Browsing by Subject "DISORDERS"

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  • Salonen, Anne H.; Castren, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Orford, Jim; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2014)
    Background: Attitudes towards gambling influence gambling behaviour but also reflect the existing gambling policy in a society. However, studies examining general attitudes towards gambling at the population level are scarce. The first aim of this study was to investigate general attitudes of the Finnish population towards gambling. The second aim was to explore the association of socio-demographics, gambling behaviours, being a concerned significant other (CSO) of a problem gambler and perceived health and lifestyle with attitudes towards gambling among the Finnish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by structured telephone interview on a random sample of 15-74-year-old Finns between October 2011 and January 2012. The data (n = 4484) was weighted based on age, gender and region of residence. Attitudes towards gambling were measured with the eight-item version of the Attitude Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). A factor analysis was performed to test the structure of the Finnish version of the ATGS-8. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA test, t-test and multiple regression analysis. Results: On average, attitudes of Finns towards gambling were negative. The most significant factors associated with positive attitudes towards gambling were male gender, young age, 12 years or more education and net income more than 2000(sic), low score on gambling severity, being a non-CSO of a problem gambler and high alcohol consumption Conclusions: The association between young age, male gender, high net income and risky alcohol consumption, and favourable gambling attitudes was strong, and also reflects risky gambling behaviour. Experiencing gambling-related harms caused by one's own or significant other's excessive gambling seems to indicate unfavourable attitudes towards gambling.
  • Salonen, Anne; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2017)
    Background: Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Conclusions: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
  • Salmela, Liisa; Kuula, Liisa; Merikanto, Ilona; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2019)
    Objective: Diagnosed autism spectrum disorders have been associated with a high prevalence of sleep problems, other psychiatric disorders and social deficits in adolescence. However, little is known about the possible connection between subclinical autistic traits and sleep. This study explored whether adolescents with elevated levels of subclinical autistic traits are at heightened risk for sleep problems. Methods: This study used data from the community cohort born in 1998. The sample consisted of 157 (57% girls) 17-year-old adolescents. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale were utilized to control for comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep quality was self-rated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Associations between autistic traits and sleep were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results: Elevated levels of autistic traits were significantly associated with shorter weekday sleep duration. Moreover, autistic traits remained an independent predictor of short sleep duration when comorbid psychiatric symptoms were controlled for (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03-1.26). Conclusions: The results suggest that subclinical autistic traits should be considered as a possible underlying mechanism affecting adolescent sleep. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Ala-Kurikka, Eve; Heinonen, Mari; Mustonen, Katja; Peltoniemi, Olli; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi; Valros, Anna (2017)
    Lameness is a common health and welfare problem in sows. Little has been published about behavioral changes in lame sows. Ketoprofen is an effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat non-infectious locomotor disorders in pigs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lameness and lameness-related pain on the behavior of sows. To evaluate this effect, we studied whether pain alleviation with ketoprofen and clinical relief of lameness were associated with changes in behavior. We allocated randomly 13 lame, early pregnancy sows in three treatment groups receiving either ketoprofen 4 mg/kg, ketoprofen 2 mg/kg (these two groups were pooled for statistical analyses) or placebo. The animals were treated orally for 5 days and lameness scored before and on the last day of the treatment. Lameness was assessed with a 5-grade scoring system and behavior by scan sampling method. A clinically healthy, non-lame control sow was paired with each lame sow and they were examined the same way as lame sows but received no treatment. Lame sows were more passive, they lay more and stood and explored pen fixtures less than the control sows before treatment. After 5-days treatment, placebo-treated sows were in contact with the wall and lying more often when compared to control sows. Ketoprofen-treated sows were more seldom in contact with the wall and exploring bedding more often than placebo-treated sows. Placebo sows tended also to move and explore bedding less than control sows. Lameness had been relieved in altogether 7 out of 13 sows on day 5: six out of nine ketoprofen-medicated sows and one out of four placebo-treated sows. The behaviour of sows with relieved lameness did not differ from that of control sows on day 5. Sows with non-relieved lameness were in contact with the wall and lying more and moving and standing less than control sows. When compared to control sows, sows with non-relieved lameness tended to be more passive. When compared to sows with relieved lameness, sows with non-relieved lameness showed a tendency to be in contact with the wall more often. Our study showed that lameness reduces the activity of sows and affects their position in the pen. Passive behavior seemed at least partly be due to pain and lameness relief was associated with normalization of the behavior.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Seitsalo, Seppo; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2014)
    Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=6089), as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in Finland. Chronotype was assessed based on six items from the original Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Information about risk factors and the diagnoses of articular and spinal diseases were based on the self-reported information. Our results suggest that Evening-types have higher odds for articular and spinal diseases as compared with Morning-types, and this risk is heightened especially regarding spinal disease and backache (odds ratios of 1.8 to 2.1, and 1.6 to 1.8, respectively) and remains significant after controlling for the sex, age, education, civil status, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking, and additionally for the body-mass index, insufficient sleep, or depressive symptoms.
