Browsing by Subject "ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM"

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  • Lohmus, Andres; Varjosalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Kristiina (2016)
    The definition of the precise molecular composition of membranous replication compartments is a key to understanding the mechanisms of virus multiplication. Here, we set out to investigate the protein composition of the potyviral replication complexes. We purified the potyviral 6K2 protein-induced membranous structures from Potato virus A (PVA)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. For this purpose, the 6K2 protein, which is the main inducer of potyviral membrane rearrangements, was expressed in fusion with an N-terminal Twin-Strep-tag and Cerulean fluorescent protein (SC6K) from the infectious PVA cDNA. A non-tagged Cerulean-6K2 (C6K) virus and the SC6K protein alone in the absence of infection were used as controls. A purification scheme exploiting discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by Strep-tag-based affinity chromatography was developed. Both (+)- and (-)-strand PVA RNA and viral protein VPg were co-purified specifically with the affinity tagged PVA-SC6K. The purified samples, which contained individual vesicles and membrane clusters, were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Data analysis revealed that many of the detected viral and host proteins were either significantly enriched or fully specifically present in PVA-SC6K samples when compared with the controls. Eight of eleven potyviral proteins were identified with high confidence from the purified membrane structures formed during PVA infection. Ribosomal proteins were identified from the 6K2-induced membranes only in the presence of a replicating virus, reinforcing the tight coupling between replication and translation. A substantial number of proteins associating with chloroplasts and several host proteins previously linked with potyvirus replication complexes were co-purified with PVA-derived SC6K, supporting the conclusion that the host proteins identified in this study may have relevance in PVA replication.
  • Pietila, Maija K.; van Hemert, Martijn J.; Ahola, Tero (2018)
    Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-associated structures; alphaviruses and many other groups induce membrane invaginations called spherules. Here, we established a protocol to purify these membranous replication complexes (RCs) from cells infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV). We isolated SFV spherules located on the plasma membrane and further purified them using two consecutive density gradients. This revealed that SFV infection strongly modifies cellular membranes. We removed soluble proteins, the Golgi membranes, and most of the mitochondria, but plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and late endosome markers were retained in the membrane fraction that contained viral RNA synthesizing activity, replicase proteins, and minus-and plus-strand RNA. Electron microscopy revealed that the purified membranes displayed spherule-like structures with a narrow neck. This membrane enrichment was specific to viral replication, as such a distribution of membrane markers was only observed after infection. Besides the plasma membrane, SFV infection remodeled the ER, and the cofractionation of the RC-carrying plasma membrane and ER suggests that SFV recruits ER proteins or membrane to the site of replication. The purified RCs were highly active in synthesizing both genomic and subgenomic RNA. Detergent solubilization destroyed the replication activity, demonstrating that the membrane association of the complex is essential. Most of the newly made RNA was in double-stranded replicative molecules, but the purified complexes also produced single-stranded RNA as well as released newly made RNA. This indicates that the purification established here maintained the functionality of RCs and thus enables further structural and functional studies of active RCs. IMPORTANCE Similar to all positive-strand RNA viruses, the arthropod-borne alpha-viruses induce membranous genome factories, but little is known about the arrangement of viral replicase proteins and the presence of host proteins in these replication complexes. To improve our knowledge of alphavirus RNA-synthesizing complexes, we isolated and purified them from infected mammalian cells. Detection of viral RNA and in vitro replication assays revealed that these complexes are abundant and highly active when located on the plasma membrane. After multiple purification steps, they remain functional in synthesizing and releasing viral RNA. Besides the plasma membrane, markers for the endoplasmic reticulum and late endosomes were enriched with the replication complexes, demonstrating that alphavirus infection modified cellular membranes beyond inducing replication spherules on the plasma membrane. We have developed here a gentle purification method to obtain large quantities of highly active replication complexes, and similar methods can be applied to other positive-strand RNA viruses.
  • Orcholski, Mark E.; Khurshudyan, Artyom; Shamskhou, Elya A.; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Ian Y.; Kodani, Sean D.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hong, Ellen M.; Alexandrova, Ludmila; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Berry, Gerald; Zamanian, Roham T.; Perez, Vinicio A. de Jesus (2017)
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a complication of methamphetamine use (METH-PAH), but the pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. Given that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) are involved in metabolism of METH and other amphetamine-like compounds, we postulated that loss of function variants could contribute to METH-PAH. Although no difference in CYP2D6 expression was seen by lung immunofluorescence, CES1 expression was significantly reduced in endothelium of METH-PAH microvessels. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that healthy pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) have the capacity to both internalize and metabolize METH. Furthermore, whole exome sequencing data from 18 METH-PAH patients revealed that 94.4% of METH-PAH patients were heterozygous carriers of a single nucleotide variant (SNV; rs115629050) predicted to reduce CES1 activity. PMVECs transfected with this CES1 variant demonstrated significantly higher rates of METH-induced apoptosis. METH exposure results in increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a compensatory autophagy response. Compared with healthy cells, CES1-deficient PMVECs lack a robust autophagy response despite higher ROS, which correlates with increased apoptosis. We propose that reduced CES1 expression/activity could promote development of METH-PAH by increasing PMVEC apoptosis and small vessel loss.
  • Kumar, Darshan; Lak, Behnam; Suntio, Taina; Vihinen, Helena; Belevich, Ilya; Viita, Tiina; Xiaonan, Liu; Vartiainen, Aki; Vartiainen, Maria; Varjosalo, Markku; Jokitalo, Eija (2021)
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is composed of a controlled ratio of sheets and tubules, which are maintained by several proteins with multiple functions. Reticulons (RTNs), especially RTN4, and DP1Nop1p family members are known to induce ER membrane curvature. RTN4B is the main RTN4 isoform expressed in nonneuronal cells. In this study, we identified FAM134C as a RTN4B interacting protein in mammalian, nonneuronal cells. FAM134C localized specifically to the ER tubules and sheet edges. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that overexpression of FAM134C induced the formation of unbranched, long tubules or dense globular structures composed of heavily branched narrow tubules. In both cases, tubules were nonmotile. ER tubulation was dependent on the reticulon homology domain (RHD) close to the N-terminus. FAM134C plays a role in the autophagy pathway as its level elevated significantly upon amino acid starvation but not during ER stress. Moreover, FAM134C depletion reduced the number and size of autophagic structures and the amount of ER as a cargo within autophagic structures under starvation conditions. Dominant-negative expression of FAM134C forms with mutated RHD or LC3 interacting region also led to a reduced number of autophagic structures. Our results suggest that FAM134C provides a link between regulation of ER architecture and ER turnover by promoting ER tubulation required for subsequent ER fragmentation and engulfment into autophagosomes.
  • Fukuoh, Atsushi; Cannino, Giuseppe; Gerards, Mike; Buckley, Suzanne; Kazancioglu, Selena; Scialo, Filippo; Lihavainen, Eero; Ribeiro, Andre; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T. (2014)