cognitive skills, creativeness, innovativeness and self-support of the pupils as well as different methods across different subjects in an open-ended problem space. The major upper category in the actions of the pupils during the invention project was cognitive skills. Teachers felt that the project developed the pupil’s skills in reflecting and planning their work. The project also improved their social skills and the teachers were surprised how well the collaboration worked between the older and the younger students. The students were strongly committed to the project and got many experiences of success. In the central category of teachers’ experiences in organizing the invention project, the teachers brought up communication and interaction problems with their colleagues. Some of the teachers didn’t get to participate to the planning of the project and felt isolated during the project. The teachers came up with many ways to improve the project’s organizing for the next time. The teachers also felt that it is possible to do invention projects with special needs pupils, but they still need same kind of support that they normally get in their learning.
  • Valtter, Nina Alena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tässä kvalitatiivisessa pro gradu -tutkielmassa tutkin luovuuden tukemisen merkityksiä. Tutkimus sisältää kolme narratiivista haastattelua ja niistä syntyneet kertomukset luovuuden tukemisen merkityksistä. Toinen tutkimuksessa käytetty metodi on systemoitu kirjallisuuskatsaus, jossa tärkeimmiksi teorioiksi on valittu J. P. Guilfordin divergentti ajattelu, A. H. Maslow’n teoria luovuudesta itsensä toteuttamisena ja M. Csíkszentmihályin flow-teoria. Luovuuden tukemisen merkityksiä voidaan löytää niin yksilön kuin yhteiskunnan näkökulmista. Tämän tutkimuksen parasta antia ovat luovuuskertomukset, joita analysoin muun muassa rohkeuden, vapauden, ideoinnin ja itsevarmuuden rakentumisen näkökulmista. Yhteiskunnallisia näkökulmia tutkimukselle on luovien produktien tuottaminen ja yhteiskunnallinen osallistuminen.
  • Malkamäki, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    As shown by prior research, primary school student teachers feel a lack of practical experience in their studies. Nowadays the part of practical training in teacher education studies is becoming even smaller. This thesis argues for the advantages of working on a summer camp for primary school student teacher’s professional development during their studies. This thesis describes how working on a summer camp affects a student teacher’s professional development and what factors they consider important for their own professional development. The presumption for the research was that working on a summer camp has positive and important effects on the professional development of a primary school student teacher. The method used in this thesis was a qualitative case study. The data consisted of interviews with seven primary school student teachers that had worked on a summer camp during the past three years. The interview was a half-structured individual interview. The data was analyzed by using thematic analysis, and six themes were found from the analyzed data. Due to the diverging answers of the respondents, the thematic analysis was extended by categorizing the test subjects into four different groups. The factors affecting a primary school student teacher’s professional development of working on a summer camp were increased experience, reflection, co-workers and teamwork, difficult cases, interaction with children and the young and reflection on teaching. The respondents experienced that working on a summer camp was beneficial for their professional development. Based on their answers, the test subjects were categorized into test subjects with converging answers and test subjects with diverging answers. The first group consisted of four respondents that emphasized the six main themes in their answers. The second group consisted of three answerers and they were named further as self-reflector, novice teacher and the exceeder. Based on this study, working on a summer camp can be recommended for all student teachers. This study can act as inspiration for applying for a job on a summer camp and as a reason for hiring student teachers.