  • Kuhlefelt, Marina; Laine, Pekka; Thoren, Hanna (2016)
    Objective. A prospective study to clarify the impact of forward bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Study Design. We examined and interviewed patients with BSSO before and at 1 year after surgery to evaluate the changes in TMD symptoms. A well-known TMD index, which incorporated two complementary subindices-the objective functional Helkimo dysfunction index (Di) and the subjective symptomatic anamnestic index (Ai)-was used. Patients with a forward movement of the mandible and osteosynthesis with titanic miniplates were included. Results. Forty patients (26 females and 14 males, mean age of study population 36.9 years) retrognathia completed the study. There was no change in TMD symptoms in 24 patients (60%), as measured by the Di, and 26 (65%), as measured by the Ai. Twelve patients improved (30%), according to the Di scores and 10 (25%) according to the Ai scores. Four patients had more TMD symptoms at follow-up (10%), as measured by both Di and Ai. Conclusions. Surgery for orthognathia is a predictable treatment for improving aesthetics and occlusion but less predictable for alleviating TMD symptoms in patients with retrognathia. TMD symptoms should therefore be treated independently.
  • Levo, Hilla; Aalto, Heikki; Hirvonen, Timo P. (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical features of patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) verified in motorized head impulse test (MHIT). MATERIALS and METHODS: We examined clinical records of 23 adult patients (10 males and 13 females), whose gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the MHIT was bilaterally lowered. Fifteen of 62 unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients routinely tested both pre-and postoperatively with the MHIT had BVH. Eight of 198 vestibular outpatients selected to the MHIT due to clinical causes had BVH. Clinical characteristics and a questionnaire regarding current sensations were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean gain +/- SD in the MHIT was 0.26 +/- 0.17 on the right and 0.26 +/- 0.14 on the left side. The mean gain in the CI recipients did not differ from that of vestibular outpatients (p>0.05). All outpatients with BVH suffered from oscillopsia, whereas only 46% of CI recipients experienced oscillopsia (p=0.048). Instability was more prominent (p=0.004) and quality of life further decreased (p=0.012) among vestibular outpatients compared with CI patients. Most common etiology for the BVH was meningitis. Other causes were either sudden or progressive loss of labyrinthine function, bilateral Meniere's disease, and ototoxicity. CONCLUSION: BVH is rare even in a specialized clinic. Vestibular outpatients were more disabled than CI recipients with the BVH.
