Browsing by Subject "EDUCATION"

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  • Hinke Dobrochinski Candido, Helena (2020)
    This paper investigates datafication in schools through an analysis of the enactments of quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) policies in Brazil. In doing so, I question how data permeates and changes school environments, school actors’ conduct and their imaginaries. QAE policies encompass largescale assessments, indicators, rankings and other steering mechanisms, but importantly connect data to quality in education. Here, I analyse the discourses of school actors (principals, coordinators, supervisors, teachers, students and parents) from three Brazilian public schools collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 28). Data manifests in those schools as a technology of government. Schools enact QAE policies in distinct ways, incorporating the idea of governmentality, but also proposing alternative patterns of action.
  • Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rajala, Antti (2017)
    This study sought to understand how dialogic teaching, as enacted in everyday classroom interaction, affords students opportunities for identity negotiation as learners of science. By drawing on sociocultural and sociolinguistic accounts, the study examined how students' discursive identities were managed and recognized in the moment and over time during dialogic teaching and what consequences these negotiations had for their engagement in science learning. The study used video data of classroom interactions collected from an elementary science learning project and placed a specific analytic focus on four students in particular. The results reveal evidence of a rich variety of discursive identities exposed during dialogic teaching, thus demonstrating how the students' identity negotiations were configured according to the social architecture of classroom discourse. Addressing the temporal dimension of dialogic teaching points out critical shifts in the students' discursive identities, of which identification is argued to be pivotal when creating equitable science learning opportunities. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sullanmaa, Jenni; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina; Soini, Tiina (2019)
    Purpose Shared understandings of curriculum reform within and between the levels of the educational system are suggested to be crucial for the reform to take root. The purpose of this paper is to explore variation in perceived curriculum coherence and school impact among state- and district-level stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach The participants (n=666) included state- and district-level stakeholders involved in a national curriculum reform in Finland. Latent profile analysis was employed to identify profiles based on participants' perceptions of the core curriculum's coherence and the reform's impact on school development. Findings Two profiles were identified: high coherence and impact, and lower consistency of the intended direction and impact. State-level stakeholders had higher odds of belonging to the high coherence and impact profile than their district-level counterparts. Practical implications The results imply that more attention needs to be paid in developing a shared and coherent understanding particularly of the intended direction of the core curriculum as well as the reform's effects on school-level development among state- and district-level stakeholders. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature on curriculum reform by shedding light on the variation in perceived curriculum coherence and school impact of those responsible for a large-scale national curriculum reform process at different levels of the educational system.
  • Olofson, Anders O.; Lindberg, J. Ola; Pedersen, Alex Young; Arstorp, Ann-Thérèse; Dalsgaard, Christian; Einum, Even; Caviglia, Francesco; Ilomäki, Liisa; Veermans, Marjaana; Häkkinen, Päivi; Willermark, Sara (2021)
    This paper explores policy related to digital competence and the digitalisation of Nordic K-12 schools. Anchored in some key transnational policies on digital competence, it describes some current Nordic movements in the national policies of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The concept of boundary objects is used as an analytical lens, for understanding digital competence as a plastic and temporal concept that can be used to discuss the multi-dimensional translation of this concept in these Nordic countries. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential to view digital competence as a unifying boundary object that, with its plasticity, temporality and n-dimensionality, can show signs of common Nordic efforts in the K-12 school policy.
  • Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kröger, Hannes; Tarkiainen, Lasse Hannes; Martikainen, Pekka Tapani (2019)
    Differences in mortality between groups with different socioeconomic positions (SEP) are well-established, but the relative contribution of different SEP measures is unclear. This study compares the correlation between three SEP dimensions and mortality, and investigates differences between gender and age groups (35-59 vs. 60-84). We use an 11% random sample with an 80% oversample of deaths from the Finnish population with information on education, occupational class, individual income, and mortality (n=496,658; 274,316 deaths between 1995 and 2007). We estimate bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models and population attributable fractions. The total effects of education are substantially mediated by occupation and income, and the effects of occupation is mediated by income. All dimensions have their own net effect on mortality, but income shows the steepest mortality gradient (HR 1.78, lowest vs. highest quintile). Income is more important for men and occupational class more important among elderly women. Mortality inequalities are generally smaller in older ages, but the relative importance of income increases. In health inequality studies, the use of only one SEP indicator functions well as a broad marker of SEP. However, only analyses of multiple dimensions allow insights into social mechanisms and how they differ between population subgroups.
