Browsing by Subject "GENERAL-POPULATION"

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  • Konttinen, H.; Llewellyn, C.; Silventoinen, K.; Joensuu, A.; Männistö, S.; Salomaa, V.; Jousilahti, P.; Kaprio, J.; Perola, M.; Haukkala, A. (2018)
    OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on whether cognitive control over food intake (that is, restrained eating) is helpful, merely ineffective or actually harmful in weight management. We examined the interplay between genetic risk of obesity, restrained eating and changes in body weight and size. METHODS: Participants were Finnish aged 25-74 years who attended the Dietary. Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n=5024), height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a health examination and participants self-reported their weight at age 20 years. At follow-up (n=3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. We calculated 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and WC and annual weight change from age 20 years to baseline. Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 was used to assess restrained eating. Genetic risk of obesity was assessed by calculating a polygenic risk score of 97 known BMI-related loci. RESULTS: Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated that baseline restrained eating was unrelated to 7-year change in BMI (beta=0.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) =-0.01, 0.02). Instead, higher baseline BMI predicted greater 7-year increases in restrained eating (beta = 0.08; 95% CI =0.05, 0.11). Similar results were obtained with WC. Polygenic risk score correlated positively with restrained eating and obesity indicators in both study phases, but it did not predict 7-year change in BMI or WC. However, individuals with higher genetic risk of obesity tended to gain more weight from age 20 years to baseline, and this association was more pronounced in unrestrained eaters than in restrained eaters (P=0.038 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that restrained eating is a marker for previous weight gain rather than a factor that leads to future weight gain in middle-aged adults. Genetic influences on weight gain from early to middle adulthood may vary according to restrained eating, but this finding needs to be replicated in future studies.
  • Järvenpää, Pia; Arkkila, Perttu; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija (2018)
    Globus is a non-painful sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat, and it frequently improves with eating. Although globus is a common symptom, only little is known about the etiology, and the causes have remained controversial. Previously, globus was labelled as a hysterical symptom. However, nowadays, the research has been mainly focused on somatic causes and it is suspected that the etiology is complex. Because of the unclear etiology, the diagnostics and treatment are varying, predisposing patients to possible unnecessary investigations. This review presents the current literature of globus: its etiology, diagnostics, and treatment. In addition, a special aim is to discuss the rational investigation methods in globus diagnostics and present a diagnostic algorithm based on recent researches.
  • Turunen, Elina; Hiilamo, Heikki (2014)
  • Jarvela-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Rantala, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Juvonen, Kristiina; Myllymaki, Tero; Fohr, Tiina; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2016)
    Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p <0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p <0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p <0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami (2015)
    Aims/IntroductionTo provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and MethodsIn the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.5% (48mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of 126mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of 200mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). ResultsFor both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5-8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2-9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9-16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5-12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. ConclusionsThis large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population.
  • Lehtonen, Arttu O.; Langen, Ville L.; Puukka, Pauli J.; Kahonen, Mika; Nieminen, Markku S.; Jula, Antti M.; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2017)
    Background: Scant data exist on incidence rates, correlates, and prognosis of electrocardiographic P-wave abnormalities in the general population. Methods: We recorded ECG and measured conventional cardiovascular risk factors in 5667 Finns who were followed up for incident atrial fibrillation (AF). We obtained repeat ECGs from 3089 individuals I I years later. Results: The incidence rates of prolonged P-wave duration, abnormal P terminal force (PTF), left P-wave axis deviation, and right P-wave axis deviation were 16.0%, 7.4%, 3.4%, and 2.2%, respectively. Older age and higher BMI were associated with incident prolonged P-wave duration and abnormal PTF (P Conclusions: Modifiable risk factors associate with P-wave abnormalities that are common and may represent intermediate steps of atrial cardiomyopathy on a pathway leading to AF. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Galli, Emilia; Harkonen, Taina; Sainio, Markus; Ustav, Mart; Toots, Urve; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo; Lindahl, Maria; Knip, Mikael; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Paivi (2016)
    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was recently shown to be essential for the survival and proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells in mice, where deletion of MANF resulted in diabetes. The current study aimed at determining whether the concentration of circulating MANF is associated with the clinical manifestation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). MANF expression in T1D or MANF levels in serum have not been previously studied. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MANF and measured serum MANF concentrations from 186 newly diagnosed children and adolescents and 20 adults with longer-term T1D alongside with age-matched controls. In healthy controls the mean serum MANF concentration was 7.0 ng/ml. High MANF concentrations were found in children 1-9 years of age close to the diagnosis of T1D. The increased MANF concentrations were not associated with diabetes-predictive autoantibodies and autoantibodies against MANF were extremely rare. Patients with conspicuously high MANF serum concentrations had lower C-peptide levels compared to patients with moderate MANF concentrations. Our data indicate that increased MANF concentrations in serum are associated with the clinical manifestation of T1D in children, but the exact mechanism behind the increase remains elusive.
