Browsing by Subject "DRUG-DELIVERY"

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  • Fontana, Flavia; Lindstedt, Hanna; Correia, Alexandra; Chiaro, Jacopo; Kari, Otto; Ndika, Joseph; Alenius, Harri; Buck, Jonas; Sieber, Sandro; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Urtti, Arto; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    Biohybrid nanosystems represent the cutting‐edge research in biofunctionalization of micro‐ and nano‐systems. Their physicochemical properties bring along advantages in the circulation time, camouflaging from the phagocytes, and novel antigens. This is partially a result of the qualitative differences in the protein corona, and the preferential targeting and uptake in homologous cells. However, the effect of the cell membrane on the cellular endocytosis mechanisms and time has not been fully evaluated yet. Here, the effect is assessed by quantitative flow cytometry analysis on the endocytosis of hydrophilic, negatively charged porous silicon nanoparticles and on their membrane‐coated counterparts, in the presence of chemical inhibitors of different uptake pathways. Principal component analysis is used to analyze all the data and extrapolate patterns to highlight the cell‐specific differences in the endocytosis mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences in the composition of static protein corona between naked and coated particles are investigated together with how these differences affect the interaction with human macrophages. Overall, the presence of the cell membrane only influences the speed and the entity of nanoparticles association with the cells, while there is no direct effect on the endocytosis pathways, composition of protein corona, or any reduction in macrophage‐mediated uptake.
  • Rahikkala, Antti; Fontana, Flavia; Bauleth-Ramos, Tomás; Rebelo Correia, Alexandra Maria; Kemell, Marianna; Seitsonen, Jani; Mäkilä, Ermei; Sarmento, Bruno; Salonen, Jarno; Ruokolainen, Janne; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    Erythrocyte-based drug delivery systems have been investigated for their biocompatibility, long circulation time, and capability to transport cargo all around the body, thus presenting enormous potential in medical applications. In this study, we investigated hybrid nanoparticles consisting of nano-sized autologous or allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) membranes encapsulating porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs). These NPs were functionalized with a model cancer antigen TRP2, which was either expressed on the surface of the RBCs by a cell membrane-mimicking block copolymer polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly-2-methyl-2-oxazoline, or attached on the PSi NPs, thus hidden within the encapsulation. When in the presence of peripheral blood immune cells, these NPs resulted in apoptotic cell death of T cells, where the NPs having TRP2 within the encapsulation led to a stronger T cell deletion. The deletion of the T cells did not change the relative proportion of CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Overall, this work shows the combination of nano-sized RBCs, PSi, and antigenic peptides may have use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
  • Liu, Dongfei; Lipponen, Katriina; Quan, Peng; Wan, Xiaocao; Zhan, Hongbo; Makilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Kostiainen, Risto; Hirvonen, Jouni; Kotiaho, Tapio; Santos, Helder A. (2018)
    By exploiting its porous structure and high loading capacity, porous silicon (PSi) is a promising biomaterial to fabricate protocells and biomimetic reactors. Here, we have evaluated the impact of physicochemical properties of PSi particles [thermally oxidized PSi, TOPSi; annealed TOPSi, AnnTOPSi; (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane functionalized thermally carbonized PSi, APTES-TCPSi; and thermally hydrocarbonized PSi, THCPSi] on their surface interactions with different phospholipids. All of the four phospholipids were similarly adsorbed by the surface of PSi particles, except for TOPSi. Among four PSi particles, TOPSi with hydrophilic surface and smaller pore size showed the weakest adsorption toward phosphatidylcholines. By increasing the pore size from roughly 12.5 to 18.0 nm (TOPSi vs AnnTOPSi), the quantity of phosphatidylcholines adsorbed by TOPSi was enhanced to the same level of hydrophilic APTES-TCPSi and hydrophobic THCPSi. The 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) exhibited the highest release ratio of phospholipids from all four PSi particles, and phosphatidylserine (DPPS) showed the lowest release ratio of phospholipids from PSi particles, except for TOPSi, which adsorbed less phospholipids due to the small pore size. There is consistency in the release extent of phospholipids from PSi particles and the isosteric heat of adsorption. Overall, our study demonstrates the importance of pore size and surface chemistry of PSi particles as well as the structure of phospholipids on their interactions. The obtained information can be employed to guide the selection of PSi particles and phospholipids to fabricate highly ordered structures, for example, protocells, or biomimetic reactors.
