Browsing by Subject "DIET"

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  • Ahola, Hanna Gabriela; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Schulman, Alan; Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Viitala, Sirja; Huang, Xin (2020)
    Oats have been found to be tolerated by most celiac disease patients, and oats are generally considered a good and safe addition to the gluten-free diet. There have been claims that some individual oat cultivars are harmful or immunogenic for celiac disease patients. In this study, we investigated 26 oat cultivars and landraces from the current breeding market and literature. Their total protein content ranged from 15.3% to 23.1% of which avenins ranged from 6.8% to 10.9%. Immunological activities of avenins were evaluated using mmunochemical analyses using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) R5 and G12. No immunological activity of the oat cultivars was observed by mAb R5 either in immunoblotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). mAB G12 showed no activity in immunoblotting, but gave responses between 13 and 53 mg/kg in ELISA for total avenin extract. To understand the varying G12 activity, avenins were further fractionated. One avenin fraction showed a higher G12 response than the other fractions. Protein sequence comparison suggests that there is no direct binding to avenin-specific T-cell epitopes but the differences in repetitive regions in avenins may contribute to varying results in G12 ELISA.
  • Sares-Jäske, Laura; Knekt, Paul; Eranti, Antti; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Heliövaara, Markku; Männistö, Satu (2020)
    Introduction Observational and intervention studies have verified that weight loss predicts a reduced type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. At the population level, knowledge on the prediction of self-report intentional weight loss (IWL) on T2D incidence is, however, sparse. We studied the prediction of self-report IWL on T2D incidence during a 15-year follow-up in a general adult population. Research design and methods The study sample from the representative Finnish Health 2000 Survey comprised 4270 individuals, aged 30-69 years. IWL was determined with questions concerning dieting attempts and weight loss during the year prior to baseline. Incident T2D cases during a 15-year follow-up were drawn from national health registers. The strength of the association between IWL and T2D incidence was estimated with the Cox model. Results During the follow-up, 417 incident cases of T2D occurred. IWL predicted an increased risk of T2D incidence (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.87, p=0.008) in a multivariable model. In interaction analyses comparing individuals with and without IWL, a suggestively elevated risk emerged in men, the younger age group, among less-educated people and in individuals with unfavorable values in several lifestyle factors. Conclusions Self-report IWL may predict an increased risk of T2D in long-term, probably due to self-implemented IWL tending to fail. The initial prevention of weight gain and support for weight maintenance after weight loss deserve greater emphasis in order to prevent T2D.
  • Lokki, A. Inkeri; Jarvela, Irma; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Maiga, Bakary; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Meri, Seppo; Holmberg, Ville (2011)
    Background: Fulani are a widely spread African ethnic group characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, clinical malaria morbidity and higher rate of lactase persistence compared to sympatric tribes. Lactase non-persistence, often called lactose intolerance, is the normal condition where lactase activity in the intestinal wall declines after weaning. Lactase persistence, common in Europe, and in certain African people with traditions of raising cattle, is caused by polymorphisms in the enhancer region approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene. Methods: To evaluate the relationship between malaria and lactase persistence genotypes, a 400 bp region surrounding the main European C/T(-13910) polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene was sequenced. DNA samples used in the study originated from 162 Fulani and 79 Dogon individuals from Mali. Results: Among 79 Dogon only one heterozygote of the lactase enhancer polymorphism was detected, whereas all others were homozygous for the ancestral C allele. Among the Fulani, the main European polymorphism at locus C/T(-13910) was by far the most common polymorphism, with an allele frequency of 37%. Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found with allele frequencies of 3.7%, 1.9% and 0.6% each. The novel DNA polymorphism T/C(-13906) was seen in six heterozygous Fulani. Among the Fulani with lactase non-persistence CC genotypes at the C/T(-13910) locus, 24% had malaria parasites detectable by microscopy compared to 18% for lactase persistent genotypes (P = 0.29). Pooling the lactase enhancer polymorphisms to a common presumptive genotype gave 28% microscopy positives for non-persistent and 17% for others (P = 0.11). Conclusions: Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in asymptomatic Fulani is more common in individuals with lactase non-persistence genotypes, but this difference is not statistically significant. The potential immunoprotective properties of dietary cow milk as a reason for the partial malaria resistance of Fulani warrant further investigation.
