Browsing by Subject "EXPOSURE"

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  • Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Ross, Michael; Law, Matthew; Reiss, Peter; Kirk, Ole; Smith, Colette; Wentworth, Deborah; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Fux, Christoph A.; Moranne, Olivier; Morlat, Phillipe; Johnson, Margaret A.; Ryom, Lene; DAD Study Grp; Royal Free Hosp Clin Cohort; INSIGHT Study Grp; SMART Study Grp; ESPRIT Study Grp; Ristola, M. (2015)
    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. Methods and Findings A total of 17,954 HIV-positive individuals from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with >= 3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values after 1 January 2004 were included. Baseline was defined as the first eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1 January 2004; individuals with exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, other boosted protease inhibitors before baseline were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 mo apart) eGFR In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7-6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3-9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 count nadir, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted CKD. The adjusted incidence rate ratios of these nine categorical variables were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The median risk score at baseline was -2 (interquartile range -4 to 2). There was a 1: 393 chance of developing CKD in the next 5 y in the low risk group (risk score <0, 33 events), rising to 1: 47 and 1: 6 in the medium (risk score 0-4, 103 events) and high risk groups (risk score >= 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166-3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159-278) and 21 (95% CI 19-23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506-1462), 88 (95% CI 69-121), and 9 (95% CI 8-10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3-12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6-8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. Conclusions Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD.
  • Hui, Nan; Grönroos, Mira; Roslund, Marja I.; Parajuli, Anirudra; Vari, Heli K.; Soininen, Laura; Laitinen, Olli H.; Sinkkonen, Aki; The ADELE Research Group (2019)
    Human activities typically lead to simplified urban diversity, which in turn reduces microbial exposure and increases the risk to urban dwellers from non-communicable diseases. To overcome this, we developed a microbial inoculant from forest and agricultural materials that resembles microbiota in organic soils. Three different sand materials (sieved, safety and sandbox) commonly used in playgrounds and other public spaces were enriched with 5 % of the inoculant. Skin microbiota on fingers (identified from bacterial 16S rDNA determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing) was compared after touching non-enriched and microbial inoculant-enriched sands. Exposure to the non-enriched materials changed the skin bacterial community composition in distinct ways. When the inoculant was added to the materials, the overall shift in community composition was larger and the differences between different sand materials almost disappeared. Inoculant-enriched sand materials increased bacterial diversity and richness but did not affect evenness at the OTU level on skin. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher after touching inoculant-enriched compared to non-enriched sand materials. The relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens on skin was 40–50 % before touching sand materials, but dropped to 14 % and 4 % after touching standard and inoculant-enriched sand materials, respectively. When individual genera were analyzed, Pseudomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were more abundant after touching standard, non-enriched sand materials, while only the relative abundance of Chryseobacterium sp. increased after touching the inoculant-enriched materials. As Chryseobacterium is harmless for healthy persons, and as standard landscaping materials and normal skin contain genera that include severe pathogens , the inoculant-enriched materials can be considered safe. Microbial inoculants could be specifically created to increase the proportion of non-pathogenic bacterial taxa and minimize the transfer of pathogenic taxa. We recommend further study into the usability of inoculant-enriched materials and their effects on the bacterial community composition of human skin and on the immune response.
  • Xu, Cheng-Jian; Soderhall, Cilla; Bustamante, Mariona; Baiz, Nour; Gruzieva, Olena; Gehring, Ulrike; Mason, Dan; Chatzi, Leda; Basterrechea, Mikel; Llop, Sabrina; Torrent, Maties; Forastiere, Francesco; Fantini, Maria Pia; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Haahtela, Tari; Morin, Andreanne; Kerkhof, Marjan; Merid, Simon Kebede; van Rijkom, Bianca; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Bonder, Marc Jan; Ballereau, Stephane; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raul; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kumar, Ashish; Pershagen, Goran; Guerra, Stefano; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Greco, Dario; Reinius, Lovisa; McEachan, Rosemary R. C.; Azad, Raf; Hovland, Vegard; Mowinckel, Petter; Alenius, Harri; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Pellet, Johann; Auffray, Charles; van der Vlies, Pieter; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Li, Yang; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Anto, Josep M.; Kere, Juha (2018)
    Background DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. Methods We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Findings 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p Interpretation Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context.
