Browsing by Subject "ESCHERICHIA-COLI"

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  • Ojala, Teija; Kankainen, Matti; Castro, Joana; Cerca, Nuno; Edelman, Sanna; Westerlund-Wikstroem, Benita; Paulin, Lars; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri (2014)
  • Cairns, Johannes; Jokela, Roosa; Hultman, Jenni; Tamminen, Manu; Virta, Marko; Hiltunen, Teppo (2018)
    Experimental microbial ecology and evolution have yielded foundational insights into ecological and evolutionary processes using simple microcosm setups and phenotypic assays with one- or two-species model systems. The fields are now increasingly incorporating more complex systems and exploration of the molecular basis of observations. For this purpose, simplified, manageable and well-defined multispecies model systems are required that can be easily investigated using culturing and high-throughput sequencing approaches, bridging the gap between simpler and more complex synthetic or natural systems. Here we address this need by constructing a completely synthetic 33 bacterial strain community that can be cultured in simple laboratory conditions. We provide whole-genome data for all the strains as well as metadata about genomic features and phenotypic traits that allow resolving individual strains by amplicon sequencing and facilitate a variety of envisioned mechanistic studies. We further show that a large proportion of the strains exhibit coexistence in co-culture over serial transfer for 48 days in the absence of any experimental manipulation to maintain diversity. The constructed bacterial community can be a valuable resource in future experimental work.
  • Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Andremont, Antoine; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Husman, Ana Maria de Roda; Fagerstedt, Patriq; Fick, Jerker; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Gaze, William H.; Kuroda, Makoto; Kvint, Kristian; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Manaia, Celia M.; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Plant, Laura; Ploy, Marie-Cecile; Segovia, Carlos; Simonet, Pascal; Smalla, Kornelia; Snape, Jason; Topp, Edward; van Hengel, Arjon J.; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Virta, Marko P. J.; Wellington, Elizabeth M.; Wernersson, Ann-Sofie (2018)
    There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.(1)
  • Lääveri, Tinja; Vilkman, Katri; Pakkanen, Sari; Kirveskari, Juha; Kantele, Anu (2018)
    Background: Among visitors to the (sub)tropics, 20-50% contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and 5-30% take antibiotics. While shortening the duration of illness, antimicrobials predispose to acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, liberal use is no longer advocated. Although antibiotics kill pathogens, no data support the view that they could prevent post-infectious sequelae. We investigated how antibiotic use for TD abroad impacts the pathogen findings at return. Materials and methods: We revisited 456 travellers' clinical data and stool pathogens examined by qPCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) Escherichia coli. Results: Among travellers with TD, antibiotic users had pathogen-positive samples less frequently than non-users (50% versus 83%). The difference was significant for EPEC (23% versus 47%) and EAEC (27% versus 54%), but not ETEC (17% versus 26%) or the other pathogens. Shigella/EIEC was found more often among antibiotic users than non-users (4% versus 1%). Conclusion: Despite antibiotic treatment of TD, half of the users still had stool pathogens at return, reflecting either antibiotic resistance of pathogens or recolonisation/reinfection while abroad. Treatment of TD with antibiotics during travel should not be interpreted to indicate eradication of pathogens.