  • Luebtow, Michael M.; Oerter, Sabrina; Quader, Sabina; Jeanclos, Elisabeth; Cubukova, Alevtina; Krafft, Marion; Haider, Malik Salman; Schulte, Clemens; Meier, Laura; Rist, Maximilian; Sampetrean, Oltea; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Gohla, Antje; Kataoka, Kazunori; Appelt-Menzel, Antje; Luxenhofer, Robert (2020)
    Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of the family of statins have been suggested as therapeutic options in various tumors. Atorvastatin is a statin with the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier; however, the concentrations necessary for a cytotoxic effect against cancer cells exceed the concentrations achievable via oral administration, which made the development of a novel atorvastatin formulation necessary. We characterized the drug loading and basic physicochemical characteristics of micellar atorvastatin formulations and tested their cytotoxicity against a panel of different glioblastoma cell lines. In addition, activity against tumor spheroids formed from mouse glioma and mouse cancer stem cells, respectively, was evaluated. Our results show good activity of atorvastatin against all tested cell lines. Interestingly, in the three-dimensional (3D) models, growth inhibition was more pronounced for the micellar formulation compared to free atorvastatin. Finally, atorvastatin penetration across a blood-brain barrier model obtained from human induced-pluripotent stem cells was evaluated. Our results suggest that the presented micelles may enable much higher serum concentrations than possible by oral administration; however, if transport across the blood-brain barrier is sufficient to reach the therapeutic atorvastatin concentration for the treatment of glioblastoma via intravenous administration remains unclear.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Lindstedt, Hanna; Correia, Alexandra; Chiaro, Jacopo; Kari, Otto; Ndika, Joseph; Alenius, Harri; Buck, Jonas; Sieber, Sandro; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Urtti, Arto; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    Biohybrid nanosystems represent the cutting‐edge research in biofunctionalization of micro‐ and nano‐systems. Their physicochemical properties bring along advantages in the circulation time, camouflaging from the phagocytes, and novel antigens. This is partially a result of the qualitative differences in the protein corona, and the preferential targeting and uptake in homologous cells. However, the effect of the cell membrane on the cellular endocytosis mechanisms and time has not been fully evaluated yet. Here, the effect is assessed by quantitative flow cytometry analysis on the endocytosis of hydrophilic, negatively charged porous silicon nanoparticles and on their membrane‐coated counterparts, in the presence of chemical inhibitors of different uptake pathways. Principal component analysis is used to analyze all the data and extrapolate patterns to highlight the cell‐specific differences in the endocytosis mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences in the composition of static protein corona between naked and coated particles are investigated together with how these differences affect the interaction with human macrophages. Overall, the presence of the cell membrane only influences the speed and the entity of nanoparticles association with the cells, while there is no direct effect on the endocytosis pathways, composition of protein corona, or any reduction in macrophage‐mediated uptake.
  • Junnuthula, Vijayabhaskarreddy; Sadeghi Boroujeni, Amir; Cao, Shoupeng; Tavakoli, Shirin; Ridolfo, Roxane; Toropainen, Elisa; Ruponen, Marika; van Hest, Jan C. M.; Urtti, Arto (2021)
    Posterior eye tissues, such as retina, are affected in many serious eye diseases, but drug delivery to these targets is challenging due to various anatomical eye barriers. Intravitreal injections are widely used, but the intervals between invasive injections should be prolonged. We synthesized and characterized (H-1 NMR, gel permeation chromatography) block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(caprolactone), and trimethylene carbonate. These polymers self-assembled to polymersomes and polymeric micelles. The mean diameters of polymersomes and polymeric micelles, about 100 nm and 30-50 nm, respectively, were obtained with dynamic light scattering. Based on single particle tracking and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, the polymeric micelles and polymersomes were stable and diffusible in the vitreous. The materials did not show cellular toxicity in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the Alamar Blue Assay. Pharmacokinetics of the intravitreal nanocarriers in the rabbits were evaluated using in vivo fluorophotometry. The half-lives of the polymersomes (100 nm) and the micelles (30 nm) were 11.4-32.7 days and 4.3-9.5 days. The intravitreal clearance values were 1.7-8.7 mu L/h and 3.6-5.4 mu L/h for polymersomes and polymeric micelles, respectively. Apparent volumes of distribution of the particles in the rabbit vitreous were 0.6-1.3 mL for polymeric micelles and 1.9-3.4 mL for polymersomes. Polymersomes were found in the vitreous for at least 92 days post-dosing. Furthermore, fundus imaging revealed that the polymersomes accumulated near the optic nerve and retained there even at 111 days post-injection. Polymersomes represent a promising technology for controlled and site-specific drug delivery in the posterior eye segment.