  • Rissanen, Anne; Lindberg, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto (2019)
    BackgroundLittle is known about adolescents' perceptions about their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the course of routine adolescent psychiatric treatment. The aim of this 1-year follow-up study was to investigate HRQoL and changes in it among youths receiving adolescent psychiatric outpatient treatment.MethodsThe study comprised 158 girls and 82 boys aged 12-14years from 10 psychiatric outpatient clinics in one Finnish hospital district. Same-aged population controls (210 girls and 162 boys) were randomly collected from comprehensive schools. HRQoL was measured using the 16D instrument. The questionnaire was self-administered when the adolescents entered the polyclinics (=baseline), after a treatment period of 6months, and after 12months.ResultsThe mean age of respondents was 13.8years (SD 0.63). At baseline, the mean HRQoL score of both female and male outpatients was significantly lower than that of population controls (p
  • Keronen, Satu; Martola, Leena; Finne, Patrik; Burton, Inari S.; Kröger, Heikki; Honkanen, Eero (2019)
    Background and objectives Over the past decade, the management of CKD-mineral and bone disorder has changed substantially, altering the pattern of bone disease in CKD. We aimed to evaluate the natural history of kidney bone disease in contemporary kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Sixty one patients on dialysis who were referred to kidney transplantation participated in this prospective cohort study during November 2009 and December 2010. We performedbaseline bone biopsieswhile thepatientswere ondialysis andrepeatedthe procedure in 56 patients at 2 years after kidney transplantation or 2 years after baseline if transplantationwas not performed. Measurements of mineral metabolism and bone turnover, as well as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, were obtained concurrently. Results A total of 37 out of 56 participants received a kidney transplant, of which 27 underwent successful repeat bone biopsy. The proportion of patients with high bone turnover declined from 63% at baseline to 19% at 2 years after kidney transplantation, whereas the proportion of thosewith lowbone turnover increased from26% to 52%. Of 19 participants remaining on dialysis after 2 years, 13 underwent successful repeat biopsy. The proportion of patients remaining on dialysis with high bone turnover decreased from 69% to 31%, and low bone turnover increased from8% to 38%. Abnormal bonemineralization increased in transplant recipients from33% to 44%, but decreased in patients remaining on dialysis from 46% to 15%. Trabecular bone volume showed little change after transplantation, but low bone volume increased in patients remaining on dialysis. Bone mineral density did not correlate with histomorphometric findings. Conclusions Bone turnover decreased over time both in patients remaining on dialysis and in kidney transplant recipients. Bone mineral density and bone biomarkers were not associated with bone metabolism changes detected in bone biopsy specimens.
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kananen, Laura; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pirkola, Sami; Paunio, Tiina; Hovatta, Iiris (2021)
    Telomeres are repeat sequences and an associated protein complex located at the end of the chromosomes. They shorten with every cell division and are regarded markers for cellular aging. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been observed in many complex diseases, including psychiatric disorders. However, analyses focusing on psychiatric disorders are mainly based on clinical samples and the significance of shorter LTL on the population level remains uncertain. We addressed this question in a population-based sample from Finland (N = 7142). The survey was performed and the blood samples were collected in 2000-2001 to assess major public health problems and their determinants. DSM-IV diagnoses of major psychiatric illnesses were obtained by interview using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Information regarding their risk factors, including the number of self-reported childhood adversities, recent psychological distress, and sleep difficulties was collected by questionnaires. LTL was measured by qPCR. None of the studied psychiatric illnesses, sleep difficulties, or recent psychological distress associated with LTL. However, individuals with three or more childhood adversities had shorter LTL at adult age (13 = -0.006, P = 0.005). Also, current occupational status was associated with LTL (13 = -0.03, P = 0.04). These effects remained significant after adjusting for known LTLassociated lifestyle or sociodemographic factors. In conclusion, relatively common childhood adversities were associated with shorter LTL at adult age in a nationally representative population-based cohort, implying that childhood adversities may cause accelerated telomere shortening. Our finding has potentially important implications as it supports the view that childhood adversities have an impact on psychological and somatic wellbeing later in life.
  • Merikukka, Marko; Ristikari, Tiina; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Gissler, Mika; Laaksonen, Mikko (2018)
    Background: Mental disorders can affect work ability and lead to early exit from the labour market through disability pension. Aims: This study aimed to identify childhood determinants of psychiatric disability pension in early adulthood. Methods: The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort includes a complete census of children born in a single year. The children were followed up from birth until 31 December 2012 using official registers maintained by the Finnish authorities. Risk factors for disability pension were examined in the full 1987 cohort (N = 58,739) and among children who had received mental health care (N = 9,599). Odds ratios were calculated for disability pension due to all mental disorders and separately for schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety and other mental and behavioural disorders in association with childhood determinants. Results: Altogether, 1.4% of cohort members had retired due to mental disorders in 2003-2012. In the full 1987 cohort, female sex, parental divorce and social assistance, both mother's and father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension increased the risk for disability pension due to mental disorders. Among children who had received mental health care, risk factors for psychiatric disability pension were father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension. Conclusion: Childhood determinants were related to the risk of psychiatric disability pension before the age of 25. The risk factors varied by the diagnosis of the disability pension. Using knowledge of this study's risk factors should enable the identification of adolescents and young adults in general population and especially in the mental health care population who are at greatest risk of receipt of psychiatric disability pension.
