Browsing by Subject "DOMAIN"

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  • Virtanen, Salla; Kiirikki, Anne M.; Mikula, Kornelia M.; Iwai, Hideo; Ollila, O. H. Samuli (2020)
    Importance of disordered protein regions is increasingly recognized in biology, but their characterization remains challenging due to the lack of suitable experimental and theoretical methods. NMR experiments can detect multiple timescale dynamics and structural details of disordered protein regions, but their detailed interpretation is often difficult. Here we combine protein backbone(15)N spin relaxation data with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to detect not only heterogeneous dynamics of large partially disordered proteins but also their conformational ensembles. We observed that the rotational dynamics of folded regions in partially disordered proteins is dominated by similar rigid body rotation as in globular proteins, thereby being largely independent of flexible disordered linkers. Disordered regions, on the other hand, exhibit complex rotational motions with multiple timescales below similar to 30 ns which are difficult to detect from experimental data alone, but can be captured by MD simulations. Combining MD simulations and backbone(15)N spin relaxation data, measured applying segmental isotopic labeling with salt-inducible split intein, we resolved the conformational ensemble and dynamics of partially disordered periplasmic domain of TonB protein fromHelicobacter pyloricontaining 250 residues. To demonstrate the universality of our approach, it was applied also to the partially disordered region of chicken Engrailed 2. Our results pave the way in understanding how TonB transfers energy from inner membrane to the outer membrane receptors in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as the function of other proteins with disordered domains.
  • Turunen, Joni; Immonen, Annamari T; Järvinen, Reetta-Stiina; Kawan, Sabita; Repo, Pauliina; Korsback, Anna; Ala-Fossi, Olli J; Jaakkola, Aino M.; Majander, Anna; Vesaluoma, Minna; Kivelä, Tero (2020)
    Purpose To apply in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) to study the pathogenesis of keratitis (keratoendotheliitis) fugax hereditaria, an autosomal dominant cryopyrin-associated periodic keratitis, associated with the c.61G>C pathogenic variant in the NLRP3 gene, in its acute and chronic phase, and to report histopathological findings after penetrating keratoplasty. Design Observational case series Methods Study population: Six patients during an acute attack, 18 patients in the chronic phase, and one patient who underwent penetrating keratoplasty.Intervention: Sanger sequencing for the NLRP3 variant c.61C>G. Clinical examination, corneal photography, IVCM, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measures: IVCM and histopathological findings. Results During the acute attack, hyperreflective cellular structures consistent with inflammatory cells transiently occupied the anterior to middle layers of the corneal stroma. Other corneal layers were unremarkable. With recurring attacks, central oval stromal opacities accumulated. IVCM revealed that they contained long hyperreflective needle-shaped structures in extracellular matrix. By light microscopy, the anterior half of the stroma displayed thin and finely vacuolated lamellae, and keratocytes throughout the stroma were immunopositive for syndecan. Conclusions The acute attacks and chronic stromal deposits mainly involve the anterior to middle layers of the corneal stroma, and the disease is primarily a keratitis rather than a keratoendotheliitis. IVCM shows that inflammatory cells invade only the stroma during an acute attack. IVCM and light microscopic findings suggest that the central corneal opacities represent gradual deposition of extracellular lipids. The disease could make a good in vivo model to study activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.
  • Mechchate, Hamza; Es-Safi, Imane; Bourhia, Mohammed; Kyrylchuk, Andrii; El Moussaoui, Abdelfattah; Conte, Raffaele; Ullah, Riaz; Ezzeldin, Essam; Mostafa, Gamal A.; Grafov, Andriy; Bekkari, Hicham; Bousta, Dalila (2020)
    Background: Olea europea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris (Mill) Lehr (Oleaster) is a wild endemic olive tree indigenous to the Mediterranean region. Olea europea leaves represent a natural reservoir of bioactive molecules that can be used for therapeutic purposes. Aim of the study: This work was conducted to study antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic activities of flavonoids from oleaster leaves using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The mode of action of flavonoids against eight receptors that have a high impact on diabetes management and complication was also investigated using molecular docking. Results: During 28 days of mice treatment with doses 25 and 50 mg/kg b.w, the studied flavonoids managed a severe diabetic state (
  • Messiaen, L; Riccardi, G; Peltonen, J; Maertens, O; Callens, T; Karvonen, SL; Leisti, EL; Koivunen, J; Vandenbroucke, M.; Stephens, K; Pöyhönen, M (2003)
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav; Turoverov, Konstantin K. (2017)
    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) designed from PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim repeats) and GAF (cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenylate cyclase/FhlA transcriptional activator) domains of bacterial phytochromes covalently bind biliverdin (BV) chromophore via one or two Cys residues. We studied BV interaction with a series of NIR FP variants derived from the recently reported BphP1-FP protein. The latter was engineered from a bacterial phytochrome RpBphP1, and has two reactive Cys residues (Cys15 in the PAS domain and Cys256 in the GAF domain), whereas its mutants contain single Cys residues either in the PAS domain or in the GAF domain, or no Cys residues. We characterized BphP1-FP and its mutants biochemically and spectroscopically in the absence and in the presence of denaturant. We found that all BphP1-FP variants are monomers. We revealed that spectral properties of the BphP1-FP variants containing either Cys15 or Cys256, or both, are determined by the covalently bound BV chromophore only. Consequently, this suggests an involvement of the inter-monomeric allosteric effects in the BV interaction with monomers in dimeric NIR FPs, such as iRFPs. Likely, insertion of the Cys15 residue, in addition to the Cys256 residue, in dimeric NIR FPs influences BV binding by promoting the BV chromophore covalent cross-linking to both PAS and GAF domains.