  • Ji, Jianfeng; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Fengyong; He, Jian; Li, Wanlin; Xie, Tingting; Zhong, Danni; Zhang, Tingting; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong; Almeida Santos, Helder; Zhou, Min (2018)
    Triple‐negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a kind of aggressive malignancy with fast metastatic behavior. Herein, a nanosystem loaded with a near‐infrared (NIR) agent is developed to achieve chemo‐photothermal combination therapy for inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis in TNBC. The NIR agent of ultrasmall sized copper sulfide nanodots with strong NIR light‐absorbing capability is entrapped into the doxorubicin‐contained temperature‐sensitive polymer‐based nanosystem by a self‐assembled method. The temperature sensitive nanoclusters (TSNCs) can significantly enhance the drug penetration depth and significantly kill the cancer cells under the near‐infrared laser irradiation. Importantly, it is plausible that the tumor penetrating nanosystem combined with NIR laser irradiation can prevent lung and liver metastasis via extermination of the cancer stem cells. The in vivo characteristics, evaluated by photoacoustic imaging, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution, confirm their feasibility for tumor treatment owing to their long blood circulation time and high tumor uptake. Thanks to the high tumor uptake and highly potent antitumor efficacy, the doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity can be avoided when the TSNC is used. Taken together, it is believed that the nanosystem has excellent potential for clinical translation.
  • Tahir, Nayab; Madni, Asadullah; Correia, Alexandra; Rehman, Mubashar; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Khan, Muhammad Muzamil; Santos, Hélder A. (2019)
    Background: Lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) for the controlled delivery of hydrophilic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX.HCl) and lipophilic DOX base have been fabricated by the single step modified nanoprecipitation method. Materials and methods: Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glicolide) (PLGA), lecithin, and 1,2-distearoyl-Sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000 (DSPE-PEG 2000) were selected as structural components. Results: The mean particle size was 173–208 nm, with an encapsulation efficiency of 17.8±1.9 to 43.8±4.4% and 40.3±0.6 to 59. 8±1.4% for DOX.HCl and DOX base, respectively. The drug release profile was in the range 33–57% in 24 hours and followed the Higuchi model (R2,=0.9867–0.9450) and Fickian diffusion (n<0.5). However, the release of DOX base was slower than DOX.HCl. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies and confocal imaging showed safety, good biocompatibility, and a higher degree of particle internalization. The higher internalization of DOX base was attributed to higher permeability of lipophilic component and better hydrophobic interaction of particles with cell membranes. Compared to the free DOX, the DOX.HCl and DOX base loaded LPHNPs showed higher antiproliferation effects in MDA-MB231 and PC3 cells. Conclusion: Therefore, LPHNPs have provided a potential drug delivery strategy for safe, controlled delivery of both hydrophilic and lipophilic form of DOX in cancer cells
  • Xia, Guanggai; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Ruoyu; Wang, Hongcheng; Song, Ziliang; Deng, Lianfu; Huang, Xinyu; Santos, Helder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2018)
    The low radical surgery rate of pancreatic cancer leads to increased local recurrence and poor prognosis. Gemcitabine (GEM) is the preferred chemotherapeutic for pancreatic cancer. However, systemic chemotherapy with GEM has reached a bottleneck due to its serious side effects after frequent injections. In this study, GEM is successfully enwrapped into electrospun fibers via microsol electrospinning technology to form a stable core-shell fibrous structure. The GEM release rate can be adjusted by altering the thickness of the hyaluronan-sol inner fiber and the quantity of loaded GEM, and the release can be sustained for as long as three weeks. In vitro assays show that these electrospun fibers effectively inhibit pancreatic cancer cells and promote apoptosis. In vivo studies show that the fibrous membranes are better for inhibiting the growth of residual tumors than that of integrated tumors. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that GEM-loaded fibers promote a higher cell apoptosis rate than does systemically injected GEM in residual tumors. In addition, the local delivery of GEM with fibers significantly reduces liver toxicity. In summary, a core-shell electrospun fiber for the controlled and localized delivery of GEM, which greatly improves the treatment of residual tumors and prevents pancreatic tumor recurrence, is developed.