  • Gorvin, C.M.; Hannan, F.M.; Cranston, T.; Valta, Helena; Mäkitie, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Thakker, R.V. (2018)
    G-protein subunit -11 (G(11)) couples the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca-i(2+)) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which in the parathyroid glands and kidneys regulates parathyroid hormone release and urinary calcium excretion, respectively. Heterozygous germline loss-of-function G(11) mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 2 (FHH2), for which effective therapies are currently not available. Here, we report a novel heterozygous G(11) germline mutation, Phe220Ser, which was associated with hypercalcemia in a family with FHH2. Homology modeling showed the wild-type (WT) Phe220 nonpolar residue to form part of a cluster of hydrophobic residues within a highly conserved cleft region of G(11), which binds to and activates PLC; and predicted that substitution of Phe220 with the mutant Ser220 polar hydrophilic residue would disrupt PLC-mediated signaling. In vitro studies involving transient transfection of WT and mutant G(11) proteins into HEK293 cells, which express the CaSR, showed the mutant Ser220 G(11) protein to impair CaSR-mediated Ca-i(2+) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) MAPK signaling, consistent with diminished activation of PLC. Furthermore, engineered mutagenesis studies demonstrated that loss of hydrophobicity within the G(11) cleft region also impaired signaling by PLC. The loss-of-function associated with the Ser220 G(11) mutant was rectified by treatment of cells with cinacalcet, which is a CaSR-positive allosteric modulator. Furthermore, in vivo administration of cinacalcet to the proband harboring the Phe220Ser G(11) mutation, normalized serum ionized calcium concentrations. Thus, our studies, which report a novel G(11) germline mutation (Phe220Ser) in a family with FHH2, reveal the importance of the G(11) hydrophobic cleft region for CaSR-mediated activation of PLC, and show that allosteric CaSR modulation can rectify the loss-of-function Phe220Ser mutation and ameliorate the hypercalcemia associated with FHH2. (c) 2017 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
  • Hokkanen, Laura; Barbosa, Fernando; Ponchel, Amelie; Constantinou, Marios; Kosmidis, Mary H.; Varako, Nataliya; Kasten, Erich; Mondini, Sara; Lettner, Sandra; Baker, Gus; Persson, Bengt A.; Hessen, Erik (2020)
    The prevalence and negative impact of brain disorders are increasing. Clinical Neuropsychology is a specialty dedicated to understanding brain-behavior relationships, applying such knowledge to the assessment of cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning associated with brain disorders, and designing and implementing effective treatments. The need for services goes beyond neurological diseases and has increased in areas of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, among others. In Europe, a great deal of variability exists in the education and training of Clinical Neuropsychologists. Training models include master's programs, continuing education courses, doctoral programs, and/or post-doctoral specialization depending on the country, with no common framework of requirements, although patients' needs demand equal competencies across Europe. In the past 5 years, the Standing Committee on Clinical Neuropsychology of the European Federation of Psychologists' Association has conducted a series of surveys and interviews with experts in the field representing 30 European countries. The information, along with information from the existing literature, is used in presenting an overview of current and relevant topics related to policy and guidelines in the training and competencies in Clinical Neuropsychology. An option for the way forward is the EuroPsy Specialist Certificate, which is currently offered in Work and Organizational Psychology, and in psychotherapy. It builds upon the basic certificate and complements national standards without overriding them. General principles can be found that can set the basis for a common, solid, and comprehensive specialty education/training, sharpening the Neuropsychologists' competencies across Europe. The requirements in Clinical Neuropsychology should be comparable to those for the existing specialty areas in the EuroPsy model. Despite the perceived challenges, developing a specialist certificate appears a step forward for the development of Clinical Neuropsychology. Recommendations are proposed toward a shared framework of competencies by the means of a common level of education/training for the professionals in Europe. Benchmarking training standards and competencies across Europe has the potential of providing protection against unqualified and ethically questionable practice, creating transparency, raising the general European standard, and promoting mobility of both Clinical Neuropsychologists and patients in Europe, for the benefit of the professional field and the population.