  • Viinikainen, Jutta; Bryson, Alex; Böckerman, Petri; Elovainio, Marko; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Lehtimaki, Terho; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli; Pehkonen, Jaakko (2020)
    A burgeoning body of literature suggests that poor childhood health leads to adverse health outcomes. lower educational attainment and weaker labour market outcomes in adulthood. We focus on an important but under-researched topic, which is the role played by infection-related hospitalization (IRH) in childhood and its links to labour market outcomes later in life. The participants aged 24-30 years in 2001 N =1706 were drawn from the Young Finns Study, which includes comprehensive registry data on IRHs in childhood at ages 0-18 years. These data are linked to longitudinal registry information on labour market outcomes (2001-2012) and parental background (1980). The estimations were performed using ordinary least squares (OLS). The results showed that having an additional IRH is associated with lower log earnings (b = 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.193; -0.026). fewer years of being employed (b = -0.018. 95% CI: -0.031; -0.005). a higher probability of receiving any social income transfers (b = 0.012, 95 % CI: -0.002; 0.026) and larger social income transfers, conditional on receiving any (b = 0.085,95 % CI: 0.025; 0.145). IRHs are negatively linked to human capital accumulation. which explains a considerable part of the observed associations between IRHs and labour market outcomes. We did not find support for the hypothesis that adult health mediates the link. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Casas, Lidia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Täubel, Martin; Hyytiäinen, Heidi; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Lehmann, Irina; Standl, Marie; Pekkanen, Juha; Heinrich, Joachim (2019)
    This study evaluates the association between indoor microbial diversity early in life and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms in children at ages 10 and 15 years.A random sample enriched with subjects with hyperactivity/inattention at age 15 years was selected from the German LISA birth cohort. Bedroom floor dust was collected at age 3 months and 4 bacterial and fungal diversity measures [number of observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices] were calculated from Illumina MiSeq sequencing data. Hyperactivity/inattention was based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 10 and 15 (cut-off >= 7). Adjusted associations between 4 diversity measures in tertiles and hyperactivity/inattention were investigated with weighted and survey logistic regression models. We included 226 individuals with information on microbial diversity and hyperactivity/inattention. Early life bacterial diversity was inversely associated with hyperactivity/inattention at age 10 [bacterial OTUs (medium vs low: aOR = 0.4, 95%CI = (0.2-0.8)) and Chao1 (medium vs low: 0.3 (0.1-0.5); high vs low: 0.3 (0.2-0.6)], whereas fungal diversity was directly associated [Chao1 (high vs low: 2.1 (1.1-4.0)), Shannon (medium vs low: 2.8 (1.3-5.8)), and Simpson (medium vs low: 4.7 (2.4-9.3))]. At age 15, only Shannon index was significantly associated with hyperactivity/inattention [bacteria (medium vs low: 2.3 (1.2-4.2); fungi (high vs low: 0.5 (0.3-0.9))]. In conclusion, early life exposure to microbial diversity may play a role in the psychobehavioural development. We observe heterogeneity in the direction of the associations encouraging further longitudinal studies to deepen our understanding of the characteristics of the microbial community underlying the observed associations.