  • Cimili, Dorentina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this research is to clarify experiences of six teachers with different qualifications about Language awareness in a simultaneous teaching -pilot program. This program has been implemented in schools in Helsinki. My objective in this research is to sort out teachers’ experiences about planning, implementation, possible effects, or changes within this program and how translanguaging has been used in teaching. Important theoretical concepts of this research are language awareness and translanguaging. In addition, I examine mother tongue teaching, Finnish as a second language teaching, preparatory teaching for newly arrived students and multilingualism in Finnish schools from the perspectives of Finnish school system and Finnish primary school curriculum. The character of this research is qualitative content analysis. In this research I will specify the material which I have collected by using semi-structured interviews and I will present themes that were established from the material. The material contains interviews of six teachers which have been part of the pilot program. In the material we can hear experiences of mother tongue teachers, class teacher, subject teacher, and Finnish as a second language -teacher, from the middle and elementary school point of view. The results of my research give indication about capabilities of language awareness simultaneous teaching in practice and what types of thoughts teachers have about multilingual, language awareness and translanguaging utilised in teaching during this pilot program. The main results of my research indicate that middle and elementary schools have differences between teachers pedagogical planning which depend on the qualifications of the teachers. In planning, structural challenges and difficulties occurred during scheduling. In the implementation there were differences in using different languages, for example the languages were centre of the teaching or part of teaching to support learning. Experiences of possible effects of the pilot program were developed in language skills, changes in motivation, individual and peer attitude in language skills, learning and support in work, knowing students, interests of teachers outside of the pilot program and parents’ varying feedback. Utilizing translanguaging and various types of languages in classes appeared dissimilar and the teacher’s role in multilingual interaction differed based on the qualifications of the teacher. The teachers experienced the pilot program overall as a positive, useful, and necessary matter. The need for this kind of language awareness simultaneous teaching in which mother tongue teachers work together with other teachers were reflected within the teachers’ experiences. There were many advantages which display that there might be a lack or shortage in linguistic support and in multilingualism becoming a norm in the Finnish comprehensive school.
  • Stenbäck, Reija-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Covid-19 pandemic forced the Ministry of Education and Culture to make a historical decision, based on which all schools and educational institutions in Finland switched to dis-tance education on March 18, 2020. If necessary, contact teaching was offered only to pupils in grades 1 – 3 or with special support. The purpose of this dissertation is to record the experience of pupils aged 7 to 12 years and their parents of the distance school routine overshadowed by exclusionary activities of soci-ety. It was mentally a very difficult period. The aim of the dissertation is to find out how dis-tance education was perceived, especially in terms of the mental well-being of pupils and what opportunities the teacher has to support in the community of pupils and other mental well-being in the situation of distance education. This qualitative research has a narrative approach. The material consists of diary-based WhatsApp messages from three students and loosely structured thematic interviews with stu-dents and their parents. The material has been compiled during exceptional circumstances, and it was possible to find out changes in school practices and pupils’ moods as the distance learning period progressed. The results show the importance of different teaching practices on mental well-being of the pupil the differences in the level of teaching practices. The data shows the spring 2020 was challenging. As expected, it highlighted loneliness caused by social isolation but also the po-tential of the school to support community. At it’s best, distance education was challenging but diverse learning environment that devel-oped future skills and self-esteem of the pupil. At worst, it turned out to be a grueling and lonely drill for the pupil when even the provision of basic learning goals was uncertain.
  • Harenko, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Use of dogs in school environment has increased during the last years. In earlier studies it has been found that dogs can increase social well-being in classrooms, motivate pupils, help them take part in school work and calm them. Few years ago the new curriculum for basic education made emotion education part of mandatory content in elementary school. Goal for emotion education is to teach pupils to understand their emotions and express them in way that is good for them and others. In this study the goal is to find out in what whey teacher can use school dog as a part of emotion education and what kind of experiences the teacher and pupils have on this kind of classes. This study was a qualitative study. The participants were 37 elementary school pupils from grades 5.-6. and a teacher who had given those pupils emotion education. The pupils wrote shorts texts to the teacher evaluating given classes. To help write these texts they had some questions they were able to use. The teacher was interviewed using theme interview. Both the texts and the interview were analysed using content analysis. Dog’s appearance was a meaningful thing to the classes. The teacher and pupils felt that the dog made the classes more motivating and it also affected to the atmosphere positively. The teacher thinks that the dog makes it easier for the pupils to open up and they will also have stronger memory trail of these classes. The pupils found that being physically near the dog was important and the dog affected also their mood. Some pupils didn’t think that the dog affected them in any way. School dog can make emotion education easier as it makes easier to talk about difficult things and makes learning environment better. With dog emotion education can be carried out in various ways that are inspiring for pupils.