  • Uusitalo, S.; Kogler, M.; Välimaa, A. -L.; Popov, A.; Ryabchikov, Yu.; Kontturi, V.; Siitonen, S.; Petäjä, J.; Virtanen, T.; Laitinen, R.; Kinnunen, M.; Meglinski, I.; Kabashin, A.; Bunker, A.; Viitala, T.; Hiltunen, J. (2016)
    The rapid and accurate detection of food pathogens plays a critical role in the early prevention of foodborne epidemics. Current bacteria identification practices, including colony counting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunological methods, are time consuming and labour intensive; they are not ideal for achieving the required immediate diagnosis. Different SERS substrates have been studied for the detection of foodborne microbes. The majority of the approaches are either based on costly patterning techniques on silicon or glass wafers or on methods which have not been tested in large scale fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of analyte specific sensing using mass-produced, polymer-based low-cost SERS substrate in analysing the chosen model microbe with biological recognition. The use of this novel roll-to-roll fabricated SERS substrate was combined with optimised gold nanoparticles to increase the detection sensitivity. Distinctive SERS spectral bands were recorded for Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 using an in-house build (785 nm) near infra red (NIR) Raman system. Results were compared to both those found in the literature and the results obtained from a commercial time-gated Raman system with a 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The effect of the SERS enhancer metal and the excitation wavelength on the detected spectra was found to be negligible. The hypothesis that disagreements within the literature regarding bacterial spectra results from conditions present during the detection process has not been supported. The sensitivity of our SERS detection was improved through optimization of the concentration of the sample inside the hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wells. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) beads were used to assist the accumulation of bacteria into the path of the beam of the excitation laser. With this combination we have detected Listeria with gold enhanced SERS in a label free manner from such low sample concentrations as 10(4) CFU ml(-1).
  • Horesh, Gal; Taylor-Brown, Alyce; McGimpsey, Stephanie; Lassalle, Florent; Corander, Jukka; Heinz, Eva; Thomson, Nicholas R. (2021)
    The pan-genome is defined as the combined set of all genes in the gene pool of a species. Pan-genome analyses have been very useful in helping to understand different evolutionary dynamics of bacterial species: an open pan-genome often indicates a free-living lifestyle with metabolic versatility, while closed pan-genomes are linked to host-restricted, ecologically specialized bacteria. A detailed understanding of the species pan-genome has also been instrumental in tracking the phylodynamics of emerging drug resistance mechanisms and drug-resistant pathogens. However, current approaches to analyse a species' pan-genome do not take the species population structure into account, nor do they account for the uneven sampling of different lineages, as is commonplace due to over -sampling of clinically relevant representatives. Here we present the application of a population structure- aware approach for classify-ing genes in a pan-genome based on within-species distribution. We demonstrate our approach on a collection of 7500 Escherichia coli genomes, one of the most-studied bacterial species and used as a model for an open pan-genome. We reveal clearly distinct groups of genes, clustered by different underlying evolutionary dynamics, and provide a more biologically informed and accurate description of the species' pan-genome.
  • Spruit, Cindy; Wicklund, Anu; Wan, Xing; Skurnik, Mikael; Pajunen, Maria (2020)
    The lytic phage, fHe-Kpn01 was isolated from sewage water using an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae as a host. The genome is 43,329 bp in size and contains direct terminal repeats of 222 bp. The genome contains 56 predicted genes, of which proteomics analysis detected 29 different proteins in purified phage particles. Comparison of fHe-Kpn01 to other phages, both morphologically and genetically, indicated that the phage belongs to the family Podoviridae and genus Drulisvirus. Because fHe-Kpn01 is strictly lytic and does not carry any known resistance or virulence genes, it is suitable for phage therapy. It has, however, a narrow host range since it infected only three of the 72 tested K. pneumoniae strains, two of which were of capsule type KL62. After annotation of the predicted genes based on the similarity to genes of known function and proteomics results on the virion-associated proteins, 22 gene products remained annotated as hypothetical proteins of unknown function (HPUF). These fHe-Kpn01 HPUFs were screened for their toxicity in Escherichia coli. Three of the HPUFs, encoded by the genes g10, g22, and g38, were confirmed to be toxic.
  • Stotani, Silvia; Gatta, Viviana; Medarametla, Prasanthi; Padmanaban, Mohan; Karawajzyk, Anna; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Tammela, Päivi; Laitinen, Tuomo; Poso, Antti; Tzalis, Dimitrios; Collina, Simona (2019)
    Antibiotic resistance is posing a continuous threat to global public health and represents a huge burden for society as a whole. In the past decade, the interference with bacterial quorum sensing (QS) (i.e., cell cell communication) mechanisms has extensively been investigated as a valid therapeutic approach in the pursuit of a next generation of antimicrobials. (S)-4,5-Dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, commonly known as (S)-DPD, a small signaling molecule that modulates QS in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, is phosphorylated by LsrK, and the resulting phospho-DPD activates QS. We designed and prepared a small library of DPD derivatives, characterized by five different scaffolds, and evaluated their LsrK inhibition in the context of QS interference. SAR studies highlighted the pyrazole moiety as an essential structural element for LsrK inhibition. Particularly, four compounds were found to be micromolar LsrK inhibitors (IC50 ranging between 100 mu M and 500 mu M) encouraging further exploration of novel analogues as potential new antimicrobials.