  • Xia, Ming-Feng; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Bian, Hua; Lin, Huan-Dong; Yan, Hong-Mei; Chang, Xin-Xia; Zhou, You; Gao, Xin (2016)
    Objectives Presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can predict risks for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and advanced liver disease in the general population. We aimed to establish a non-invasive score for prediction of NAFLD in Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in the world, and detect whether ethnicity influences the accuracy of such a score. Methods Liver fat content (LFAT) was measured by quantitative ultrasound in 3548 subjects in the Shanghai Changfeng Community and a Chinese score was created using multivariate logistic regression analyses. This new score was internally validated in Chinese and externally in Finns. Its diagnostic performance was compared to the NAFLD liver fat score, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) developed in Finns, Italians and Koreans. We also analyzed how obesity related to LFAT measured by H-1-MRS in 79 Finns and 118 Chinese with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Results The metabolic syndrome and T2D, fasting serum insulin, body mass index (BMI) and AST/ALT ratio were independent predictors of NAFLD in Chinese. The AUROC in the Chinese validation cohort was 0.76 (0.73-0.78) and in Finns 0.73 (0.68-0.78) (p Conclusion The predictors of NAFLD in Han Chinese are as in Europids but the Chinese have more LFAT for any given degree of obesity than Europids. Ethnicity needs to be considered when NAFLD is predicted using risk scores.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Färkkilä, Martti; Männistö, Ville (2020)
    Coexistence of alcohol use and metabolic risk-the 2 commonest population risk factors for nonviral chronic liver disease-is a growing concern. Clinical evidence and mechanistic evidence point to considerable supraadditive interaction effects for the development and progression of chronic liver disease between hazardous alcohol use and metabolic abnormalities including obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Intermittent binge drinking once monthly or more often seems to be associated with progression of liver disease even when average alcohol intake is within the currently allowed limits for a diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and supraadditive interaction between binge drinking and the MetS has been reported. There are contradictory findings regarding the association between low alcohol use and liver steatosis, but, clearly, the mechanisms of alcoholic hepatotoxicity extend beyond simple fat accumulation. The presence of liver steatosis seems to amplify alcoholic hepatotoxicity. Recent longitudinal studies of NAFLD subjects report low alcohol use associated with both increased fibrosis progression and an elevated risk for liver cancer and severe liver disease. There is no clear safe limit of alcohol intake in the presence of NAFLD or metabolic risk. The interaction effects between alcohol and metabolic dysfunction merit increased attention in public health policy, individual counseling, and risk stratification. Based on current evidence, a strict dichotomization of liver disease into either pure alcoholic or nonalcoholic may be inappropriate.
  • Skaaby, Tea; Taylor, Amy E.; Jacobsen, Rikke K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Thuesen, Betina H.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Zhou, Ang; Wong, Andrew; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Flexeder, Claudia; Mannisto, Satu; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Barry, Sarah J.; Mollehave, Line Tang; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Friedrich, Nele; Bonten, Tobias N.; Noordam, Raymond; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Taube, Christian; Jessen, Leon E.; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Upton, Mark N.; McSharry, Charles; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Schulz, Holger; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Grallert, Harald; Nohr, Ellen A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Voelker, Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Voeizke, Henry; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Hansen, Torben; Jorgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Grarup, Niels; Langhammer, Arnulf; Romundstad, Pal R.; Skorpen, Frank; Kaprio, Jaakko; Munafo, Marcus R.; Linneberg, Allan (2017)
    Observational studies on smoking and risk of hay fever and asthma have shown inconsistent results. However, observational studies may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as markers of exposures to examine causal effects. We examined the causal effect of smoking on hay fever and asthma by using the smoking-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16969968/rs1051730. We included 231,020 participants from 22 population-based studies. Observational analyses showed that current vs never smokers had lower risk of hay fever (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.76; P <0.001) and allergic sensitization (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.86; P <0.001), but similar asthma risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.09; P = 0.967). Mendelian randomization analyses in current smokers showed a slightly lower risk of hay fever (OR = 0.958, 95% CI: 0.920, 0.998; P = 0.041), a lower risk of allergic sensitization (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.02; P = 0.117), but higher risk of asthma (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.11; P = 0.020) per smoking-increasing allele. Our results suggest that smoking may be causally related to a higher risk of asthma and a slightly lower risk of hay fever. However, the adverse events associated with smoking limit its clinical significance.