  • Merezhko, Maria; Pakarinen, Emmi; Uronen, Riikka-Liisa; Huttunen, Henri J. (2020)
    The plasma membrane consists of a variety of discrete domains differing from the surrounding membrane in composition and properties. Selective partitioning of protein to these microdomains is essential for membrane functioning and integrity. Studying the nanoscale size and dynamic nature of the membrane microdomains requires advanced imaging approaches with a high spatiotemporal resolution and, consequently, expensive and specialized equipment, unavailable for most researchers and unsuited for large-scale studies. Thus, understanding of protein partitioning to the membrane microdomains in health and disease is still hampered by the lack of inexpensive live-cell approaches with an appropriate spatial resolution. Here, we have developed a novel approach based on Gaussia princeps luciferase protein-fragment complementation assay to quantitively investigate protein partitioning to cholesterol and sphingomyelin-rich domains, sometimes called 'lipid rafts', in intact living cells with a high-spatial resolution. In the assay, the reporter construct, carrying one half of the luciferase protein, is targeted to lipid microdomains through the fused acetylation motif from Src-family kinase Fyn. A protein of interest carries the second half of the luciferase protein. Together, this serves as a reversible real-time sensor of raft recruitment for the studied protein. We demonstrated that the assay can efficiently detect the dynamic alterations in raft localization of two disease-associated proteins: Akt and APP. Importantly, this method can be used in high-throughput screenings and other large-scale studies in living cells. This inexpensive, and easy to implement raft localization assay will benefit all researchers interested in protein partitioning in rafts.
  • Kotila, Tommi; Wioland, Hugo; Enkavi, Giray; Kogan, Konstantin; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Jegou, Antoine; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume; Lappalainen, Pekka (2019)
    The ability of cells to generate forces through actin filament turnover was an early adaptation in evolution. While much is known about how actin filaments grow, mechanisms of their disassembly are incompletely understood. The best-characterized actin disassembly factors are the cofilin family proteins, which increase cytoskeletal dynamics by severing actin filaments. However, the mechanism by which severed actin filaments are recycled back to monomeric form has remained enigmatic. We report that cyclase-associated-protein (CAP) works in synergy with cofilin to accelerate actin filament depolymerization by nearly 100-fold. Structural work uncovers the molecular mechanism by which CAP interacts with actin filament pointed end to destabilize the interface between terminal actin subunits, and subsequently recycles the newly-depolymerized actin monomer for the next round of filament assembly. These findings establish CAP as a molecular machine promoting rapid actin filament depolymerization and monomer recycling, and explain why CAP is critical for actin-dependent processes in all eukaryotes.
  • Kaur, Gundeep; Kaundal, Soni; Kapoor, Srajan; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Thakur, Krishan Gopal (2018)
    CarD is an essential global transcription regulator from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that binds RNA polymerase and activates transcription by stabilizing the transcription initiation complex. Available crystal structures have captured two distinct, monomeric and domain-swapped homodimeric, oligomeric states of CarD. However, the actual oligomeric state of CarD in solution and its biological relevance has remained unclear. Here, we confirm the presence of the homodimeric state of CarD in solution by using synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering. Furthermore, by using biochemical and biophysical experiments, in addition to mass-spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal imaging, we show that CarD is the first soluble cytosolic protein in Mtb which displays the tendency to form amyloid-like fibrils both in vitro as well as in vivo. We demonstrate that the deletion of the fourteen N-terminal residues involved in domain-swapping hampers amyloid formation, thus, suggesting that domain-swapping is crucial in amyloidogenesis. The discovery of the amyloidogenic property of an essential cytosolic global transcription regulator, CarD, in a pathogenic bacteria will further open up new frontiers in research.
