Browsing by Subject "FATTY LIVER-DISEASE"

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  • Qadri, Sami; Lallukka-Brück, Susanna; Luukkonen, Panu K.; Zhou, You; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sammalkorpi, Henna; Juuti, Anne; Penttilä, Anne K.; Perttilä, Julia; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lehtimäki, Tiina E.; Oresic, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hodson, Leanne; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2020)
    Background & Aims The I148M variant in PNPLA3 is the major genetic risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver is enriched with polyunsaturated triglycerides (PUFA-TGs) in PNPLA3-I148M carriers. Gene expression data indicate that PNPLA3 is liver-specific in humans, but whether it functions in adipose tissue (AT) is unknown. We investigated whether PNPLA3-I148M modifies AT metabolism in human NAFLD. Methods Profiling of the AT lipidome and fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) composition was conducted in 125 volunteers (PNPLA3(148MM/MI), n = 63; PNPLA3(148II), n = 62). AT fatty acid composition was determined in 50 volunteers homozygous for the variant (PNPLA3(148MM), n = 25) or lacking the variant (PNPLA3(148II), n = 25). Whole-body insulin sensitivity of lipolysis was determined using [H-2(5)]glycerol, and PNPLA3 mRNA and protein levels were measured in subcutaneous AT and liver biopsies in a subset of the volunteers. Results PUFA-TGs were significantly increased in AT in carriers versus non-carriers of PNPLA3-I148M. The variant did not alter the rate of lipolysis or the composition of fasting serum NEFAs. PNPLA3 mRNA was 33-fold higher in the liver than in AT (P <.0001). In contrast, PNPLA3 protein levels per tissue protein were three-fold higher in AT than the liver (P <.0001) and nine-fold higher when related to whole-body AT and liver tissue masses (P <.0001). Conclusions Contrary to previous assumptions, PNPLA3 is highly abundant in AT. PNPLA3-I148M locally remodels AT TGs to become polyunsaturated as it does in the liver, without affecting lipolysis or composition of serum NEFAs. Changes in AT metabolism do not contribute to NAFLD in PNPLA3-I148M carriers.
  • Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Santos, Raul D.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aikawa, Masanori; Al Rasadi, Khalid; Amarenco, Pierre; Barter, Philip J.; Ceska, Richard; Corsini, Alberto; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Duriez, Patrick; Eckel, Robert H.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Farnier, Michel; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Hermans, Michel P.; Ishibashi, Shun; Karpe, Fredrik; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Koenig, Wolfgang; Krempf, Michel; Lim, Soo; Lorenzatti, Alberto J.; McPherson, Ruth; Millan Nunez-Cortes, Jesus; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Ogawa, Hisao; Packard, Chris J.; Plutzky, Jorge; Ponte-Negretti, Carlos I.; Pradhan, Aruna; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Ridker, Paul M.; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Sadikot, Shaukat; Shimano, Hitoshi; Sritara, Piyamitr; Stock, Jane K.; Su, Ta-Chen; Susekov, Andrey V.; Tartar, Andre; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tenenbaum, Alexander; Tokgozoglu, Lale S.; Tomlinson, Brian; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Valensi, Paul; Vrablik, Michal; Wahli, Walter; Watts, Gerald F.; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yokote, Koutaro; Zambon, Alberto; Libby, Peter (2019)
    In the era of precision medicine, treatments that target specific modifiable characteristics of high-risk patients have the potential to lower further the residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia, however, remains a major unmet clinical need. Elevated plasma triglycerides, with or without low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), offer a key modifiable component of this common dyslipidemia, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulators (SPPARM) offers an approach to address this treatment gap. This Joint Consensus Panel appraised evidence for the first SPPARM agonist and concluded that this agent represents a novel therapeutic class, distinct from fibrates, based on pharmacological activity, and, importantly, a safe hepatic and renal profile. The ongoing PROMINENT cardiovascular outcomes trial is testing in 10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of HDL-C whether treatment with this SPPARM agonist safely reduces residual cardiovascular risk.