  • Minato, Yuichi; Ueda, Takumi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwai, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio (2017)
    Bacteria utilize thermotaxis signal transduction proteins, including CheA, and CheY, to switch the direction of the cell movement. However, the thermally responsive machinery enabling warm-seeking behavior has not been identified. Here we examined the effects of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the full-length CheA and CheY complex, by NMR. Our studies revealed that the CheA-CheY complex exists in equilibrium between multiple states, including one state that is preferable for the autophosphorylation of CheA, and another state that is preferable for the phosphotransfer from CheA to CheY. With increasing temperature, the equilibrium shifts toward the latter state. The temperature-dependent population shift of the dynamic domain arrangement of the CheA-CheY complex induced changes in the concentrations of phosphorylated CheY that are comparable to those induced by chemical attractants or repellents. Therefore, the dynamic domain arrangement of the CheA-CheY complex functions as the primary thermally responsive machinery in warm-seeking behavior.
  • Pulkkinen, Katja; Pekkala, Nina; Ashrafi, Roghaieh; Hamalainen, Dorrit M.; Nkembeng, Aloysius N.; Lipponen, Anssi; Hiltunen, Teppo; Valkonen, Janne K.; Taskinen, Jouni (2018)
    Understanding ecological and epidemiological factors driving pathogen evolution in contemporary time scales is a major challenge in modern health management. Pathogens that replicate outside the hosts are subject to selection imposed by ambient environmental conditions. Increased nutrient levels could increase pathogen virulence by pre-adapting for efficient use of resources upon contact to a nutrient rich host or by favouring transmission of fast-growing virulent strains. We measured changes in virulence and competition in Flavobacterium columnare, a bacterial pathogen of freshwater fish, under high and low nutrient levels. To test competition between strains in genotype mixtures, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR assay. We found that a virulent strain maintained its virulence and outcompeted less virulent strains independent of the nutrient level and resource renewal rate while a less virulent strain further lost virulence in chemostats under low nutrient level and over long-term serial culture under high nutrient level. Our results suggest that increased outside-host nutrient levels might maintain virulence in less virulent strains and increase their contribution to epidemics in aquaculture. The results highlight a need to further explore the role of resource in the outside-host environment in maintaining strain diversity and driving evolution of virulence among environmentally growing pathogens.
  • Qiao, Wanjin; Qiao, Yu; Liu, Fulu; Zhang, Yating; Li, Ran; Wu, Zhenzhou; Xu, Haijin; Saris, Per Erik Joakim; Qiao, Mingqiang (2020)
    Background In bioengineering, growth of microorganisms is limited because of environmental and industrial stresses during fermentation. This study aimed to construct a nisin-producing chassis Lactococcus lactis strain with genome-streamlined, low metabolic burden, and multi-stress tolerance characteristics. Results The Cre-loxP recombination system was applied to reduce the genome and obtain the target chassis strain. A prophage-related fragment (PRF; 19,739 bp) in the L. lactis N8 genome was deleted, and the mutant strain L. lactis N8-1 was chosen for multi-stress tolerance studies. Nisin immunity of L. lactis N8-1 was increased to 6500 IU/mL, which was 44.44% higher than that of the wild-type L. lactis N8 (4500 IU/mL). The survival rates of L. lactis N8-1 treated with lysozyme for 2 h and lactic acid for 1 h were 1000- and 10,000-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain, respectively. At 39 celcius, the L. lactis N8-1 could still maintain its growth, whereas the growth of the wild-type strain dramatically dropped. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cell wall integrity of L. lactis N8-1 was well maintained after lysozyme treatment. Tandem mass tags labeled quantitative proteomics revealed that 33 and 9 proteins were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in L. lactis N8-1. These differential proteins were involved in carbohydrate and energy transport/metabolism, biosynthesis of cell wall and cell surface proteins. Conclusions PRF deletion was proven to be an efficient strategy to achieve multi-stress tolerance and nisin immunity in L. lactis, thereby providing a new perspective for industrially obtaining engineered strains with multi-stress tolerance and expanding the application of lactic acid bacteria in biotechnology and synthetic biology. Besides, the importance of PRF, which can confer vital phenotypes to bacteria, was established.