  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Puhakka, Laura; Klemetti, Paula; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Seppänen, Mikko; Muona, Mikko; POSSEMEs, Celine; Duffy, Darragh; Väisänen, Timo; Elomaa, Outi; Palomäki, Maarit; Saxen, Hard; Ranki, Annamari; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina (2019)
    Desmoplakin (DSP) and Desmoglein 1 (DSG1) variants result in skin barrier defects leading to erythroderma, palmoplantar keratoderma and variable other features. Some DSG1 variant carriers present with SAM syndrome (Severe dermatitis, multiple Allergies, Metabolic wasting) and a SAM-like phenotype has been reported in 4 subjects with different heterozygous DSP variants. We report here a patient with a novel DSP spectrin region (SR) 6 variant c.1756C>T, p.(His586Tyr), novel features of brain lesions and severe recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections, with a favourable response to ustekinumab. Through a review of reported cases of heterozygous variants in DSP SR6 (n = 15) and homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in DSG1 (n = 12) and SAM-like phenotype, we highlight phenotypic variability. Woolly hair, nail abnormalities and cardiomyopathy characterize patients with DSP variants, while elevated immunoglobulin E and food allergies are frequent in patients with DSG1 variants. Clinicians should be aware of the diverse manifestations of desmosomopathies.
  • Finn, Robert D.; Bateman, Alex; Clements, Jody; Coggill, Penelope; Eberhardt, Ruth Y.; Eddy, Sean R.; Heger, Andreas; Hetherington, Kirstie; Holm, Liisa; Mistry, Jaina; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Tate, John; Punta, Marco (2014)
  • Zhang, Zhen; Lahti, Meeri; Douillard, Francois P.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindstrom, Miia (2020)
    Clostridium botulinum poses a serious threat to food safety and public health by producing potent neurotoxin during its vegetative growth and causing life-threatening neuroparalysis, botulism. While high temperature can be utilized to eliminate C. botulinum spores and the neurotoxin, non-thermal elimination of newly germinated C. botulinum cells before onset of toxin production could provide an alternative or additional factor controlling the risk of botulism in some applications. Here we introduce a putative phage lysin that specifically lyses vegetative C. botulinum Group I cells. This lysin, called CBO1751, efficiently kills cells of C. botulinum Group I strains at the concentration of 5 mu M, but shows little or no lytic activity against C. botulinum Group II or III or other Firmicutes strains. CBO1751 is active at pH from 6.5 to 10.5. The lytic activity of CBO1751 is tolerant to NaCl (200 mM), but highly susceptible to divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ (50 mM). CBO1751 readily and effectively eliminates C. botulinum during spore germination, an early stage preceding vegetative growth and neurotoxin production. This is the first report of an antimicrobial lysin against C. botulinum, presenting high potential for developing a novel antibotulinal agent for non-thermal applications in food and agricultural industries.
  • Konovalova, Svetlana; Liu, Xiaonan; Manjunath, Pooja; Baral, Sundar; Neupane, Nirajan; Hilander, Taru; Yang, Yang; Balboa, Diego; Terzioglu, Mügen; Euro, Liliya; Varjosalo, Markku; Tyynismaa, Henna (2018)
    Mitochondria are central organelles to cellular metabolism. Their function relies largely on nuclear-encoded proteins that must be imported from the cytosol, and thus the protein import pathways are important for the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. Mitochondrial HSP70 (mtHsp70) is a key component in facilitating the translocation of proteins through the inner membrane into the mitochondrial matrix. Its protein folding cycle is regulated by the nucleotide-exchange factor GrpE, which triggers the release of folded proteins by ATP rebinding. Vertebrates have two mitochondrial GrpE paralogs, GRPEL1 and 2, but without clearly defined roles. Using BioID proximity labeling to identify potential binding partners of the GRPELs in the mitochondrial matrix, we obtained results supporting a model where both GRPELs regulate mtHsp70 as homodimers. We show that GRPEL2 is not essential in human cultured cells, and its absence does not prevent mitochondrial protein import. Instead we find that GRPEL2 is redox regulated in oxidative stress. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, GRPEL2 forms dimers through intermolecular disulfide bonds in which Cys87 is the thiol switch. We propose that the dimerization of GRPEL2 may activate the folding machinery responsible for protein import into mitochondrial matrix or enhance the chaperone activity of mtHSP70, thus protecting mitochondrial proteostasis in oxidative stress.