  • Neuvonen, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Appearance pressures caused by social media, increased use of technology, low physical activity and poor physical performance in children and adolescents have led to the originate of this thesis. Previous studies show that these factors can be seen as a risk to the embodiment. The purpose of this thesis is to provide information about embodiment, body awareness and embodied learning in in the context of primary school. The study aims to to find ways in which teacher can support the development of student’s body awareness and positive body image in physical education. In addition, it is examined how teachers perceive their skills and potential to support student’s embodiment and how they see the potential of embodiment in learning. The study was conducted as a qualitative phenomenographic case study, and the research data was collected through semi-structured interviews of four dance and physical education teachers. The research was phenomenographic because of the interest in teacher’s experiences and views on bodily-related themes. The interviews were analyzed using the phenomenographic analysis. The results of the study show that embodiment and body awaraness are challenging concepts with prejudices. The concepts were thought to mean the same thing, or embodiment was considered as the upper concept of body awareness. Supporting body awareness and positive body image are connected to each other: body awareness exercises were also seen to have a positive effect on the development of body image. In the development of body awareness, it was seen as important, for example, to increase knowledge related to the anatomy of the body, and to observe postures and movements of the body. In turn, positive feedback, praise and safe learning environment were considered as important, when supporting positive body image. Creative dance, improvisation, mindfulness, braindance, touching and relaxation exercises were mentioned as exercises that support embodiment. Teachers felt that their own skills were good in supporting student’s embodiment and they emphasized the importance of their own body awareness and education. Embodiment was found to have positive effects on learning, so the research confirms the results of previous research on the bodily basis of thinking and learning
  • Ihalainen, Olivia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Although leadership practices that focus on collaborating and sharing have gained popularity in the Finnish school organizations, the principal is often seen as the school’s leader with the power and opportunity to manage and develop the school. The aim of this study was to uncover school leaders’ views on school leadership. The study focused on examining school leaders’ views of the role of a school principal and pedagogical leadership. Previous research has shown that the knowledge and status of pedagogical leadership is unclear in school organizations. Methods. The research material of this study was collected as part of the EduLeaders research project of the Leadership in Educational Contexts research group. EduLeaders develops and evaluates basic studies in education and teaching management and develops advanced studies. The research material for this study consisted of four group interviews involving a total of 14 leaders in education and teaching. The study is a qualitative case study that is analysed by a theory-driven content analysis. The subcategories were formed based on the data, while the categories were formed together with the data and theoretical background. Results and conclusions. The study revealed that managers define the role of the principal in a context-dependent manner and through the principal’s perceptions and meanings given to the role. The study found three factors that defined the role of the principal: the principal’s tasks, expectations from outside, and the principal’s perceptions of themselves and their own competence. These three factors together with the principal’s interpretation and experience, the operating environment, and the situation, form the role of the principal. Pedagogical leadership, on the other hand, was understood as a holistic part of school operations, but was described as being implemented in different ways in different schools. The study formed an understanding of pedagogical leadership, according to which pedagogical leadership is centered on the student, pedagogical leadership is built on the common values of the school organization, and pedagogical leadership manifests itself in everyday life as sharing leadership, skills and responsibilities that are supported and enabled by the principal’s work tasks.
  • Keinänen, Tuulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to find out teachers’ and guardians’ perceptions of cyberbullying intervention strategies and the school’s responsibility. Besides the intent was to examine their views about the intervention programs gathered by the Ministry of Education and Culture. Previous research has shown that school officials intervene more easily in physical bullying as they do not notice the cyberbullying incidents and more guidance and intervention programs are needed. The purpose of this study was to provide information to school officials and guardians about the operative factors linked to cyberbullying interventions, to point out the intervention procedures and programs that are regarded as being practical and to determine the responsibility of school based on the views of teachers and guardians. Four guardians and three teachers participated in the study. The data was collected in two focus group discussions, one with teachers and the other one with guardians. The material was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The analysis was partly led by the theoretical framework and partly the themes that came up in the discussions. The results showed that teachers applied the same methods than in traditional bullying such as discussions, agreements and positive pedagogy while emphasizing also the responsibility of the guardians. However, the guardians felt that the pre-adolescents had not received enough guidance and support from the school and they were reluctant to report cyberbullying. According to the focus groups the responsibility of school to intervene in the cyberbullying occurred at school depends on the school policies, legislation, multi-professional collaboration, anonymity and the case in question. When it happens outside the school the responsibility is easier to specify – teachers are not obligated to intervene excluding the incidents that are linked to school or appear also in there. As to the intervention programs the guardians considered the peer mediation program VERSO to be the most functional while the teachers found it to be more suitable for small disputes. The teachers liked the KiVa program the most based on their good experiences and they especially high-lighted a case-by-case approach. Likewise the guardians gave good feedback on the KiVa program.