  • Zhu, Duolong; Fu, Yuxin; Liu, Fulu; Xu, Haijin; Saris, Per Erik Joakim; Qiao, Mingqiang (2017)
    Background: The implementation of novel chassis organisms to be used as microbial cell factories in industrial applications is an intensive research field. Lactococcus lactis, which is one of the most extensively studied model organisms, exhibits superior ability to be used as engineered host for fermentation of desirable products. However, few studies have reported about genome reduction of L. lactis as a clean background for functional genomic studies and a model chassis for desirable product fermentation. Results: Four large nonessential DNA regions accounting for 2.83% in L. lactis NZ9000 (L. lactis 9 k) genome (2,530,294 bp) were deleted using the Cre-loxP deletion system as the first steps toward a minimized genome in this study. The mutants were compared with the parental strain in several physiological traits and evaluated as microbial cell factories for heterologous protein production (intracellular and secretory expression) with the red fluorescent protein (RFP) and the bacteriocin leucocin C (LecC) as reporters. The four mutants grew faster, yielded enhanced biomass, achieved increased adenosine triphosphate content, and diminished maintenance demands compared with the wild strain in the two media tested. In particular, L. lactis 9 k-4 with the largest deletion was identified as the optimum candidate host for recombinant protein production. With nisin induction, not only the transcriptional efficiency but also the production levels of the expressed reporters were approximately three-to fourfold improved compared with the wild strain. The expression of lecC gene controlled with strong constitutive promoters P5 and P8 in L. lactis 9 k-4 was also improved significantly. Conclusions: The genome-streamlined L. lactis 9 k-4 outcompeted the parental strain in several physiological traits assessed. Moreover, L. lactis 9 k-4 exhibited good properties as platform organism for protein production. In future works, the genome of L. lactis will be maximally reduced by using our specific design to provide an even more clean background for functional genomics studies than L. lactis 9 k-4 constructed in this study. Furthermore, an improved background will be potentially available for use in biotechology.
  • Lääveri, Tinja; Vlot, Jessica A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Häkkinen, Hanni K.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Visser, Leo G.; Kantele, Anu (2018)
    Background: One third of travellers to low- and middle-income regions of the tropics and subtropics become colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). The risk varies by destination and, for each traveller, may be substantially further increased by travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and antibiotic use. Despite the risk of TD in Africa, ESBL-PE acquisition rates in all studies are lower there than in Asia. Africa has become increasingly popular as a destination for international travellers, yet minimal data are available from the continent's subregions and countries. Methods: We analysed subregion- and country-specific data on carriage and risk factors for ESBL-PE colonization pooled from three prospective studies conducted between 2009 and 2013 among Finnish and Dutch travellers. The data were subjected to multivariable analysis of risk factors. In addition, we compared our data to two recent large investigations reporting data by subregion and country. Results: Our joint analysis comprised data on 396 travellers. The ESBL-PE colonization rate was highest in Northern Africa, followed by Middle and Eastern Africa, and lowest in Southern and Western Africa. Of individual countries with more than 15 visitors, the highest rates were seen for Egypt (12/17; 70.6%), Ghana (6/23; 26.1%), and Tanzania (14/81; 17.3%); the rates among travellers to Egypt were comparable to those reported in South and Southeast Asia. In a pooled multivariable analysis, travel destination, age, overnight hospitalisation abroad, TD, and use of fluoroquinolones were independently associated with increased ESBL-PE colonization rates. Conlusions: Even in areas with relatively low risk of colonization, antimicrobials clearly predispose to colonization with ESBL-PE. Travellers to Africa should be cautioned against unnecessary use of antibiotics.