  • Kapon, Shulamit; Laherto, Antti; Levrini, Olivia (2018)
    Pursuing both disciplinary authenticity and personal relevance in the teaching and learning of science in school generates tensions that should be acknowledged and resolved. This paper problematizes and explores the conceptualizations of these tensions by considering personal relevance, disciplinary authenticity, and common school science as three perspectives that entail different educational goals. Based on an analysis of the literature, we identify five facets of the tensions: content fidelity, content coverage, language and discursive norms, epistemic structure and standards, and significance. We then explore the manifestations of these facets in two different examples of the instruction and learning of physics at the advanced high school level in Israel and Italy. Our analysis suggests that (1) the manifestations of these tensions and their resolution are highly contextual. (2) While maintaining personal relevance and disciplinary authenticity requires some negotiation, the main tension that needs to be resolved is between personal relevance and common school science. (3) Disciplinary authenticity, when considered in terms of its full depth and scope, can be equipped to resolve this tension within the discipline. (4) To achieve resolution, teachers’ expertise should include not only pedagogical expertise but also a deep and broad disciplinary understanding.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne Maria; Varje, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami Pekka; Väänänen, Ari (2018)
    Background It is unknown whether newer, mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and older tricyclic antidepressants are used similarly regardless of the geographical area of residence and education. Methods We included four randomly sampled cohorts of the Finnish working aged population (n = 998,540–1,033,135). The sampling (Dec 31st in 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2010) resulted in non-overlapping time windows where each participant was followed up for four years for the first antidepressant use. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we examined whether the hazard of antidepressant use differed between the capital area and three other areas (Southern, Western and Northern/Eastern Finland). Educational differences were examined using four sub-groups: capital area/high education (reference category); other areas/high education; capital area/low education; and other areas/low education. Results Hazard ratios for the use of newer antidepressants were significantly lower in all other areas compared to the capital area after adjustment for age, sex, marital status, employment status, education, income, and area-level unemployment. Findings remained consistent in all time windows, differences increasing slightly. In the sub-group analysis those with low education had the lowest level of use in all areas, also within the capital area. The results were opposite for older antidepressants in all but the last time window. Limitations Some degree of unmeasured confounding and exposure misclassification is likely to exist. Conclusions Newer antidepressants were more commonly used in the capital than in the other areas, and among those with high versus low education. These differences in antidepressant use suggest socioeconomic inequalities in the mental health treatment quality.
  • Savela, Nina; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Noreikis, Marius; Xiao, Yu (2020)
    Augmented reality (AR) applications have recently emerged for entertainment and educational purposes and have been proposed to have positive effects on social interaction. In this study, we investigated the impact of a mobile, indoor AR feature on sociability, entertainment, and learning. We conducted a field experiment using a quiz game in a Finnish science center exhibition. We divided participants (N = 372) into an experimental group (AR app users) and two control groups (non-AR app users; pen-and-paper participants), including 28 AR users of follow-up interviews. We used Kruskal-Wallis rank test to compare the experimental groups and the content analysis method to explore AR users' experiences. Although interviewed AR participants recognized the entertainment value and learning opportunities for AR, we did not detect an increase in perceived sociability, social behavior, positive affect, or learning performance when comparing the experimental groups. Instead, AR interviewees experienced a strong conflict between the two different realities. Despite the engaging novelty value of new technology, performance and other improvements do not automatically emerge. We also discuss potential conditional factors. Future research and development of AR and related technologies should note the possible negative effects of dividing attention to both realities.