  • Nieminen, Heikki J.; Lampsijarvi, Eetu; Barreto, Goncalo; Finnilä, Mikko A. J.; Salmi, Ari; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Eklund, Kari K.; Saarakkala, Simo; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Haeggström, Edward (2019)
    Localized delivery of drugs into an osteoarthritic cartilaginous lesion does not yet exist, which limits pharmaceutical management of osteoarthritis (OA). High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) provides a means to actuate matter from a distance in a non-destructive way. In this study, we aimed to deliver methylene blue locally into bovine articular cartilage in vitro. HIFU-treated samples (n = 10) were immersed in a methylene blue (MB) solution during sonication (f = 2.16 MHz, peak-positivepressure = 3.5 MPa, mechanical index = 1.8, pulse repetition frequency = 3.0 kHz, cycles per burst: 50, duty cycle: 7%). Adjacent control 1 tissue (n = 10) was first pre-treated with HIFU followed by immersion into MB; adjacent control 2 tissue (n = 10) was immersed in MB without ultrasound exposure. The MB content was higher (p <0.05) in HIFU-treated samples all the way to a depth of 600 mu m from AC surface when compared to controls. Chondrocyte viability and RNA expression levels associated with cartilage degeneration were not different in HIFU-treated samples when compared to controls (p > 0.05). To conclude, HIFU delivers molecules into articular cartilage without major short-term concerns about safety. The method is a candidate for a future approach for managing OA.
  • Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad; Magarkar, Aniket; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex (2021)
    Liposome-based drug delivery systems composed of DOPE stabilized with cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHMS) have been proposed as a drug delivery mechanism with pH-triggered release as the anionic form (CHSa) is protonated (CHS) at reduced pH; PEGylation is known to decrease this pH sensitivity. In this manuscript, we set out to use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a model with all-atom resolution to provide insight into why incorporation of poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) into DOPE–CHMS liposomes reduces their pH sensitivity; we also address two additional questions: (1) How CHSa stabilizes DOPE bilayers into a lamellar conformation at a physiological pH of 7.4? and (2) how the change from CHSa to CHS at acidic pH triggers the destabilization of DOPE bilayers? We found that (A) CHSa stabilizes the DOPE lipid membrane by increasing the hydrophilicity of the bilayer surface, (B) when CHSa changes to CHS by pH reduction, DOPE bilayers are destabilized due to a reduction in bilayer hydrophilicity and a reduction in the area per lipid, and (C) PEG stabilizes DOPE bilayers into the lamellar phase, thus reducing the pH sensitivity of the liposomes by increasing the area per lipid through penetration into the bilayer, which is our main focus.
  • Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Chen-Guang; Kanubaddi, Kiran Reddy; Chia-Hung Lee, Chia-Hung Lee; Wang, Shi-Bin; Cui, Wenguo; Santos, Hélder A.; Lin, KaiLi; Chen, Ai-Zheng (2019)
    Despite their advantageous morphological attributes and attractive physicochemical properties, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are merely supported as carriers or vectors for a reason. Incorporating various metal species in the confined nanospaces of MSNs (M‐MSNs) significantly enriches their mesoporous architecture and diverse functionalities, bringing exciting potentials to this burgeoning field of research. These incorporated guest species offer enormous benefits to the MSN hosts concerning the reduction of their eventual size and the enhancement of their performance and stability, among other benefits. Substantially, the guest species act through contributing to reduced aggregation, augmented durability, ease of long‐term storage, and reduced toxicity, attributes that are of particular interest in diverse fields of biomedicine. In this review, the first aim is to discuss the current advancements and latest breakthroughs in the fabrication of M‐MSNs, emphasizing the pros and cons, the confinement of various metal species in the nanospaces of MSNs, and various factors influencing the encapsulation of metal species in MSNs. Further, an emphasis on potential applications of M‐MSNs in various fields, including in adsorption, catalysis, photoluminescence, and biomedicine, among others, along with a set of examples is provided. Finally, the advances in M‐MSNs with perspectives are summarized.