  • Lees, John A.; Harris, Simon R.; Tonkin-Hill, Gerry; Gladstone, Rebecca A.; Lo, Stephanie W.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.; Corander, Jukka; Bentley, Stephen D.; Croucher, Nicholas J. (2019)
    The routine use of genomics for disease surveillance provides the opportunity for high-resolution bacterial epidemiology. Current whole-genome clustering and multilocus typing approaches do not fully exploit core and accessory genomic variation, and they cannot both automatically identify, and subsequently expand, clusters of significantly similar isolates in large data sets spanning entire species. Here, we describe PopPUNK (Population Partitioning Using Nucleotide K-mers), a software implementing scalable and expandable annotation-and alignment-free methods for population analysis and clustering. Variable-length k-mer comparisons are used to distinguish isolates' divergence in shared sequence and gene content, which we demonstrate to be accurate over multiple orders of magnitude using data from both simulations and genomic collections representing 10 taxonomically widespread species. Connections between closely related isolates of the same strain are robustly identified, despite interspecies variation in the pairwise distance distributions that reflects species' diverse evolutionary patterns. PopPUNK can process 10(3)-10(4) genomes in a single batch, with minimal memory use and runtimes up to 200-fold faster than existing model-based methods. Clusters of strains remain consistent as new batches of genomes are added, which is achieved without needing to reanalyze all genomes de novo. This facilitates real-time surveillance with consistent cluster naming between studies and allows for outbreak detection using hundreds of genomes in minutes. Interactive visualization and online publication is streamlined through the automatic output of results to multiple platforms. PopPUNK has been designed as a flexible platform that addresses important issues with currently used whole-genome clustering and typing methods, and has potential uses across bacterial genetics and public health research.
  • Karkman, Antti; Parnanen, Katariina; Larsson, D. G. Joakim (2019)
    Discharge of treated sewage leads to release of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and antibiotic residues to the environment. However, it is unclear whether increased abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage and sewage-impacted environments is due to on-site selection pressure by residual antibiotics, or is simply a result of fecal contamination with resistant bacteria. Here we analyze relative resistance gene abundance and accompanying extent of fecal pollution in publicly available metagenomic data, using crAssphage sequences as a marker of human fecal contamination (crAssphage is a bacteriophage that is exceptionally abundant in, and specific to, human feces). We find that the presence of resistance genes can largely be explained by fecal pollution, with no clear signs of selection in the environment, with the exception of environments polluted by very high levels of anti-biotics from manufacturing, where selection is evident. Our results demonstrate the necessity to take into account fecal pollution levels to avoid making erroneous assumptions regarding environmental selection of antibiotic resistance.
  • Skogman, Malena E.; Kanerva, Sonja; Manner, Suvi; Vuorela, Pia M.; Fallarero, Adyary (2016)
    Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors from natural compound libraries. In this system, QS is correlated with the production of violacein, which is directly controlled by the LuxI/LuxR system in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532. The parallel use of C. violaceum Tn5-mutant CV026, which depends on auto-inducer addition, allows simultaneous discrimination of compounds that act as quenchers of the AHL signal (quorum quenchers). The incorporation of a redox stain into the platform allowed further distinction between QS inhibitors, quorum quenchers and antibacterial compounds. A pilot screening was performed with 465 natural and synthetic flavonoids. All the most active compounds were flavones and they displayed potencies (IC50) in the range of 3.69 to 23.35 M. These leads were particularly promising as they inhibited the transition from microcolonies into mature biofilms from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach can be very effective in identifying new antimicrobials posing lesser risks of resistance.