  • Mikula, Kornelia M.; Krumwiede, Luisa; Plueckthun, Andreas; Iwai, Hideo (2018)
    Segmental isotopic labeling can facilitate NMR studies of large proteins, multi-domain proteins, and proteins with repetitive sequences by alleviating NMR signal overlaps. Segmental isotopic labeling also allows us to investigate an individual domain in the context of a full-length protein by NMR. Several established methods are available for segmental isotopic labeling such as intein-mediated ligation, but each has specific requirements and limitations. Here, we report an enzymatic approach using bacterially produced asparagine endopeptidase from Oldenlandia affinis for segmental isotopic labeling of a protein with repetitive sequences, a designed armadillo repeat protein, by overcoming some of the shortcomings of enzymatic ligation for segmental isotopic labeling.
  • Rosti, Katja; Goldman, Adrian; Kajander, Tommi (2015)
    Background: The protein growth arrest specific-1 (GAS1) was discovered based on its ability to stop the cell cycle. During development it is involved in embryonic patterning, inhibits cell proliferation and mediates cell death, and has therefore been considered as a tumor suppressor. GAS1 is known to signal through two different cell membrane receptors: Rearranged during transformation (RET), and the sonic hedgehog receptor Patched-1. Sonic Hedgehog signalling is important in stem cell renewal and RET mediated signalling in neuronal survival. Disorders in both sonic hedgehog and RET signalling are connected to cancer progression. The neuroprotective effect of RET is controlled by glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alphas (GFR alpha s). Human Growth arrest specific-1 is a distant homolog of the GFRas. Results: We have produced and purified recombinant human GAS1 protein, and confirmed that GAS1 is a monomer in solution by static light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering analysis. The low resolution solution structure reveals that GAS1 is more elongated and flexible than the GFRas, and the homology modelling of the individual domains show that they differ from GFR alpha s by lacking the amino acids for neurotrophic factor binding. In addition, GAS1 has an extended loop in the N-terminal domain that is conserved in vertebrates after the divergence of fishes and amphibians. Conclusions: We conclude that GAS1 most likely differs from GFRas functionally, based on comparative structural analysis, while it is able to bind the extracellular part of RET in a neurotrophic factor independent manner, although with low affinity in solution. Our structural characterization indicates that GAS1 differs from GFR alpha's significantly also in its conformation, which probably reflects the functional differences between GAS1 and the GFR alpha s.
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Bublikov, G. S.; Kuznetsova, I. M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav; Turoverov, K. K. (2017)
    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes and their mutants with different location of Cys residues, which able to bind a biliverdin chromophore, or without these Cys residues were studied using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, NIR fluorescence and circular dichroism. It was shown that a covalent binding of the biliverdin chromophore to a Cys residue via thioether group substantially stabilizes the spatial structure of NIR FPs. The stability of the protein structure and the chromophore association strength strongly depends on the location of Cys residues and decreases in the following order: a protein with Cys residues in both domains, a protein with Cys in PAS domains, and a protein with Cys in GAF domains. NIR FPs without Cys residues capable to covalently attach biliverdin have the lowest stability, comparable to NIR FP apoforms. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mikula, Kornelia M.; Kolodziejczyk, Robert; Goldman, Adrian (2019)
    The gram-negative bacterium Moraxella catarrhalis infects humans exclusively, causing various respiratory tract diseases, including acute otitis media in children, septicaemia or meningitis in adults, and pneumonia in the elderly. To do so, M. catarrhalis expresses virulence factors facilitating its entry and survival in the host. Among them are the ubiquitous surface proteins (Usps): A1, A2, and A2H, which all belong to the trimeric autotransporter adhesin family. They bind extracellular matrix molecules and inhibit the classical and alternative pathways of the complement cascade by recruiting complement regulators C3d and C4b binding protein. Here, we report the 2.5 Å resolution X-ray structure of UspA1299-452, which previous work had suggested contained the canonical C3d binding site found in both UspA1 and UspA2. We show that this fragment of the passenger domain contains part of the long neck domain (residues 299 – 336) and a fragment of the stalk (residues 337 – 452). The coiled-coil stalk is left-handed, with 7 polar residues from each chain facing the core and coordinating chloride ions or water molecules. Despite the previous reports of tight binding in serum-based assays, we were not able to demonstrate binding between C3d and UspA1299-452 using ELISA or biolayer interferometry, and the two proteins run separately on size-exclusion chromatography. Microscale thermophoresis suggested that the dissociation constant was 140.5 ± 8.4 μM. We therefore suggest that full-length proteins or other additional factors are important in UspA1-C3d interactions. Other molecules on the bacterial surface or present in serum may enhance binding of those two molecules.