  • Bondarenko, Olesja; Saarma, Mart (2021)
    Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are small secreted proteins that support the development, maturation and survival of neurons. NTFs injected into the brain rescue and regenerate certain neuronal populations lost in neurodegenerative diseases, demonstrating the potential of NTFs to cure the diseases rather than simply alleviating the symptoms. NTFs (as the vast majority of molecules) do not pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore, are delivered directly into the brain of patients using costly and risky intracranial surgery. The delivery efficacy and poor diffusion of some NTFs inside the brain are considered the major problems behind their modest effects in clinical trials. Thus, there is a great need for NTFs to be delivered systemically thereby avoiding intracranial surgery. Nanoparticles (NPs), particles with the size dimensions of 1-100 nm, can be used to stabilize NTFs and facilitate their transport through the BBB. Several studies have shown that NTFs can be loaded into or attached onto NPs, administered systemically and transported to the brain. To improve the NP-mediated NTF delivery through the BBB, the surface of NPs can be functionalized with specific ligands such as transferrin, insulin, lactoferrin, apolipoproteins, antibodies or short peptides that will be recognized and internalized by the respective receptors on brain endothelial cells. In this review, we elaborate on the most suitable NTF delivery methods and envision "ideal" NTF for Parkinson's disease (PD) and clinical trial thereof. We shortly summarize clinical trials of four NTFs, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), that were tested in PD patients, focusing mainly on GDNF and CDNF. We summarize current possibilities of NP-mediated delivery of NTFs to the brain and discuss whether NPs have impact in improving the properties of NTFs and delivery across the BBB. Emerging delivery approaches and future directions of NTF-based nanomedicine are also discussed.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Martins, Joao P.; Torrieri, Giulia; Santos, Helder A. (2019)
    Nanotechnology holds the promise of bringing revolutionary therapeutic strategies into the clinic. However, an enormous fraction of the currently proposed nanotechnology-based therapies suffers from lack of reproducibility, complexity, high costs, and scale-up-related issues. For these reasons, the research community is moving toward the miniaturization of biomaterials and fabrication methods. Customizable microfluidic-based products have gained tremendous relevance in the development of biomedical technologies. This review provides an overview of different materials that can be used for the fabrication of microfluidic devices, as well as the other parameters influencing the production of biomaterials and biosensors. Moreover, several advanced microfluidic-based technologies that are designed to overcome the current challenges of cancer, immunotherapy, and diabetes therapy, among others are described. Then, the pros and cons of microfluidics as alternative to conventional preparation methods, and the challenges of translating this technique to an industrial context are highlighted. Overall, microfluidic technologies and their accessibility to the research community offer a set of exciting opportunities to bridge the development of innovative therapies and their commercialization in the foreseeable future.
  • Figueras, Eduard; Martins, Ana; Borbely, Adina; Le Joncour, Vadim; Cordella, Paola; Perego, Raffaella; Modena, Daniela; Pagani, Paolo; Esposito, Simone; Auciello, Giulio; Frese, Marcel; Gallinari, Paola; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Steinkuhler, Christian; Sewald, Norbert (2019)
    Tumor targeting has emerged as an advantageous approach to improving the efficacy and safety of cytotoxic agents or radiolabeled ligands that do not preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue. The somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and they are overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). SSTRs can be efficiently targeted with octreotide, a cyclic octapeptide that is derived from native somatostatin. The conjugation of cargoes to octreotide represents an attractive approach for effective tumor targeting. In this study, we conjugated octreotide to cryptophycin, which is a highly cytotoxic depsipeptide, through the protease cleavable Val-Cit dipeptide linker using two different self-immolative moieties. The biological activity was investigated in vitro and the self-immolative part largely influenced the stability of the conjugates. Replacement of cryptophycin by the infrared cyanine dye Cy5.5 was exploited to elucidate the tumor targeting properties of the conjugates in vitro and in vivo. The compound efficiently and selectively internalized in cells overexpressing SSTR2 and accumulated in xenografts for a prolonged time. Our results on the in vivo properties indicate that octreotide may serve as an efficient delivery vehicle for tumor targeting.