  • Kurki, Mitja I.; Saarentaus, Elmo Christian; Pietiläinen, Olli; Gormley, Padraigh; Lal, Dennis; Kerminen, Sini; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Hämäläinen, Eija; Rahikkala, Elisa; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Rauhala, Merja; Korpi-Heikkila, Satu; Komulainen-Ebrahim, Jonna; Helander, Heli; Vieira, Päivi; Männikkö, Minna; Peltonen, Markku; Havulinna, Aki; Salomaa, Veikko; Pirinen, Matti; Suvisaari, Jaana; Moilanen, Jukka S.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Kuismin, Outi; Daly, Mark; Palotie, Aarno (2019)
    The contribution of de novo variants in severe intellectual disability (ID) has been extensively studied whereas the genetics of mild ID has been less characterized. To elucidate the genetics of milder ID we studied 442 ID patients enriched for mild ID (>50%) from a population isolate of Finland. Using exome sequencing, we show that rare damaging variants in known ID genes are observed significantly more often in severe (27%) than in mild ID (13%) patients. We further observe a significant enrichment of functional variants in genes not yet associated with ID (OR: 2.1). We show that a common variant polygenic risk significantly contributes to ID. The heritability explained by polygenic risk score is the highest for educational attainment (EDU) in mild ID (2.2%) but lower for more severe ID (0.6%). Finally, we identify a Finland enriched homozygote variant in the CRADD ID associated gene.
  • Välipakka, Salla; Savarese, Marco; Johari, Mridul; Sagath, Lydia; Arumilli, Meharji; Kiiski, Kirsi; Saenz, Amets; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Cobo, Ana-Maria; Pelin, Katarina; Udd, Bjarne; Hackman, Peter (2017)
    Objective: Copy number variants (CNVs) were analyzed from next-generation sequencing data, with the aim of improving diagnostic yield in skeletal muscle disorder cases.& para;& para;Methods: Four publicly available bioinformatic analytic tools were used to analyze CNVs from sequencing data from patients with muscle diseases. The patients were previously analyzed with a targeted gene panel for single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions, without achieving final diagnosis. Variants detected by multiple CNV analysis tools were verified with either array comparative genomic hybridization or PCR. The clinical significance of the verified CNVs was interpreted, considering previously identified variants, segregation studies, and clinical information of the patient cases.& para;& para;Results: Combining analysis of all different mutation types enabled integration of results and identified the final cause of the disease in 9 myopathy cases. Complex effects like compound heterozygosity of different mutation types and compound disease arising from variants of different genes were unraveled. We identified the first large intragenic deletion of the titin (TTN) gene implicated in the pathogenesis of a severe form of myopathy. Our work also revealed a "double-trouble" effect in a patient carrying a single heterozygous insertion/deletion mutation in the TTN gene and a Becker muscular dystrophy causing deletion in the dystrophin gene.& para;& para;Conclusions: Causative CNVs were identified proving that analysis of CNVs is essential for increasing the diagnostic yield in muscle diseases. Complex severe muscular dystrophy phenotypes can be the result of different mutation types but also of the compound effect of 2 different genetic diseases.
  • Hessen, Erik; Hokkanen, Laura; Ponsford, Jennie; van Zandvoort, Martine; Watts, Ann; Evans, Jonathan; Haaland, Kathleen Y. (2018)
    Objective: This work aimed to review main competency requirements from training models in countries with well-established specialties in clinical neuropsychology and to extract core competencies that likely will apply to clinical neuropsychologists regardless of regional and cultural context. Method: We reviewed standards for post-graduate training in clinical neuropsychology from countries in Europe, Australia, and North America based on existing literature, presentations at international conferences, and from description of the training models from national psychological or neuropsychological associations. Results: Despite differences, the reviewed models share similar core competencies considered necessary for a specialty in clinical neuropsychology: (1) In-depth knowledge of general psychology including clinical psychology (post-graduate level), ethical, and legal standards. (2) Expert knowledge about clinically relevant brain-behavioral relationships. (3) Comprehensive knowledge about, and skills in, related clinical disciplines. (4) In-depth knowledge about and skills in neuropsychological assessment, including decision-making and diagnostic competency according to current classification of diseases. (5) Competencies in the area of diversity and culture in relation to clinical neuropsychology. (6) Communication competency of neuropsychological findings and test results to relevant and diverse audiences. (7) Knowledge about and skills in psychological and neuropsychological intervention, including treatment and rehabilitation. Conclusions: All the models have undergone years of development in accordance with requirements of national health care systems in different parts of the world. Despite differences, the common core competency requirements across different regions of the world suggest generalizability of these competencies. We hope this summary can be useful as countries with less established neuropsychology training programs develop their models.