  • Torvik, Fartein Ask; Flato, Martin; McAdams, Tom A.; Colman, Ian; Silventoinen, Karri; Stoltenberg, Camilla (2021)
    Purpose: On average, boys have lower academic achievement than girls. We investigated whether the timing of puberty is associated with academic achievement, and whether later puberty among boys contributes to the sex difference in academic achievement. Method: Examination scores at age 16 were studied among 13,477 British twins participating in the population-based Twins Early Development Study. A pubertal development scale, a height based proxy of growth spurt, and age at menarche were used as indicators of puberty. Associations between puberty, sex, and academic achievement were estimated in phenotypic mediation models and biometric twin models. Results: Earlier puberty was associated with higher academic achievement both in boys and girls. The exception was early age at menarche in girls, which associated with lower academic achievement. More than half of the sex differences in academic achievement could be linked to sex differences in pubertal development, but part of this association appeared to be rooted in prepubertal differences. The biometric twin modelling indicated that the association between puberty and academic achievement was due to shared genetic risk factors. Genetic influences on pubertal development accounted for 7%-8% of the phenotypic variation in academic achievement. Conclusions: Pubertal maturation relates to the examination scores of boys and of girls. This can give genes related to pubertal maturation an influence on outcomes in education and beyond. Sex differences in pubertal maturation can explain parts of the sex difference in academic achievement. Grading students when they are immature may not accurately measure their academic potential. (c) 2021 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Löfgren, Sami; Ilomäki, Liisa; Toom, Auli (2020)
    To become employed, upper-secondary vocational graduates need adequate competences that correspond with the needs of working life, particularly with the expectations of their potential employers. However, research on the necessary competences of upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) students is limited. This study examined what competences technical-trade employers expect of initial vocational education (IVET) graduates, which competences stand out in recruitment and what kind of experiences the employers had on the competences of their recent apprentices and novice employees. The study was conducted in the metropolitan area of Southern Finland. Ten representatives of employers offering apprenticeships for technical-trade IVET students were interviewed. The data consisted of interview transcriptions that were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that graduates' motivational, attitudinal and social competences contribute to businesses' employment decisions but only when the graduates have shown potential for vocational development as well. The findings further suggest that when graduating, young people possess adequate competences to a varying degree and some of them are insufficiently prepared.
  • Syrjämäki, Marja; Pihlaja, Päivi; Sajaniemi, Nina (2018)
    This article focused on the pedagogy that enhances peer interaction in integrated special groups. In Finland, most children identified as having special educational needs (SEN) attend day-care in mainstream kindergarten groups; the rest are in integrated or segregated early childhood special education (ECSE) groups in public day-care centres [National Institute of Health and Welfare. 2013. "Child Day Care 2013 - Municipal Survey." Accessed March 15, 2016. https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024 /116231/Tr16_14.pdf?sequence=4]. An integrated group, which typically consists of seven children without and five with SEN, is supposed to be an inclusive environment that provides an atmosphere in which every child can feel togetherness and be scaffolded [Pihlaja, P. 2009. "Erityisen tuen kaytannot varhaiskasvatuksessa - nakokulmana inkluusio." [The Special Education Practices in Early Childhood Education - Inclusion as Viewpoint.] Kasvatus 2: 146-156]. Our aim was to examine how ECSE professionals' pedagogical practices were used to enhance peer interaction in interactive play. We analysed 14 videotaped sessions of guided play and conceptualized the studied phenomenon by portraying five guidance types in which the identified pedagogical practices were used in different ways.
  • Hietanen, Lenita; Ruismaki, Heikki (2021)
    Entrepreneurship mostly occurs in business studies after general education. This study considers how the informant, Anna, first identified herself as a young music hobbyist, then as a musician and music teacher, and finally as an entrepreneur in music. The main question driving this narrative study is, 'How might identity formation processes as a musician and a music teacher influence identity formation as an entrepreneur in music?' Anna is an example of an individual who possesses non-business resources that support entrepreneurial identity formation processes earlier in life. The study underlines the importance of ongoing support for an individual's displays of initiative, original ideas and creativity when dealing with opportunities during the entire educational path. Although this case is specific to Finland, the findings could be applied internationally to support people in discovering their entrepreneurial selves and in becoming entrepreneurs as early as possible alongside their hobbies and non-business professions.