  • Loponen, Tiina; Lallukka, Tea; Holstila, Ansku; Lahti, Jouni (2015)
    Background: Physical activity level and overweight have shown associations with mental health problems but it is not known whether the risk of mental health problems due to overweight varies by physical activity. We examined joint association of physical activity and overweight with subsequent psychotropic medication among 40-60-year-old employees. Methods: The questionnaire survey data were derived from Helsinki Health Study baseline postal questionnaires in 2000-02 among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (n = 8960, response rate 67 %). Baseline survey data were linked with prospective register data on prescribed psychotropic medication (ATC-codes N05 and N06, except N06D) among those with written consent (74 %) for such linkage. The analyses included 6169 responders (78 % women, corresponding to the target population). We divided participants into six groups according to their baseline self-reported body mass index and leisure-time physical activity using physically highly active normal-weight participants as a reference group. We used Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, psychotropic medication prior to baseline, and socioeconomic position, marital status, working conditions, limiting long-standing illness, alcohol use, and smoking. Results: At baseline, 49 % were overweight and 23 % were physically inactive. After adjusting for age and gender, inactive normal-weight (hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.5), moderately active overweight (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.5) and inactive overweight (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6) had higher risk for any psychotropic medication compared with group of highly active normal-weight. After adjusting for prior medication, only the inactive overweight group had higher risk (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). Other covariates made but a minor contribution to the examined associations. For antidepressants the associations were somewhat stronger than for sedatives. Conclusions: Both normal-weight and physical activity help prevent psychotropic medication but physical activity dominates the association over normal-weight.
  • Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian; Ray, Kausik K.; Packard, Chris J.; Bruckert, Eric; Hegele, Robert A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Raal, Frederick J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Watts, Gerald F.; Boren, Jan; Fazio, Sergio; Horton, Jay D.; Masana, Luis; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; van de Sluis, Bart; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich; Wiklund, Olov; Stock, Jane K.; Chapman, M. John; Catapano, Alberico L. (2017)
    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials including more than 2 million participants with over 20 million person-years of follow-up and over 150 000 cardiovascular events demonstrate a remarkably consistent dose-dependent log-linear association between the absolute magnitude of exposure of the vasculature to LDL-C and the risk of ASCVD; and this effect appears to increase with increasing duration of exposure to LDL-C. Both the naturally randomized genetic studies and the randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that any mechanism of lowering plasma LDL particle concentration should reduce the risk of ASCVD events proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from numerous and multiple different types of clinical and genetic studies unequivocally establishes that LDL causes ASCVD.
  • Keinänen, Jaakko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Reinikainen, Jaakko; Kieseppä, Tuula; Lindgren, Maija; Mantyla, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Sundvall, Jouko; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Mantere, Outi (2018)
    Psychosis is associated with low-grade inflammation as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. We investigated the relationship between hs-CRP and anthropometric and metabolic changes in first-episode psychosis (FEP) during the first treatment year. We recruited 95 FEP patients and 62 controls, and measured longitudinal changes in hs-CRP, weight, waist circumference, insulin resistance, and lipids. We used linear mixed models to analyze the longitudinal relationship between hs-CRP and clinical, anthropometric and metabolic measures. At baseline, patients with FEP had higher levels of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides. Baseline weight, waist circumference, hs-CRP, fasting glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar between patients and controls. Marked increases in anthropometric measures and hs-CRP were observed in FEP during the 12-month follow-up. However, glucose and lipid parameters did not change significantly. In the mixed models, waist circumference and female sex were significant predictors of hs-CRP levels in FEP. Prevention of the early development of abdominal obesity in FEP is crucial, as abdominal obesity is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which increases further the cardiovascular risk in this vulnerable population.
  • Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes; Haaramo, Peija; Erkkila, Elisabet; Marola, Niko; Nousiainen, Kirsi; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    Background: Homelessness is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care use. The aim of this study was to examine the role of mental disorders in relation to the use of 1) daytime primary health care services and 2) after hours primary health care emergency room (PHER) services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. Methods: The study cohort consists of all 158 homeless persons using the four shelters operating in the study area during two selected nights. The health records were analyzed over a period of 3 years prior to the sample nights and data on morbidity and primary health care visits were gathered. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between mental disorders and daytime visits to primary health care and after hours visits to PHERs. Results: During the 3 years the 158 homeless persons in the cohort made 1410 visits to a physician in primary health care. The cohort exhibited high rates of mental disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs); i.e. 141 persons (89%) had a mental disorder. We found dual diagnosis, defined as SUD concurring with other mental disorder, to be strongly associated with daytime primary health care utilization (IRR 11.0, 95% CI 5.9-20.6) when compared with those without any mental disorder diagnosis. The association was somewhat weaker for those with only SUDs (IRR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.9) or with only other mental disorders (IRR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8). When focusing upon the after hours visits to PHERs we observed that both dual diagnosis (IRR 14.1, 95% CI 6.3-31.2) and SUDs (11.5, 95% CI 5.7-23.3) were strongly associated with utilization of PHERs compared to those without any mental disorder. In spite of a high numbers of visits, we found undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions: Dual diagnosis is particularly strongly associated with primary health care daytime visits among homeless persons staying in shelters, while after hours visits to primary health care level emergency rooms are strongly associated with both dual diagnosis and SUDs. Active treatment for SUDs could reduce the amount of emergency visits made by homeless shelter users.
  • Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Markkula, Niina; Partti, Krista; Perälä, Jonna; Saarni, Samuli I.; Härkänen, Tommi; Suvisaari, Jaana (2018)
    Objectives: We conducted a population based study aiming at finding predictors of mortality in psychotic disorders and evaluating the extent to which sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related factors explain the excess mortality. Methods: In a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30-70 years (n = 5642), psychotic disorders were diagnosed using structured interviews and medical records in 2000-2001. Information on mortality and causes of death was obtained of those who died by the end of year 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk. Results: No people with affective psychoses (n = 36) died during the follow-up, thus the analysis was restricted to non-affective psychotic disorders (NAP) (n = 106). Adjusting for age and sex, NAP was statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99, 95% CI 2.03-441) and natural-cause mortality (HR 2.81, 95% CI 1.85-4.28). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health status, inflammation and smoking, the HR dropped to 2.11 (95%CI 1.10-4.05) for all-cause and to 1.98 (95% CI 0.94-4.16) for natural-cause mortality. Within the NAP group, antipsychotic use at baseline was associated with reduced HR for natural-cause mortality (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.96), and smoking with increased HR (HR 3.54, 95% CI 1.07-11.69). Conclusions: The elevated mortality risk in people with NAP is only partly explained by socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, cardio-metabolic comorbidities and inflammation. Smoking cessation should be prioritized in treatment of psychotic disorders. More research is needed on the quality of treatment of somatic diseases in people with psychotic disorders. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ahlberg, Jari; Wiegers, Jetske W.; van Selms, Maurits K. A.; Peltomaa, Miikka; Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank; Savolainen, Aslak; Tuomilehto, Henri (2019)
    Background To evaluate whether oro-facial pain experience was related to the type of musical instrument and to learn more about the roles of sleep and sleep-related issues in the pain among professional musicians. Objectives A standard questionnaire was sent to all Finnish symphony orchestras (n = 19), with altogether 1005 professional musicians and other personnel. Methods The questionnaire covered descriptive data, instrument group, items on perceived quality of sleep, possible sleep bruxism, stress experience and oro-facial pain experience during the past 30 days. Results In the present study, which included the musicians only, the response rate was 58.7% (n = 488). All orchestras participated in the study, and there was no significant difference in the response rate between the orchestras. The mean age of men (52.3%) was 47.7 (SD 10.3) and of women (47.7%) was 43.4 (SD 9.8) years (P <0.001). Overall, current pain in the oro-facial area was reported by 28.9%, frequent bruxism by 12.1% and frequent stress by 20.8%. According to Somers' d, there were statistically significant but moderate correlations between overall pain reports in the oro-facial area and disrupted sleep (d = 0.127, P = 0.001), sleep bruxism (d = 0.241, P <0.001) and stress experiences (d = 0.193, P <0.001). Logistic regression revealed, independent of the instrument group (string, woodwind, brass wind, percussion), that current oro-facial pain experience was significantly associated with disrupted sleep (P = 0.001), frequent sleep bruxism (P <0.001) and frequent stress (P = 0.002) experiences. Conclusions Among symphony orchestra musicians, oro-facial pain experience seems to be related to perceptions of stress, sleep bruxism and disrupted sleep rather than the instrument group.