  • Grotenfelt, N. E.; Wasenius, N.; Eriksson, J. G.; Huvinen, E.; Stach-Lempinen, B.; Koivusalo, S. B.; Rönö, K. (2020)
    Aim. - To assess in women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) the effect of a lifestyle intervention on the metabolic health of their offspring around 5 years after delivery. Methods. - For the original Finnish gestational diabetes prevention study (RADIEL), 720 women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or previous GDM were enrolled before or during early pregnancy and allocated to either an interventional (n = 126) or conventional (n = 133) care group. The present 5-year follow-up substudy assessed the metabolic health outcomes of their offspring. Ageand gender-standardized residuals of metabolic health components (waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, and fasting insulin/glucose ratio) were also combined to determine the accumulation of metabolic effects. Body composition was assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Results. - Offspring of women in the intervention group had a less optimal metabolic profile after the 5-year follow-up compared with offspring in the usual care group (P = 0.014). This difference in metabolic health was primarily related to lipid metabolism, and was more prominent among boys (P = 0.001) than girls (P = 0.74). Neither GDM, gestational weight gain, prepregnancy BMI, offspring age nor timing of randomization (before or during pregnancy) could explain the detected difference, which was also more pronounced among the offspring of GDM pregnancies (P= 0.010). Offspring body composition was similar in both groups (P> 0.05). Conclusion. - The lifestyle intervention aimed at GDM prevention was associated with unfavourable metabolic outcomes among offspring at around 5 years of age. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Kadesjo, Nils; Shi, Xie-Qi; Wolff, Jan (2015)
  • Seppänen, Sirke; Toivanen, Tapio; Makkonen, Tommi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Anttonen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa (2020)
    Objectives Teaching involves multiple performance situations, potentially causing psychosocial stress. Since the theater-based improvisation method is associated with diminished social stress, we investigated whether improvisation lessened student teachers’ stress responses using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; preparatory phase, public speech, and math task). Moreover, we studied the influence of interpersonal confidence (IC) – the belief regarding one’s capability related to effective social interactions – on stress responses. Methods The intervention group (n = 19) received a 7-week (17.5 h) improvisation training, preceded and followed by the TSST. We evaluated experienced stress using a self-report scale, while physiological stress was assessed before (silent 30-s waiting period) and during the TSST tasks using cardiovascular measures (heart rate, heart rate variability [HRV]), electrodermal activation, facial electromyography (f-EMG), and EEG asymmetry. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-axis) reactivity was assessed through repeated salivary cortisol sampling. Results Compared to the control group (n = 16), the intervention group exhibited less f-EMG activity before a public speech and higher HRV before the math task. The low IC intervention subgroup reported significantly less stress during the math task. The controls showed a decreased heart rate before the math task, and controls with a low IC exhibited higher HRV during the speech. Self-reported stress and cortisol levels were positively correlated during the post-TSST preparatory phase. Conclusions These findings suggest that improvisation training might diminish stress levels, specifically before a performance. In addition, interpersonal confidence appears to reduce stress responses. The decreased stress responses in the control group suggest adaptation through repetition. Keywords: Improvisation; Anticipatory anxiety; Interpersonal confidence; Psychophysiology; Teacher education; Trier Social Stress Test
  • Kere, Maura; Gruzieva, Olena; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Söderhäll, Cilla; Greco, Dario; Kull, Inger; Bergström, Anna; Pershagen, Göran; Almqvist, Catarina; Melén, Erik (2019)
  • Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Mikkola, Kaija; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Huotilainen, Minna (2021)
    Introduction Preterm birth may disturb the typical development of the mother-infant relationship, when physical separation and emotional distress in the neonatal intensive care unit may increase maternal anxiety and create challenges for early interaction. This cluster-randomized controlled trial examined the effects of maternal singing during kangaroo care on mothers' anxiety, wellbeing, and the early mother-infant relationship after preterm birth. Method In the singing intervention group, a certified music therapist guided the mothers (n = 24) to sing or hum during daily kangaroo care during 33-40 gestational weeks (GW). In the control group, the mothers (n = 12) conducted daily kangaroo care without specific encouragement to sing. Using a convergent mixed methods design, the quantitative outcomes included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at 35 GW and 40 GW to assess the change in maternal-state anxiety levels and parent diaries to examine intervention length. Post-intervention, the singing intervention mothers completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of quantitative and qualitative questions about their singing experiences. Results The mothers in the singing intervention group showed a statistically significant decrease in STAI anxiety levels compared to the control group mothers. According to the self-report questionnaire results, maternal singing relaxed both mothers and infants and supported their relationship by promoting emotional closeness and creating early interaction moments. Discussion Maternal singing can be used during neonatal hospitalization to support maternal wellbeing and early mother-infant relationship after preterm birth. However, mothers may need information, support, and privacy for singing.