  • Nevalainen, Jaakko; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Saarijärvi, Hannu; Näppilä, Turkka; Fogelholm, Mikael (2018)
    Objective To study the characteristics of large-scale loyalty card data obtained in Finland, and to evaluate their potential and challenges in health research. Methods We contacted the holders of a certain loyalty card living in a specific region in Finland via email, and requested their electronic informed consent to obtain their basic background characteristics and grocery expenditure data from 2016 for health research purposes. Non-participation and the characteristics and expenditure of the participants were mainly analysed using summary statistics and figures. Results The data on expenditure came from 14,595 (5.6% of those contacted) consenting loyalty card holders. A total of 68.5% of the participants were women, with an average age of 46 years. Women and residents of Helsinki were more likely to participate. Both young and old participants were underrepresented in the sample. We observed that annual expenditure represented roughly two-thirds of the nationally estimated annual averages. Customers and personnel differed in their characteristics and expenditure, but not so much in their most frequently bought items. Conclusions Loyalty card data from a major retailer enabled us to reach a large, heterogeneous sample with fewer resources than conventional surveys of the same magnitude. The potential of the data was great because of their size, coverage, objectivity, and long periods of dynamic data collection, which enables timely investigations. The challenges included bias due to non-participation, purchases in other stores, the level of detail in product grouping, and the knowledge gaps in what is being consumed and by whom. Loyalty card data are an underutilised resource in research, and could be used not only in retailers' activities, but also for societal benefit.
  • Dickel, Franziska; Freitak, Dalial; Mappes, Johanna (2016)
    Hundreds of insect species are nowadays reared under laboratory conditions. Rearing of insects always implicates the risk of diseases, among which microbial infections are the most frequent and difficult problems. Although there are effective prophylactic treatments, the side effects of applied antibiotics are not well understood. We examined the effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on the overwintering success of wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) larvae, and the postdiapause effect on their life-history traits. Four weeks before hibernation larvae were treated with a widely used antibiotic (fumagillin). We monitored moths' survival and life-history traits during the following 10 mo, and compared them to those of untreated control larvae. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment had no effect on survival but we show effects on some life-history traits by decreasing the developmental time of treated larvae. However, we also revealed relevant negative effects, as antibiotic treated individuals show a decreased number of laid eggs and also furthermore a suppressed immunocompetence. These results implicate, that a prophylactic medication can also lead to negative effects on life-history traits and reproductive success, which should be seriously taken in consideration when applying a prophylactic treatment to laboratory reared insect populations.
  • Viljakainen, Jannina; Raju, Sajan C.; Viljakainen, Heli; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Roos, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Rounge, Trine B. (2020)
    Background Diet may influence health directly or indirectly via the human microbiota, emphasizing the need to unravel these complex relationships for future health benefits. Associations between eating habits and gut microbiota have been shown, but less is known about the association between eating habits and saliva microbiota. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate if eating habits and meal patterns are associated with the saliva microbiota. Methods In total, 842 adolescents, aged 11-14 years, from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) study cohort were included in this study. Eating habits and breakfast and dinner patterns were derived from a web-based questionnaire answered in school. Three major eating habit groups were identified: fruit and vegetable avoiders (FV avoiders), healthy and unhealthy. Microbiota profiles were produced from 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4) sequencing of DNA from the saliva samples. Statistical models were adjusted for gender, age, parental language, body mass index (BMI) categories, and sequencing depth. Results Regular breakfast eaters had a higher alpha diversity (Shannon index with mean (standard error of means) 2.27 (0.03) vs. 2.22 (0.03), p = 0.06, inverse Simpson's index with 6.27 (0.17) vs. 5.80 (0.02), p = 0.01), and slight differences in bacterial composition (PERMANOVA: p = 0.001) compared with irregular breakfast eaters. A similar trend in alpha diversity was observed between regular and irregular dinner eaters (Shannon index with 2.27 (0.03) vs. 2.22 (0.03), p = 0.054, inverse Simpson's index with 6.23 (0.17) vs. 6.04 (0.22), p = 0.28), while no difference was found in composition (PERMANOVA: p = 0.08). No differences were identified between eating habit groups and saliva microbiota diversity (Shannon index p = 0.77, inverse Simpson's index p = 0.94) or composition (PERMANOVA: p = 0.13). FV avoiders, irregular breakfast eaters and irregular dinner eaters had high abundances of Prevotella. Conclusion Regularity of eating, especially breakfast eating, was associated with more diverse saliva microbiota and different composition compared with irregular eaters. However, the dissimilarities in composition were small between regular and irregular breakfast eaters. Our results suggest that Prevotella abundances in saliva were common in FV avoiders and meal skippers. However, the clinical implications of these findings need to be evaluated in future studies.