  • Andreevskaya, Margarita; Jääskelainen, Elina; Johansson, Per; Ylinen, Anne; Paulin, Lars; Björkroth, Johanna; Auvinen, Petri (2018)
    Psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the prevailing spoilage organisms in packaged cold-stored meat products. Species composition and metabolic activities of such LAB spoilage communities are determined by the nature of the meat product, storage conditions, and interspecies interactions. Our knowledge of system level responses of LAB during such interactions is very limited. To expand it, we studied interactions between three common psychrotrophic spoilage LAB (Leuconostoc gelidum, Lactococcus piscium, and Lactobacillus oligofermentans) by comparing their time course transcriptome profiles obtained during their growth in individual, pairwise, and triple cultures. The study revealed how these LAB employed different strategies to cope with the consequences of interspecies competition. The fastest-growing bacterium, Le. gelidum, attempted to enhance its nutrient-scavenging and growth capabilities in the presence of other LAB through upregulation of carbohydrate catabolic pathways, pyruvate fermentation enzymes, and ribosomal proteins, whereas the slower-growing Lc. piscium and Lb. oligofermentans downregulated these functions. These findings may explain the competitive success and predominance of Le. gelidum in a variety of spoiled foods. Peculiarly, interspecies interactions induced overexpression of prophage genes and restriction modification systems (mechanisms of DNA exchange and protection against it) in Lc. piscium and Lb. oligofermentans but not in Le. gelidum. Cocultivation induced also overexpression of the numerous putative adhesins in Lb. oligofermentans. These adhesins might contribute to the survival of this slowly growing bacterium in actively growing meat spoilage communities. IMPORTANCE Despite the apparent relevance of LAB for biotechnology and human health, interactions between members of LAB communities are not well known. Knowledge of such interactions is crucial for understanding how these communities function and, consequently, whether there is any possibility to develop new strategies to interfere with their growth and to postpone spoilage of packaged and refrigerated foods. With the help of controlled experiments, detailed regulation events can be observed. This study gives an insight into the system level interactions and the different competition-induced survival strategies related to enhanced uptake and catabolism of carbon sources, overexpression of adhesins and putative bacteriocins, and the induction of exchange of genetic material. Even though this experiment dealt with only three LAB strains in vitro, these findings agreed well with the relative abundance patterns typically reported for these species in natural food microbial communities.
  • Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; London, Laura; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Kantala, Tuija; Laamanen, Ilona; Bistrom, Mia; Maunula, Leena; Gadd, Tuija (2020)
    The northern European wild boar population has increased during the last decade. Highest wild boar numbers in Finland have been reported in the southeastern part near the Russian border. Wild boars may be infected with several human and animal pathogens. In this study, we investigated the presence of important foodborne pathogens in wild boars hunted in 2016 in Finland using serology, PCR and culturing. Seroprevalence of Salmonella (38%) and Yersinia (56%) infections was high in wild boars. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella were found in 18%, 9% and 9% of the wild boars, respectively. Trichinella antibodies were detected in 1% of the animals. We recorded no differences in the seroprevalence between males and females. However, Yersinia and T. gondii antibodies were detected significantly more often in adults than in young individuals. Listeria monocytogenes (48%) and stx-positive Escherichia coli (33%) determinants were frequently detected in the visceral organs (spleen and kidneys) by PCR. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 and L. monocytogenes 2a and 4b were identified by culturing from the PCR-positive samples. Brucella suis biovar 2 was isolated from visceral organs. No African swine fever, classical swine fever or Aujeszky's disease were detected in the wild boars. Our study shows that wild boars are important reservoirs of foodborne pathogens.
  • Ho, Derek K.; Tissari, Jorma; Jarvinen, Hanna M.; Blom, Anna M.; Meri, Seppo; Jarva, Hanna (2011)
  • Gerritsen, Jacoline; Hornung, Bastian; Renckens, Bernadette; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins; Rijkers, Ger T.; Schaap, Peter J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke (2017)
    Background. The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results. We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. Discussion. This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.