  • Szukalska, Marta; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Florek, Ewa; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Strojan, Primoz; Takes, Robert P.; Suarez, Carlos; Saba, Nabil F.; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Simple Summary The risk of developing cancer is always higher for tobacco smokers than for non-smokers. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular in the last decade and are considered less harmful than traditional tobacco products, due to the lower content of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. However, this is still a controversial issue. This paper contains a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on the pathogenesis and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). The authors reviewed articles on both toxic and carcinogenic compounds contained in e-cigarettes and their molecular and health effects on the upper respiratory tract in comparison to traditional tobacco cigarettes. In conclusion, the studies discussed in the review strongly suggest that more long-term studies are needed to better address the safety of e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular in the last decade and are considered less harmful than traditional tobacco products due to the lower content of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. However, this is still a controversial issue. This paper contains a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on the pathogenesis and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). The objective of the review was to compare the molecular and health effects of e-cigarette use in relation to the effects of traditional cigarette smoking in the upper respiratory tract, and to assess the safety and effect of e-cigarettes on HNC risk. A review for English language articles published until 31 August 2020 was made, using a PubMed (including MEDLINE), CINAHL Plus, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science data. The authors reviewed articles on both toxic and carcinogenic compounds contained in e-cigarettes and their molecular and health effects on the upper respiratory tract in comparison to tobacco cigarettes. The risk of developing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains lower in users of e-cigarettes compared with tobacco smokers. However, more long-term studies are needed to better address the safety of e-cigarettes.
  • Arar, Sharif; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Masad, Mohanad H.; Maragkidou, Androniki; Wraith, Darren; Hussein, Tareq (2019)
    In this study, we performed elemental analysis for floor dust samples collected in Jordanian microenvironments (dwellings and educational building). We performed intercorrelation and cluster analysis between the elemental, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and microorganism concentrations. In general, the educational building workshops had the highest elemental contamination. The age of the dwelling and its occupancy played a role on the elemental contamination level: older and more occupied dwellings had greater contamination. The elemental contamination at a dwelling entrance was observed to be higher than in the living room. We found exceptionally high concentrations for Fe and Mn in the educational workshop and additionally, Hg, Cr, and Pb concentrations exceeded the limits set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. According to the cluster analysis, we found three major groups based on location and contamination. According to the enrichment factor (EF) assessment, Al, Co, Mn, Ti, and Ba had EF <2 (i.e., minimal enrichment) whereas P, S, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Hg, and Cu had EF > 40 (i.e., extremely enriched). In contrast, Ca and P were geogenically enriched. Furthermore, significant Spearman correlations indicated nine subgroups of elemental contamination combined with PAHs and microbes.
  • Pflugmacher, Stephan; Huttunen, Johanna; van Wollf, Marya-Anne; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kim, Yongjun; Kim, Sanghun; Mitrovic, Simon; Esterhuizen, Maranda (2020)
    Microplastics (MPs) of varying sizes are widespread pollutants in our environment. The general opinion is that the smaller the size, the more dangerous the MPs are due to enhanced uptake possibilities. It would be of considerable ecological significance to understand the response of biota to microplastic contamination both physically and physiologically. Here, we report on an area choice experiment (avoidance test) using Enchytraeus crypticus, in which we mixed different amounts of high-density polyethylene microplastic particles into the soil. In all experimental scenarios, more Enchytraeids moved to the unspiked sections or chose a lower MP-concentration. Worms in contact with MP exhibited an enhanced oxidative stress status, measured as the induced activity of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase. As plastic polymers per se are nontoxic, the exposure time employed was too short for chemicals to leach from the microplastic, and as the microplastic particles used in these experiments were too large (4 mm) to be consumed by the Enchytraeids, the likely cause for the avoidance and oxidative stress could be linked to altered soil properties.