  • Beyer, Hannes M.; Virtanen, Salla; Aranko, A. Sesilja; Mikula, Kornelia M.; Lountos, George T.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Ollila, O.H. Samuli; Iwai, Hideo (2020)
    Protein splicing catalyzed by inteins utilizes many different combinations of amino-acid types at active sites. Inteins have been classified into three classes based on their characteristic sequences. We investigated the structural basis of the protein splicing mechanism of class 3 inteins by determining crystal structures of variants of a class 3 intein from Mycobacterium chimaera and molecular dynamics simulations, which suggested that the class 3 intein utilizes a different splicing mechanism from that of class 1 and 2 inteins. The class 3 intein uses a bond cleavage strategy reminiscent of proteases but share the same Hedgehog/INTein (HINT) fold of other intein classes. Engineering of class 3 inteins from a class 1 intein indicated that a class 3 intein would unlikely evolve directly from a class 1 or 2 intein. The HINT fold appears as structural and functional solution for trans-peptidyl and trans-esterification reactions commonly exploited by diverse mechanisms using different combinations of amino-acid types for the active-site residues.
  • Michael Beyer, Hannes; Malgorzata Mikula, Kornelia; Li, Mi; Wlodawer, Alexander; Iwaï, Hideo (2020)
    Abstract Protein trans-splicing catalyzed by split inteins has increasingly become useful as a protein engineering tool. We solved the 1.0 Å-resolution crystal structure of a fused variant from the naturally split gp41-1 intein, previously identified from environmental metagenomic sequence data. The structure of the 125-residue gp41-1 intein revealed a compact pseudo-C2-symmetry commonly found in the Hedgehog/Intein (HINT) superfamily with extensive charge-charge interactions between the split N- and C-terminal intein fragments that are common among naturally occurring split inteins. We successfully created orthogonal split inteins by engineering a similar charge network into the same region of a cis-splicing intein. This strategy could be applicable for creating novel natural-like split inteins from other, more prevalent cis-splicing inteins.
  • Punta, Marco; Coggill, Penny C.; Eberhardt, Ruth Y.; Mistry, Jaina; Tate, John; Boursnell, Chris; Pang, Ningze; Forslund, Kristoffer; Ceric, Goran; Clements, Jody; Heger, Andreas; Holm, Liisa; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Eddy, Sean R.; Bateman, Alex; Finn, Robert D. (2012)
  • Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Lee, Yun-Tzai Cloud; Mikula, Kornelia M.; Backlund, Sofia M.; Tascon, Igor; Goldman, Adrian; Iwai, Hideo (2021)
    Knots have attracted scientists in mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering. Long flexible thin strings easily knot and tangle as experienced in our daily life. Similarly, long polymer chains inevitably tend to get trapped into knots. Little is known about their formation or function in proteins despite >1,000 knotted proteins identified in nature. However, these protein knots are not mathematical knots with their backbone polypeptide chains because of their open termini, and the presence of a "knot" depends on the algorithm used to create path closure. Furthermore, it is generally not possible to control the topology of the unfolded states of proteins, therefore making it challenging to characterize functional and physicochemical properties of knotting in any polymer. Covalently linking the amino and carboxyl termini of the deeply trefoil-knotted YibK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa allowed us to create the truly backbone knotted protein by enzymatic peptide ligation. Moreover, we produced and investigated backbone cyclized YibK without any knotted structure. Thus, we could directly probe the effect of the backbone knot and the decrease in conformational entropy on protein folding. The backbone cyclization did not perturb the native structure and its cofactor binding affinity, but it substantially increased the thermal stability and reduced the aggregation propensity. The enhanced stability of a backbone knotted YibK could be mainly originated from an increased ruggedness of its free energy landscape and the destabilization of the denatured state by backbone cyclization with little contribution from a knot structure. Despite the heterogeneity in the side-chain compositions, the chemically unfolded cyclized YibK exhibited several macroscopic physico-chemical attributes that agree with theoretical predictions derived from polymer physics.