  • Värri, Miika; Niskanen, Leo; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Honkanen, Risto; Kröger, Heikki; Tuppurainen, Marjo T. (2020)
    Purpose: Atherosclerosis (AS) and osteoporosis (OP) are common causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women and are connected via an unknown mechanistic link. Metabolite profiling of blood samples may allow the identification of new biomarkers and pathways for this enigmatic association. Patients and Methods: We studied the difference in 148 metabolite levels from serum samples in postmenopausal women with AS and OP compared with those in healthy participants in this cross-sectional study. Quantitative AS was assessed by carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery calcifications (CACs) by ultrasound, as well as OP by femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) and 148 metabolic measures with high-throughput proton (H-1) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in serum samples from 280 postmenopausal (PM) women. Subjects were a randomly selected subsample from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study. The final study population included the following groups: OP with CAC (n=16, group I), non-OP with no CAC (n=59, group II), high cIMT tertile with OP (n=11, group III) and low cIMT tertile without OP (n=48, group IV). Results: There were differences in several metabolite levels between groups I and II. The acetate level was lower in group I compared to that in group II (group I mean +/- SD: 0.033 +/- 0.0070; group II: 0.041 +/- 0.014, CI95%: 0.018.0.15, p=0.014). The result was similar with diacylglycerol (p=0.002), leucine (p=0.031), valine (p=0.022) and several very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolite levels, which were lower in group I compared to those in group II. However, no associations were found in adjusted analyses with total body (TB) fat mass (FM), age and statin use (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our novel study found differences in the metabolite profiling of altered amino acid and lipoprotein metabolism in participants with OP and AS compared with those in healthy women. The causative mechanisms remain unknown and further studies are needed.
  • Pussila, Marjaana; Toronen, Petri; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Katayama, Shintaro; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Holm, Liisa; Kere, Juha; Peltomäki, Paivi; Mäkinen, Markus J.; Linden, Jere; Nyström, Minna (2018)
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) genome is unstable and different types of instabilities, such as chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are thought to reflect distinct cancer initiating mechanisms. Although 85% of sporadic CRC reveal CIN, 15% reveal mismatch repair (MMR) malfunction and MSI, the hallmarks of Lynch syndrome with inherited heterozygous germline mutations in MMR genes. Our study was designed to comprehensively follow genome-wide expression changes and their implications during colon tumorigenesis. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address expression changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer preceding events, and the effect of inherited predisposition (Mlh1(+/-)) and Western-style diet (WD) on those. During the 21-month experiment, carcinomas developed mainly in WD-fed mice and were evenly distributed between genotypes. Unexpectedly, the heterozygote (B6.129-Mlh1tm1Rak) mice did not show MSI in their CRCs. Instead, both wildtype and heterozygote CRC mice showed a distinct mRNA expression profile and shortage of several chromosomal segregation gene-specific transcripts (Mlh1, Bub1, Mis18a, Tpx2, Rad9a, Pms2, Cenpe, Ncapd3, Odf2 and Dclre1b) in their colon mucosa, as well as an increased mitotic activity and abundant numbers of unbalanced/atypical mitoses in tumours. Our genome-wide expression profiling experiment demonstrates that cancer preceding changes are already seen in histologically normal colon mucosa and that decreased expressions of Mlh1 and other chromosomal segregation genes may form a field-defect in mucosa, which trigger MMR-proficient, chromosomally unstable CRC.
  • Lafuma, Fabien; Corfe, Ian; Clavel, Julien; Di-Poi, Nicolas (2021)
    Teeth act as tools for acquiring and processing food, thus holding a prominent role in vertebrate evolution. In mammals, dental-dietary adaptations rely on tooth complexity variations controlled by cusp number and pattern. Complexity increase through cusp addition has dominated the diversification of mammals. However, studies of Mammalia alone cannot reveal patterns of tooth complexity conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. Here, we use morphometric and phylogenetic comparative methods across fossil and extant squamates to show they also repeatedly evolved increasingly complex teeth, but with more flexibility than mammals. Since the Late Jurassic, multiple-cusped teeth evolved over 20 times independently from a single-cusped common ancestor. Squamates frequently lost cusps and evolved varied multiple-cusped morphologies at heterogeneous rates. Tooth complexity evolved in correlation with changes in plant consumption, resulting in several major increases in speciation. Complex teeth played a critical role in vertebrate evolution outside Mammalia, with squamates exemplifying a more labile system of dental-dietary evolution.
  • Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka (2020)
    As part of our research aiming to understand the morphological variation in ringed seals, we dissected mastication muscles of nine Saimaa ringed seals and two Baltic ringed seals. We found no significant differences in the muscles of mastication between these subspecies but the location of the tympanic bulla in relation to the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint was more medial in the Saimaa ringed seal. As compared with the previously studied Baikal and Caspian seals, the origin of the jaw-opening digastricus muscle covered less of the tympanic bulla in the Saimaa and Baltic ringed seals. Our data on masticatory-muscle masses indicated that similarly to terrestrial mammal species, the growth patterns of mastication muscles of the Saimaa ringed seal differed from each other according to the body size.
  • Ruotsalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Lappalainen, Jari P.; Heiskanen, Emmi; Merentie, Mari; Sihvola, Virve; Näpänkangas, Juha; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Kansanen, Emilia; Adinolfi, Simone; Kaarniranta, Kai; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pirinen, Eija; Levonen, Anna-Liisa (2019)
    Aims Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the vessel wall, but paradoxically, global loss of Nrf2 in apoE deficient mice alleviates atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of global Nrf2 deficiency on early and advanced atherogenesis in alternative models of atherosclerosis, LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-), and LDLR-/- mice expressing apoB-100 only (LDLR-/- ApoB(100/100)) having a humanized lipoprotein profile. Methods and results LDLR-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 or 12weeks and LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice a regular chow diet for 6 or 12months. Nrf2 deficiency significantly reduced early and more advanced atherosclerosis assessed by lesion size and coverage in the aorta in both models. Nrf2 deficiency in LDLR-/- mice reduced total plasma cholesterol after 6weeks of HFD and triglycerides in LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice on a chow diet. Nrf2 deficiency aggravated aortic plaque maturation in aged LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice as it increased plaque calcification. Moreover, approximate to 36% of Nrf2(-/-)LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) females developed spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or sudden death at 5 to 12months of age. Interestingly, Nrf2 deficiency increased plaque instability index, enhanced plaque inflammation and calcification, and reduced fibrous cap thickness in brachiocephalic arteries of LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) female mice at age of 12months. Conclusions Absence of Nrf2 reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in both atherosclerosis models, likely via systemic effects on lipid metabolism. However, Nrf2 deficiency in aged LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice led to an enhanced atherosclerotic plaque instability likely via increased plaque inflammation and oxidative stress, which possibly predisposed to MI and sudden death.
  • Makinen, Selina; Nguyen, Yen H.; Skrobuk, Paulina; Koistinen, Heikki A. (2017)
    Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, whereas unsaturated fatty acids may have a protective effect on metabolism. We tested in primary human myotubes if insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acid palmitate can be ameliorated by concomitant exposure to unsaturated fatty acid oleate. Primary human myotubes were pretreated with palmitate, oleate or their combination for 12 h. Glucose uptake was determined by intracellular accumulation of [H-3]-2-deoxy-d-glucose, insulin signalling and activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Western blotting, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by fluorescent dye MitoSOX. Exposure of primary human myotubes to palmitate impaired insulin-stimulated Akt-Ser(473), AS160 and GSK-3 beta phosphorylation, induced ER stress signalling target PERK and stress kinase JNK 54 kDa isoform. These effects were virtually abolished by concomitant exposure of palmitate-treated myotubes to oleate. However, an exposure to palmitate, oleate or their combination reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. This was associated with increased mitochondrial ROS production in palmitate-treated myotubes co-incubated with oleate, and was alleviated by antioxidants MitoTempo and Tempol. Thus, metabolic and intracellular signalling events diverge in myotubes treated with palmitate and oleate. Exposure of human myotubes to excess fatty acids increases ROS production and induces insulin resistance.