  • Puustinen, Mikko; Khawaja, Amna (2021)
    In this case study, we explore pedagogical practices that could promote powerful knowledge in school history. We analyse teaching sessions conducted by two teachers. The cases were selected from an observation study that focused on historical literacy in Finnish schools. While Michael Young's ideas of powerful knowledge have gained considerable attention in recent years, the pedagogical aspects of powerful knowledge have been less explored than its knowledge theorization. Our results indicate that promoting powerful knowledge is possible in school history. We suggest that powerful knowledge could be supported by teacher-led pedagogy that involves the systematic use of historical texts, and that uses disciplinary concepts to re-conceptualize everyday knowledge. Hence, teaching strives to unpack the (political) use of historical knowledge and narratives that represent the knowledge of the powerful.
  • Jokinen, Ewa; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Harkki, Paivi (2017)
    OBJECTIVES: Reduction in the number of gynecological operations has made resident training more difficult in gynecological surgery. We used electronic educational material to supplement traditional apprentice model in resident surgical education. Our aim was to evaluate effectiveness of a web-based course in knowledge gaining among residents with various levels of clinical experience. DESIGN: In prospective interventional study, the level of knowledge was assessed before and after taking the course. SETTING: All Finnish residents in obstetrics and gynecology were invited to participate. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-eight voluntary residents from all 5 University districts were allocated in 3 groups according to the experience. RESULTS: Fifty-eight residents replied to the precourse questionnaire, and 33 (57%) of them filled in the post course questionnaire. Significant knowledge gain was detected in each experience group. In the less experienced group, the mean score (max: 110) increased from 81.9 to 89.3 (p = 0.009), in the middle group from 90.4 to 97.9 (p = 0.003), and in the most experienced group from 94.8 to 100.0 (p = 0.017). The participants rated the usefulness of the course as 4.8 in the Likert scale 1 to 5, and all intended to return to the course. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant increase in scores in every level of clinical experience. Thus, the course could be used as an educational tool. (C) 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta (2016)
    Making the transition from theory to practise easier in nursing education through simulation is widely implemented all over the world, and there is research evidence of the positive effects of simulation. The pre understanding for this study is based on a definition of clinical competence as encountering, knowing, performing, Maturing and developing, and the hypothesis is that these categories should appear in simulated situations. The aim of the study was to explore the forms and expressions of clinical competence in simulated situations and furthermore to explore if and how clinical competence could be developed by simulation. An observational hermeneutic study with a hypothetic-deductive approach was used in 18 simulated situations with 39 bachelor degree nursing students. In the situations, the scenarios, the actors and the plots were described. The story told was "the way from suffering to health" in which three main plots emerged. The first was, doing as performing and knowing, which took the shape of knowing what to do, acting responsibly, using evidence and equipment, appearing confident and feeling comfortable, and sharing work and information with others. The second was, being as encountering the patient, which took the shape of being there for him/her and confirming by listening and answering. The third plot was becoming as maturing and developing which took the shape of learning in co-operation with other students. All the deductive categories, shapes and expressions appeared as dialectic patterns having their negative counterparts. The study showed that clinical competence can be made evident and developed by simulation and that the challenge is in encountering the patient and his/her suffering. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Zanca, F.; Hernandez-Giron, I.; Avanzo, M.; Guidi, G.; Crijns, W.; Diaz, O.; Kagadis, G. C.; Rampado, O.; Lonne, P.; Ken, S.; Colgan, N.; Zaidi, H.; Zakaria, G. A.; Kortesniemi, M. (2021)
    Purpose: To provide a guideline curriculum related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), for the education and training of European Medical Physicists (MPs). Materials and methods: The proposed curriculum consists of two levels: Basic (introducing MPs to the pillars of knowledge, development and applications of AI, in the context of medical imaging and radiation therapy) and Advanced. Both are common to the subspecialties (diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology). The learning outcomes of the training are presented as knowledge, skills and competences (KSC approach). Results: For the Basic section, KSCs were stratified in four subsections: (1) Medical imaging analysis and AI Basics; (2) Implementation of AI applications in clinical practice; (3) Big data and enterprise imaging, and (4) Quality, Regulatory and Ethical Issues of AI processes. For the Advanced section instead, a common block was proposed to be further elaborated by each subspecialty core curriculum. The learning outcomes were also translated into a syllabus of a more traditional format, including practical applications. Conclusions: This AI curriculum is the first attempt to create a guideline expanding the current educational framework for Medical Physicists in Europe. It should be considered as a document to top the sub-specialties' curriculums and adapted by national training and regulatory bodies. The proposed educational program can be implemented via the European School of Medical Physics Expert (ESMPE) course modules and - to some extent - also by the national competent EFOMP organizations, to reach widely the medical physicist community in Europe.