  • Leppänen, Taneli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to find out what opportunities dance teachers in primary school see in dance education, as well as what goals they have had in their teaching. The purpose of the study is also to describe the experiences of dance teachers in their work. Methods. For the study, six people who taught dance in primary school were interviewed. The interview had features typical of both the thematic interview and the narrative interview. The material was spelled out and analyzed by means of content analysis. Results and conclusions. The interviewees considered the possibilities of dance diverse. Dance was thought to be a tool for developing self-awareness and self-image, as well as developing skills that support schooling, such as concentration and calming down. Dance was thought to promote movement skills, as well as develop expression skills and emotional skills. The teaching goals that emerged most clearly from the material were to develop movement skills, practice social skills and being in a group, increase body awareness, presence and self-understanding, and become acquainted with dance and increase dance knowledge. The teachers ’stories showed that they find the teaching of dance rewarding and meaningful. They also felt that the students liked the dance and the dancing had been accompanied by a sense of togetherness. According to the interviewees, being in contact with other students when dancing was nice for some students and challenging for some. Interviewees found it sometimes challenging to manage the group and involving students in dance.
  • Sanaksenaho, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this master's thesis is to get acquainted with the child-forest relationship and the factors influencing it. This research takes a closer look at children's forest relations, children's personal forest experiences and children's thoughts and expectations about the forest. The subject of the study is also the social or forest cultural features in the construction of children's forest relations. Studies have shown that the forest relationship is built mainly on the basis of relevant forest experiences. Children's environmental education is also of great importance. This thesis is a qualitative study in which a phenomenological-hermeneutic perspective has been used in the analysis of the research data; content analysis was constructed through an understanding of an individual’s experiences. For this research, I interviewed six sixth graders, with whom I also visited the children’s nearby forest where they photographed interesting and beautiful objects in the forest. In the interviews, I used photos of different forests to support the discussion. The key point was to look at what materials children’s personal experiences are built from and what they meant ultimately for the development of a child’s forest relationship. Children’s meaningful forest experiences with family and friends increase appreciation and respect for the forest. Children involved in the study use the forest mainly for functional reasons, as well as to calm down to counteract the everyday fuss. Children’s forest relationship has received impressive ingredients from societal expectations and meanings. The reflection on the future highlighted the desire to protect the forest as well as the economic aspect. Based on the research findings, it is possible to state that the opportunities to go to the forest enabled by important people and the positive forest experiences encountered there strengthen the children's relationship with the forest. In addition, societal expectations for the forest became part of children’s thinking.
  • Hovinen, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to find out how teachers use songs as a means to support learning a new language in preparatory education. The purpose was also to examine their reasoning behind using songs in their teaching. The research problem arises from the need to consider the different ways in which newly arrived pupils can be supported in the beginning of learning a new language. According to previous studies, music has a positive impact on language learning. However, there is a need for further study of using songs as a means to support language learning in Finland and especially in Finnish preparatory education. The study was carried out applying a phenomenological approach. Research data was collected by interviewing eight teachers who had experience in using songs in preparatory education. Research data was analyzed using methods of qualitative content analysis. On the basis of this study, the different ways of using songs in supporting language learning in preparatory education form a wide and inventive array of teaching methods. The reasoning behind including songs in preparatory education was mostly linked to the views the teachers had concerning the positive effects of using songs, which were in many cases influenced by the positive experiences they had using songs in teaching. In some cases, the reasons were linked to positive experiences the teachers themselves had in connection with language learning and songs. The reasons could be divided into those that were directly linked to language learning and those that were linked to the overall well-being and growth of students or creating a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom. Using songs was seen as an affective and quick way to learn new vocabulary and phrases. The teachers’ views reflected the idea that language learning is a process that cannot be separated from everything else that is happening in the classroom. The role of music in increasing school satisfaction and dealing with emotions was considered as very important. The teachers’ views were in this sense in line with previous studies concerning the ways in which singing indirectly affects language learning.