  • Korhonen, Laura; Seiskari, Tapio; Lehtonen, Jussi; Puustinen, Leena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Niemelä, Onni; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Honkanen, Hanna; Karjalainen, Mira; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Lönnrot, Maria; Hyöty, Heikki (2018)
    Background: Prenatal environment has been shown to influence child's risk of atopic diseases. Laboratory-confirmed data about the role of maternal infections during pregnancy is scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associations between serologically confirmed maternal infections during pregnancy and atopic disease in the offspring. Methods: This was a nested case-control study within a prospective birth cohort study. Altogether 202 atopic case children and 333 matched non-atopic control children were included. Atopic outcome was defined as having an atopic disease and IgE sensitization by the age of 5 years. We analysed serologically acute enterovirus (EV), influenza virus A (IAV) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infections during pregnancy, and mother's seropositivity against human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Helicobacter pylori. Results: Maternal EV infection during pregnancy was inversely associated with atopic outcome in the offspring (odds ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.80, P = 0.008). Acute IAV or M. pneumoniae infections or seropositivity against CMV or Helicobacter pylori were not associated with the atopic outcome. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Our results suggest that maternal EV infections during pregnancy are inversely associated with atopic disease in the offspring. Our finding provides further support to the previous studies suggesting an important role of the in utero environment in the development of atopic diseases.
  • Lindholm, C.; Pekkarinen, A.; Sipilä, O.; Manninen, A. -L.; Lehtinen, M.; Siiskonen, T. (2020)
    The eye lens exposure among 16 technicians in two nuclear medicine departments at university hospitals in Finland was investigated by measuring the operational quantity H-p(3) using EYE-D dosemeters. For all workers, the annual mean H-p(3) was estimated to be 1.1 mSv (max. 3.9 mSv). The relation between H-p(3) to routinely monitored personal dose equivalent H-p(10) was clearly correlated. Considering individual dose measurement periods (2-4 weeks), the H-p(3)/H-p(10) ratio was 0.7 (Pearson's coefficient r = 0.90, p <0.001, variation of ratio 0.1-2.3). The variation decreased considerably with increasing H-p(10) (sigma(2) = 0.04 vs. 0.43 for H-p(10) > 0.1 mSv vs. <0.1 mSv, respectively), i.e. higher Hp(10) predicts H-p(3) more reliably. Moreover, annual H-p(10) data from national dose register during 2009-2018 were used to derive the annual H-p(3) applying the H-p(3)/H-p(10) ratio. The data from Finnish nuclear medicine departments imply that routine measurements of H-p(3) among nuclear medicine technicians are not justified.
  • Arrhenius, Bianca; Sariaslan, Amir; Suominen, Auli; Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David (2021)
    Aim This study examined the associations between prenatal smoking and speech and language, scholastic, coordination and mixed developmental disorders in offspring, using sibling and population controls. Methods National Finnish registers were used to identify all 690 654 singletons born between 1996 and 2007 and any cases diagnosed with speech and language, scholastic, coordination and mixed developmental disorders by the end of 2012. Cases were compared to population controls, biological full-siblings and maternal half-siblings born during the same period. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess any associations between smoking during pregnancy and the selected developmental disorders. Results Prenatal smoking was higher in the mothers of the 27 297 cases (21.7%) than the 99 876 population controls (14.5%). The adjusted odds ratio for smoking throughout pregnancy, and any diagnosis of speech and language, scholastic, coordination or mixed developmental disorders, was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.24-1.34). However, when we compared a subsample of 15 406 cases and their 20 657 siblings, the association was no longer statistically significant (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.21). Conclusion The sibling comparisons suggested that the associations between prenatal smoking and speech and language, scholastic, coordination and mixed developmental disorders were confounded by familial factors shared by differentially exposed siblings.
  • Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Karvonen, Anne M.; Adams, Rachel I.; Täubel, Martin; Roponen, Marjut; Tuoresmäki, Pauli; Loss, Georg; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Depner, Martin; Ege, Markus Johannes; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Schaub, Bianca; Lauener, Roger; Hyvärinen, Anne; Knight, Rob; Heederik, Dick J. J.; von Mutius, Erika; Pekkanen, Juha (2019)
    Asthma prevalence has increased in epidemic proportions with urbanization, but growing up on traditional farms offers protection even today(1). The asthma-protective effect of farms appears to be associated with rich home dust microbiota(2,3), which could be used to model a health-promoting indoor microbiome. Here we show by modeling differences in house dust microbiota composition between farm and non-farm homes of Finnish birth cohorts(4) that in children who grow up in non-farm homes, asthma risk decreases as the similarity of their home bacterial microbiota composition to that of farm homes increases. The protective microbiota had a low abundance of Streptococcaceae relative to outdoor-associated bacterial taxa. The protective effect was independent of richness and total bacterial load and was associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokine responses against bacterial cell wall components ex vivo. We were able to reproduce these findings in a study among rural German children(2) and showed that children living in German non-farm homes with an indoor microbiota more similar to Finnish farm homes have decreased asthma risk. The indoor dust microbiota composition appears to be a definable, reproducible predictor of asthma risk and a potential modifiable target for asthma prevention.
  • Lunetta, Philippe; Kriikku, Pirkko; Tikka, Julius; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2020)
    We describe the sudden death of a middle-aged man while having a sauna under the influence of alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP) (PM blood concentration: 0.8 mg/L), amphetamine (0.34 mg/L), and other drugs (buprenorphine, benzodiazepines), and engaging in solitary sexual activities. The drugs' effects on the cardio-circulatory system and on body thermoregulation combined with the high temperatures are likely to have been central mechanisms leading to death. The high levels of adrenaline triggered by sexual arousal and the respiratory depression caused by buprenorphine, in association with benzodiazepines, may have also contributed to his death. This previously unreported type of accidental autoerotic death illustrates the risk of using amphetamine-like sympathomimetic drugs (e.g. cathinone derivates) in hot environments such as a sauna, and during sexual activities therein.
  • Ericsson, Christoffer R.; Nordquist, Hilla; Lindström, Veronica; Rudman, Ann (2021)
    Background Paramedics experience traumatic events and social emergencies during assignments while also being subjected to verbal and physical threats. Consequently, they are at risk for burnout and secondary traumatic stress, factors inherent to professional quality of life. Defusing and peer-support potentially decrease such symptoms; however, perceived defusing needs and use are not always balanced. Our aim was to explore Finnish paramedics' professional quality of life, using the Professional Quality of Life Scale, with associations to EMS assignment experiences as well as formal and informal defusing need and use over a 12-month period. Methods A quantitative study of 257 Finnish paramedics using a cross-sectional design. Study outcomes were secondary traumatic stress (STS), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout (BO) scores using the modified 9-item Short Professional Quality of Life scale (ProQOL). Likert-type scales were used to collect participants' recollections of assignment experiences and defusing from a 12-month period. Associations were explored using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results Short ProQOL score medians were STS 4.00 (IQR 3), BO 6.00 (IQR 3) and CS 13.00 (IQR 3). STS and BO correlated to experiences of social emergencies and traumatic events while BO correlated to experiences of threat situations (r = 0.206, p = .001). Paramedics perceived a need for defusing in general associated with STS (r = 0.178, p < .001) and participated in informal defusing. Participation in defusing of any form did not associate with ProQOL scores. Conclusions Finnish paramedics' more frequent experiences of social emergencies, traumatic events, and paramedic-directed threat situations were associated with higher levels of STS and BO. STS was also associated with paramedics' increased need for defusing and use of informal peer defusing, although neither STS, BO or CS scores associated to any defusing form. Managing paramedics STS and BO, while fostering CS, could therefore be a future research focus.
  • Ruokolainen, L.; von Hertzen, L.; Fyhrquist, N.; Laatikainen, T.; Lehtomaki, J.; Auvinen, P.; Karvonen, A. M.; Hyvarinen, A.; Tillmann, V.; Niemela, O.; Knip, M.; Haahtela, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Hanski, I. (2015)