  • Kärnä-Behm, Jaana (2019)
    The purpose of this study is to promote the experiential learning (EL) method in the pedagogics of art and design in higher education. This article is based on a case study consisting of two pedagogical projects in interior design courses, the probing project and the multisensory space project, carried out between 2014 and 2016 with trainee teachers. Using the data from these projects I analyse using the qualitative content analysis method how and with what implications EL supports learning of art and design in higher education. The results show that EL was found to be inspiring and self-expressive, and was an unusual and motivating way to learn interior design. In a teacher education context EL gave students ideas about collaborative and EL-based methods of learning that could be applied to their own future teaching projects.
  • Rämö, Johanna; Reinholz, Daniel; Häsä, Jokke; Lahdenperä, Juulia (2019)
    In this article we describe a long-term departmental change effort in one mathematics department. The change began with one instructor adopting the Extreme Apprenticeship instructional model. This modest shift served as the catalyst for a series of subsequent, systemic improvements. We believe that this innovation and the resultant change demonstrate how instructional change can serve as a catalyst for broader change, rather than a change that focuses solely on instruction. We use four frames from the literature on organizational development to characterize the changes that have occurred in this department. This in-depth case study describes the department's current culture and how it developed, and we suggest that this explanation could serve as a guide for other departments seeking change.
  • Mäkelä, Marja-Liisa; Kalalahti, Mira (2020)
    This article concentrates on the transition from comprehensive school to the upper secondary level from the viewpoint of migrant background girls. Emphasis is on understanding the bounded agency and the ways in which gender and family background are expressed in the modalities of the agency. Previous studies show that ethnic minorities have more difficulties in school, and they continue to higher education less frequently than the majority of students. We are interested in the aspirations of migrant background girls (n = 34) concerning their post-comprehensive transition. Our focus is on the experienced agency during the last year of comprehensive school. Our research questions are: What kinds of modalities do migrant background girls use when considering their educational choices? How do these modalities reflect their bounded agency? The study shows that although the experienced agency is universal among the age group, there are specific ethnic and gender connotations.
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Hemminki, Akseli; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2018)
    Background: Malignant melanoma (MM) patients are at increasing risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs). We assessed mortality and risk of SPCs in MM patients with siblings or parents affected with same cancer compared with that of the general population. Methods: We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to assess relative risks (RRs) and causes of death in SPCs until 2015 in patients with a MM diagnosis between 1958 and 2015. We identified 35 451patients with MM among whom 3212 received a subsequent diagnosis of SPC. RRs of SPCs after MM diagnosis were calculated stratifying over concordant family history of cancer in first-degree relatives. Results: Familial RRs were increased for second melanoma (RR = 19.28, 95% CI = 16.71 to 22.25), squamous cell skin cancer (RR = 7.58, 95% CI = 5.57 to 10.29), leukemia (RR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.96 to 10.94), bladder (RR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.50 to 6.89), ovarian (RR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.46 to 10.37), kidney cancer (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.57 to 9.06), cancer of unknown primary (RR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.16), nervous system (RR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.20 to 6.93), breast (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.92 to 2.84), lung (RR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.50 to 3.35), and prostate cancer (RR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.89 to 2.61) with statistical significance. For all cancers, familial RR was in excess (2.09, 95% CI = 2.02 to 2.16 vs 1.78, 95% CI = 1.69 to 1.87; P-trend <.0001). Cause of death in MM patients with SPC is shown to be dependent on the cancer site though SPCs contributed to majority of deaths. Conclusions: SPCs appear higher with prior family history of cancer and contribute to mortality. SPC was the most common cause of death in patients with SPC and is almost uniformly the major contributing cause of death for all cancer sites. For improved survival in MM patients, prevention and early detection of SPCs would be important.