  • Poranen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies have shown that physical activity of children and adolescents is decreasing. The task of school physical education (PE) is to support the growth of a physically active lifestyle and to provide positive experiences of exercise, in which case physical activities would also be transferred to leisure activities. A teacher’s pedagogical choices are linked to the formation of a favorable motivational climate in PE. The motivational climate has also relationship with students` motivation, enjoyment, well-being, and perceived competence. Therefore, it is important to map PE teachers’ perceptions of the motivational climate and a connection between a teacher's activities and the favorable motivational climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational climate of PE from the perspective of PE teachers. The target was also to find out perceptions and practical solutions to support the favorable motivational climate in PE. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods. The research data consisted of essays and semi-structured interviews by seven physical education teachers. The data was analyzed by using phenomenographic analysis and content analysis. Physical education teachers divided perceptions of the motivational climate into the atmosphere and goal orientation during the lesson. The teacher's ways of working, a student, a student group, and a learning environment were seen to be related to the formation of a motivational climate. The importance of the motivational climate in the planning of PE teaching was reflected in the consideration of the heterogeneity of the student group, in the choice of contents and methods, and supporting task orientation. The favorable motivational climate in practical teaching situations was supported by teachers verbal approaches, their own attitudes, creating an inspiring learning environment, supporting student`s self-determination and goal orientation, as well as observation and response. According to PE teachers, the favorable motivational climate is related to quality of motivation, enjoyment, participation and trying in PE classes, as well as social relatedness of the student group. This study highlights the teacher’s perspective on the motivational climate and provides practical solutions to support a favorable motivational climate in PE.
  • Virtanen, Tessa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the spring of 2020, all Finnish schools moved to distance learning to restrict the spread of covid-19 virus. During this time, all subjects were taught using distance teaching methods. Distance teaching has been used in schools before the pandemic, for example in online courses but distance teaching for an entire class and for a long period of time is rare. Additionally, distantly teaching elementary school subjects such as physical education (PE) is uncommon. Researchers have demonstrated that the age and the subjects offer certain challenges to distance teaching. Previous research indicates that subjects such as PE where a group setting is required, are challenging to teach distantly without the presence of a group and students learning the subject individually in their own homes. The aim of this study is to investigate the methods elementary school teachers used in distance teaching of PE. The goal is to understand the challenges and opportunities distance teaching sets for PE. Additionally, the goal is to determine how the teaching goals set in the curriculum can be achieved in distance teaching. The study was executed using qualitative methods. The data consisted of semi-structured thematic interviews of six elementary school teachers. The interviews were conducted in the spring of 2021 using distance communication methods. Data-analysis was conducted using data-driven content analysis. In distance teaching of PE teachers utilized asynchronous methods emphasizing mainly different forms of outdoor exercises which require minimum resources from the children’s families. Teachers experienced that goals and contents set in the curriculum from a physical and mental perspective were met partially, but from a social perspective very little. According to the teachers there were massive differences in the involvement of students in physical education learning during the distance teaching period. The main challenges in distance teaching of PE according to the teachers were taking into consideration the students’ equality and young age when planning and executing the lessons. The range of alternative teaching methods, flexibility and the use of new methods and technology were seen as positive factors in distance teaching of PE. Although the distance teaching period as a whole was a positive and eye-opening experience for the teachers, all of them concluded that PE is more appropriate in contact teaching. The distance teaching period offered new methods and technology to be used in PE teaching in the future, however in conclusion it is not practical to replace contact teaching with distance teaching in PE.