  • Taleb, Kawther; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette; Nieminen, Pekka; Kreiborg, Sven (2018)
    BackgroundDentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is a rare debilitating hereditary disorder affecting dentin formation and causing loss of the overlying enamel. Clinically, DI sufferers have a discolored and weakened dentition with an increased risk of fracture. The aims of this study were to assess genotype-phenotype findings in three families with DI-II with special reference to mutations in the DSPP gene and clinical, histological, and imaging manifestations. MethodsNine patients participated in the study (two from family A, four from family B, and three from family C). Buccal swab samples were collected from all participants and extracted for genomic DNA. Clinical and radiographic examinations had been performed longitudinally, and the dental status was documented using photographic images. Four extracted and decalcified tooth samples were prepared for histological analysis to assess dysplastic manifestations in the dentin. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was applied to study the health of enamel tissue from invivo images and the effect of the mutation on the function and structure of the DSPP gene was analyzed using bioinformatics software programs. ResultsThe direct DNA sequence analysis revealed three distinct mutations, one of which was a novel finding. The mutations caused dominant phenotypes presumably by interference with signal peptide processing and protein secretion. The clinical and radiographic disturbances in the permanent dentition indicated interfamilial variability in DI-II manifestations, however, no significant intrafamilial variability was observed. ConclusionThe different mutations in the DSPP gene were accompanied by distinct phenotypes. Enamel defects suggested deficit in preameloblast function during the early stages of amelogenesis.
  • Abo-Hasseba, Ahmed; Waaramaa, Tteija; Alku, Paavo; Geneid, Ahmed (2017)
    Objective. This study aimed to assess teachers' voice symptoms and noise in schools in Upper Egypt and to study possible differences between teachers in public and private schools. Study Design. A cross-sectional analysis via questionnaire was carried out, Methods. Four schools were chosen randomly to represent primary and preparatory schools as well as public and private ones, In these schools, a total of 140 teachers participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire on vocal and throat symptoms and their effects on working and social activities, as well as levels and effects of experienced noise. Results. Of all teachers, 47.9% reported moderate or severe dysphonia within the last 6 months, and 21.4% reported daily dysphonia. All teachers reported frequent feelings of being in noise, with 82.2% feeling it sometimes or always during the working day, resulting in a need to raise their voice. Teachers in public schools experienced more noise from nearby classes. Conclusion. The working conditions and vocal health of teachers in Upper Egypt, especially in public schools, are alarming.
  • Tiira, Katriina (2021)
    Separation-related behaviour problems are common in domestic dogs. Vocalization is one of the most common symptoms in dogs, and neighbors often complain about dog barking and howling. We investigated the effect of digital application Digital Dogsitter® on the dogs’ vocalization (barking, howling, whining) when left alone. Digital Dogsitter® is an application, used via laptop or pc, and it activates as a reaction to the dog's vocalization and then plays a short owner-recorded feedback. Altogether 40 participants who had a laptop/pc at home and a dog that suffered from separation related symptoms, specifically vocalization, completed the study. Dogs’ vocalization (when alone at home) was recorded before and after using Digital Dogsitter® for two weeks, in order to investigate whether Digital Dogsitter® reduces dog's vocalization. The amount of total dog vocalization noise (in milliseconds) was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, N = 40) after using Digital Dogsitter® for two weeks. The reduction in the dogs’ vocalization after Digital Dogsitter® was 95.7%, which is very large compared to earlier studies. Owners’ opinions were also asked, and only 9.4% of the owners felt that no improvement was seen. Finally, we wanted to know, whether the effect of Digital Dogsitter® was long lasting, and sent a questionnaire to participants an average of eight months after the first study. Out of 35 participants that responded, 68.7% felt that Digital Dogsitter® did reduce the vocalization either rather well / extremely well, and only 14.3% felt, that no long-lasting effect was noticed. In addition, after eight months the owners also reported significantly less dogs’ destructive behavior compared to the starting situation. Digital Dogsitter® clearly reduces dogs’ vocalization, possibly also alleviating the separation-related stress.