  • Sarkar, Aira; Junnuthula, Vijayabhaskarreddy; Dyawanapelly, Sathish (2021)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in geriatric population. Intravitreal (IVT) injections are popular clinical option. Biologics and small molecules offer efficacy but relatively shorter half-life after intravitreal injections. To address these challenges, numerous technologies and therapies are under development. Most of these strategies aim to reduce the frequency of injections, thereby increasing patient compliance and reducing patient-associated burden. Unlike IVT frequent injections, molecular therapies such as cell therapy and gene therapy offer restoration ability hence gained a lot of traction. The recent approval of ocular gene therapy for inherited disease offers new hope in this direction. However, until such breakthrough therapies are available to the majority of patients, antibody therapeutics will be on the shelf, continuing to provide therapeutic benefits. The present review aims to highlight the status of pre-clinical and clinical studies of neovascular AMD treatment modalities including Anti-VEGF therapy, upcoming bispecific antibodies, small molecules, port delivery systems, photodynamic therapy, radiation therapy, gene therapy, cell therapy, and combination therapies.
  • Csonka, P; Tapiainen, T; Makela, MJ; Lehtimaki, L (2021)
    Our aim was to synthesize the published literature on factors that potentially affect the delivery of bronchodilators using valved holding chambers (VHC) in preschool children. We also aimed to identify those attributes that are not yet incorporated or clearly stated in the guidelines and those topics that are still lacking sufficient data. There is strong evidence supporting several recommendations in current guidelines. Based on present knowledge, bronchodilators should be delivered by VHC administering each puff separately. Face mask should be omitted as soon as the child can hold the mouthpiece of the VHC tightly between the lips and teeth. Based on the review, we suggest adding a specific note to current guidelines about the effect of chamber volume and the impact of co-operation during drug administration. Calming the child and securing a tight face-to-mask seal is critical for successful drug delivery. There is not enough evidence to make specific recommendations on the most reliable VHC and face mask for children. There is an urgent need for studies that evaluate and compare the effectiveness of VHCs in various clinical settings in wide age-groups and respiratory patterns. In addition, there is insufficient data on ideal chamber volume, material, and effective antistatic treatment. What is Known: Valved holding chambers (VHC) should not be considered interchangeable when used with pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). Drug delivery is influenced by VHC volume, aerodynamic and electrostatic properties; mask fit; respiratory pattern and co-operation during inhalation; and the number of puffs actuated. What is New: The impact of co-operation, VHC volume, and good mask-to-face fit during drug inhalation is not stressed enough in the guidelines. Studies are urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of different VHCs in various clinical settings focusing on VHC electrostatic properties, respiratory patters, face masks, and ideal pMDI+VHC combinations.