  • Hirvonen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study high school students´ experiences with school dog activity, its effects on their well-being and burnout prevention. The focus of this study is the students' views of dog assisted pedagogy. The theoretical part of the thesis addresses both animal assisted and dog-assisted activity. The definition of well being and how it is emphasized in the national curriculum of Finnish high schools are also covered in this section. We end the theoretical part by defining the term burnout and why is it considered an essential part of this study. This study is a case study and the material used in this study was gathered from one high school. Via skype meeting, five high school students were interviewed about their experiences of school dog activity.The results were analyzed based on the theoretical frame of the study and also based on content oriented analysis. School dogs have a clear connection to students' well-being and their strengths during burnout. The school dog activity received positive feedback from all interviewed students. According to the interviewees, school dogs helped them cope with burnout. Burnout was said to include social, physical and mental aspects. The interviewed students told that school dogs gave them support when they found themselves on the verge of a burnout. Dogs had a calming effect on students during burnout and they also raised positive feelings among students. School dogs were seen as an essential part of students' well-being. Working with school dogs reduced anxiety and evoked feelings of pleasure. School dogs also helped the students meet new people and interact with each other. According to the students, dogs had a calming effect on them and they also reduced stress- and anxiety-related symptoms. School dogs were shown to have many beneficial roles. For example, dogs were seen as friends, listeners and also therapists. Having a school dog around during break was shown to evoke positive feelings in students. The attitudes towards school dog activity were also positive among students' families. The interviewed students saw many future opportunities for the school dog activity and gave a lot of ideas on how to expand it. All the students considered the school dog activity as a success in their school.
  • Biese, Micaela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse and interpret achievement emotions related to mathematics from the perspective of in-person and distance studies. The thesis will illustrate how achievement emotions are present in high schoolers and also assess how distance studies have affected their presence. The difference between both advanced and regular mathematics streams, as well as the differences between men and women, and their achievement emotions shall be assessed. The theoretical frame of reference for the conducted research is Pekrun’s (2006) control-value theory. The research material used in this thesis is the material gathered for Anni Sydänmaanlakka’s dissertation. The material was gathered in the beginning of 2021 with the aid of an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire received 1354 responses from high schoolers from eighteen different schools. The questionnaire used the AEQ-M (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Mathematics) scale. The suitability of this AEQ-M method was analysed by means of a confirmatory factor analysis. Analysing the material was done by using a non-parametric Wilcox marked rank -test in addition to the Mann-Whitney U-test. From the thesis it became evident that the differences in achievement emotions when comparing distance and in-person studies were statistically significant. The majority of high schoolers experienced more boredom and anger and less satisfaction and anxiety in distance studies than during in-person studies. The difference between students in advanced and regular mathematics streams was statistically significant. The students studying regular mathematics felt more anxiety, boredom and anger in both distance and in-person studies than those studying advanced mathematics. On the other hand, they felt less satisfaction than the advanced mathematics students. A distinct statistical difference between how the different sexes felt emotions could be detected. Women felt more anxiety in both study methods and more boredom in distance studies. Men in contrast felt more satisfaction in both study methods. The study methods and the individuals sex seemed to make a difference when assessing achievement emotions related to mathematics. In particular differences could be detected in relation to feelings of boredom between the study methods and different genders.
  • Savolainen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to find out which factors do classroom teachers, who have graduated from the University of Helsinki, perceive as significant factors causing work stress. In addition, it is investigated which background variables (e.g., factors related to teacher, teaching and work environment) are related to work stress. The aim is also to find out which methods class teachers have to support their coping at work. This thesis was carried out as a mixed methods research. The quantitative data was obtained through a questionnaire, which was responded by 59 class teachers who have graduated from the University of Helsinki. The data was statistically analysed using IBM SPSS. The analytical methods used were factor analysis, correlation analysis, t-tests and cross-tabulation. The quantitative results guided the development of the frame for the interview, and based on them, 4 respondents were selected for interview. The qualitative data was obtained through thematic interviews. The data was analysed by means of content analysis. The most significant factors causing work stress in a class teacher’s work are students interfering with classroom interaction, supporting special education students, responsibility for student learning, heavy workload, externally determined factors related to the development of teaching as well as some factors related to the work environment and general nature of the work. Low satisfaction with teacher training, low support from teacher colleagues, working in Greater Helsinki and teaching planning as an ability gained from studies are background variables which are related class teachers’ work stress. Problem-focused coping methods used by class teachers were managing working time, taking one’s own coping into account in planning teaching, precise practices and building good relationships with guardians and filtering media. Emotion-focused coping methods used by class teachers were leisure and healthy lifestyles, strengthening the working atmosphere, occupational well-being factors, distancing oneself and regulating emotions. In addition to this, coping methods focused on both problem and emotion, were the support of colleagues, the support of school administration, foremanship and self-awareness.