  • Juhola, Tytti; Henry, Amanda G.; Kirkinen, Tuija; Laakkonen, Juha; Väliranta, Minna (2019)
    Our understanding of subsistence strategies, resources and lifeways of Finnish Iron Age populations remains incomplete despite archaeological, osteological, macrobotanical, and palynological investigations. This is due in part to poor preservation of organic macroremains in the acidic boreal sediments. To address this problem, here we present the first data from microscopic remains preserved in prehistoric dental calculus from Finland. We extracted and analysed both plant and animal microremains from human calculus and burial site sediment samples, originating from Luistari cemetery in southwestern Finland (samples from c. 600-1200 calAD). We recovered phytoliths, parasites, fibers and feathers. While in Finland few previous archaeological studies have investigated phytoliths, our study confirms the importance of these microremains for interpretating dietary patterns. It is also the first time that intestinal parasites have been reported in Finland. Our study demonstrates that, especially when working with acidic sediments typical for boreal environments, microremain studies can considerably increase the information value of archaeological samples, and that dental calculus and phytolith analysis are important new methods in the research of prehistorical lifestyles. This combined microremain analysis should be more broadly applied in contexts where other dietary records do not remain. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia (2015)
    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%-10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be diminished.
  • von Hertzen, Leena (2015)
  • Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang (2016)
    Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans -theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program -implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and "train-the-trainer" workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre diabetic people.
  • SAARIKKO, J (1992)
    The responses of foraging common shrews Sorex araneus to the presence of a potential predator, the weasel Mustela nivalis, was studied on an experimental arena. The weasel was allowed to visit an enclosed part of the arena at will. A significant short-term (5 to 15 min) decrease of activity was observed after a visit by the weasel during both low and high level weasel activity. Individual variation in the shrews' responses was great. Some individuals decreased their foraging activity to a very low level following the weasel's visits while others did not show any change in activity at all. The magnitude of the shrew's response was positively correlated with its weight at the beginning of the experiment. The results demonstrate that, under risk of predation, large individuals could afford to decrease their foraging activity at the cost of weight loss but smaller individuals, with smaller body energy reserves, apparently could not do so.
  • Kolmeder, Carolin A.; de Vos, Willem M. (2021)
    It is known for more than 100 years that the intestinal microbes are important for the host's health and the last decade this is being intensely studied with a focus on the mechanistic aspects. Among the fundamental functions of the intestinal microbiome are the priming of the immune system, the production of essential vitamins and the energy harvest from foods. By now, several dozens of diseases, both intestinal and non-intestinal related, have been associated with the intestinal microbiome. Initially, this was based on the description of the composition between groups of different health status or treatment arms based on phylogenetic approaches based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. This way of analysis has mostly moved to the analysis of all the genes or transcripts of the microbiome i.e. metagenomics and meta-transcriptomics. Differences are regularly found but these have to be taken with caution as we still do not know what the majority of genes of the intestinal microbiome are capable of doing. To circumvent this caveat researchers are studying the proteins and the metabolites of the microbiome and the host via metaproteomics and metabolomics approaches. However, also here the complexity is high and only a fraction of signals obtained with high throughput instruments can be identified and assigned to a known protein or molecule. Therefore, modern microbiome research needs advancement of existing and development of new analytical techniques. The usage of model systems like intestinal organoids where samples can be taken and processed rapidly as well as microfluidics systems may help. This review aims to elucidate what we know about the functionality of the human intestinal microbiome, what technologies are advancing this knowledge, and what innovations are still required to further evolve this actively developing field. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée; Junno, Aripekka; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Oinonen, Markku; Uusitalo, Joonas; Arppe, Laura (2019)
    Paleodietary research is a complex field, which requires large sets of background information. Owing to increasing interest and activity in the field, a substantial amount of archaeological isotope baseline data exist for Northern Europe, consisting mainly of animal bone collagen δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values. However, the data are scattered into dozens of publications written in multiple languages and less-accessible formats, making the data laborious to use. This article presents the first compilation work of this data, the open access dIANA database (Dietary Isotopic baseline for the Ancient North; https://www.oasisnorth.org/diana.html), aimed to support (paleo)dietary research in the Baltic Sea area. The database work is complemented with new analyses of archaeological and (pre-)modern domestic and wild fauna from Finland and Russia broadening the selection of analysed species in the database. We present and discuss data examples, which on one hand show existing spatiotemporal isotope patterns related to diet and differences in the environmental carbon sources and on the other, also visualize the current status of baseline research and the need for further analyses in the circum-Baltic area.