  • Haikarainen, Jussi; Vahteristo, Mikko; Lahelma, Satu; Vartiainen, Ville; Malmberg, Leo Pekka (2020)
    Background: Use of drug delivery devices between nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPIs), or metered dose inhalers (MDIs), for treating patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is based on patients' capability of coordinating the inhalation maneuver and achieving sufficient airflow. There are limited data available with regard to how patients meet the requirements of successful inhalation performance, and how the concept of inspiratory lungpower could be applied. The aim of this work was to study the patient inspiratory airflow profile performance in large data sets. We analyzed how the Kamin-Haidl inhalation criteria were met by patients with DPIs such as Easyhaler for combination therapy (EH-combi), Easyhaler for monotherapy (EH-mono), Diskus, and Turbuhaler (TH), and applied peak lungpower instead of peak inspiratory flow rate as an indicator of patient performance. Materials and Methods: Data sets gathered in two previous studies for DPIs, that is, EH-combi, EH-mono, Diskus, and TH, were used to analyze how inspiratory lungpower representing inspiratory muscle power, flow acceleration, and volume after peak met the inhalation criteria. The measured patient airflow profiles through inhalers were assessed for patients with asthma or COPD. Results: Based on the Kamin-Haidl inhalation criteria, successful inhalation requirements were met with EH-combi in 96.1% and with EH-mono in 92.6% of patients. The success rates were 89.5% and 84.6% with Diskus and TH, respectively, (p <0.0001 between devices). In patients with asthma or COPD, the mean lungpower was 7.51 and 6.15 W for EH-combi, 8.79 and 6.88 W for EH-mono, 7.18 and 4.36 W for Diskus, and 9.65 and 6.86 W for TH, respectively, when patients followed the manufacturer's written instructions. Conclusions: Lungpower applied to the Kamin-Haidl inhalation criteria concept could be an applicable method for reviewing patient performance for different DPIs despite DPIs' characteristic differences in airflow resistance. In light of these results, DPIs provide a feasible treatment option for a large majority of respiratory patients.
  • Jakobsson, Ulrika; Mäkilä, Ermei; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Alanen, Osku; Etile, Asénath; Köster, Ulli; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Salonen, Jarno; Santos, Hélder A.; Helariutta, Kerttuli (2019)
    Mesoporous silicon (PSi) is biocompatible and tailorable material with high potential in drug delivery applications. Here, we report of an evaluation of PSi as a carrier platform for theranostics by delivering a radioactive ion beam- (RIB-) based radioactive lanthanoid into tumors in a mouse model of prostate carcinoma. Thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) wafers were implanted with Dy-159 at the facility for radioactive ion beams ISOLDE located at CERN, and the resulting [Dy-159]THCPSi was postprocessed into particles. The particles were intratumorally injected into mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts. The stability of the particles was studied in vivo, followed by ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiographic studies. We showed that the process of producing radionuclide-implanted PSi particles is feasible and that the [Dy-159]THCPSi particles stay stable and local inside the tumor over seven days. Upon release of Dy-159 from the particles, the main site of accumulation is in the skeleton, which is in agreement with previous studies on the biodistribution of dysprosium. We conclude that THCPSi particles are a suitable platform together with RIB-based radiolanthanoids for theranostic purposes as they are retained after administration inside the tumor and the radiolanthanoid remains embedded in the THCPSi.
  • Le Joncour, Vadim; Karaman, Sinem; Laakkonen, Pirjo Maarit (2019)
    Highly selective by nature, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for the brain homeostasis in physiological conditions. However, in the context of brain tumors, the molecular selectivity of BBB also shields the neoplastic cells by blocking the delivery of peripherally administered chemotherapies. The development of novel drugs (including nanoparticles) targeting malignant brain tumors ideally requires the use of preclinical animal models to study the drug’s transcytosis and antitumor efficacy. In order to comply with the 3R principle (refine, reduce, and replace) to reduce the number of laboratory animals in experimental setup and perform the high-throughput screening of a large library of antitumor agents, we developed a reproducible in vitro human and murine mimic of the blood-brain tumor-barrier (BBTB) using three-layered cultures of endothelial cells, astrocytes, and patient-derived glioblastoma spheres. For higher scalability and reproducibility, commercial cell lines or immortalized cells have been used in tailored conditions to allow the formation of a barrier resembling the actual BBB. Here we describe a protocol to obtain a BBTB mimic by culturing endothelial cells in contact with astrocytes at specific cell densities on inserts. This BBTB mimic can be used, for instance, for the quantification and confocal imaging of the nanoparticle passage through the endothelial and astrocytic barriers, in addition to the evaluation of the tumor cell targeting within the same assay. Moreover, we show that the obtained data can be used to predict the behavior of nanoparticles in preclinical animal models. In a broader perspective, this in vitro model could be adapted to other neurodegenerative diseases for the determination of the passage of new therapeutic molecules through the BBB and/or be supplemented with brain organoids to directly evaluate the efficacy of drugs.