  • EAS Familial Hypercholestero; EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (2018)
    Background and aims: Management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) may vary across different settings due to factors related to population characteristics, practice, resources and/or policies. We conducted a survey among the worldwide network of EAS FHSC Lead Investigators to provide an overview of FH status in different countries. Methods: Lead Investigators from countries formally involved in the EAS FHSC by mid-May 2018 were invited to provide a brief report on FH status in their countries, including available information, programmes, initiatives, and management. Results: 63 countries provided reports. Data on FH prevalence are lacking in most countries. Where available, data tend to align with recent estimates, suggesting a higher frequency than that traditionally considered. Low rates of FH detection are reported across all regions. National registries and education programmes to improve FH awareness/knowledge are a recognised priority, but funding is often lacking. In most countries, diagnosis primarily relies on the Dutch Lipid Clinics Network criteria. Although available in many countries, genetic testing is not widely implemented (frequent cost issues). There are only a few national official government programmes for FH. Under-treatment is an issue. FH therapy is not universally reimbursed. PCSK9-inhibitors are available in similar to 2/3 countries. Lipoprotein-apheresis is offered in similar to 60% countries, although access is limited. Conclusions: FH is a recognised public health concern. Management varies widely across countries, with overall suboptimal identification and under-treatment. Efforts and initiatives to improve FH knowledge and management are underway, including development of national registries, but support, particularly from health authorities, and better funding are greatly needed.
  • Petäjä, Elina; Zhou, You; Havana, Marika; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Ihalainen, Jarkko; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (2016)
    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) is a potentially interesting marker for liver fat in NAFLD as it is exclusively produced by the liver, and insulin is its main regulator. We determined whether measurement of fasting serum phosphorylated IGFBP-1 (fS-pIGFBP-1) helps to predict liver fat compared to routinely available clinical parameters and PNPLA3 genotype at rs738409. Liver fat content (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) was measured in 378 subjects (62% women, age 43 [30-54] years, BMI 32.7 [28.1-39.7] kg/m(2), 46% with NAFLD). Subjects were randomized to discovery and validation groups, which were matched for clinical and biochemical parameters and PNPLA3 genotype. Multiple linear regression and Random Forest modeling were used to identify predictors of liver fat. The final model, % Liver Fat Equation', included age, fS-pIGFBP-1, S-ALT, waist-to-hip ratio, fP-Glucose and fS-Insulin (adjusted R-2 = 0.44 in the discovery group, 0.49 in the validation group, 0.47 in all subjects). The model was significantly better than a model without fS-pIGFBP-1 or S-ALT or S-AST alone. Random Forest modeling identified fS-p-IGFBP-1 as one of the top five predictors of liver fat (adjusted R-2 = 0.39). Therefore, measurement of fS-pIGFBP-1 may help in non-invasive prediction of liver fat content.
  • Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Akram, Asif; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Cole, Della; Watts, Gerald F.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Mata, Pedro; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Soran, Handrean; Freiberger, Tomas; Abifadel, Marianne; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Alnouri, Fahad; Alonso, Rodrigo; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Banach, Maciej; Bogsrud, Martin P.; Bourbon, Mafalda; Bruckert, Eric; Car, Josip; Ceska, Richard; Corral, Pablo; Descamps, Olivier; Dieplinger, Hans; Do, Can T.; Durst, Ronen; Ezhov, Marat V.; Fras, Zlatko; Gaita, Dan; Gaspar, Isabel M.; Genest, Jaques; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Jiang, Lixin; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Laufs, Ulrich; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Lin, Jie; Lin, Nan; Maher, Vincent; Majano, Nelson; Marais, A. David; Maerz, Winfried; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Miserez, Andre R.; Mitchenko, Olena; Widen, Elisabeth; EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (2016)
    Background: The potential for global collaborations to better inform public health policy regarding major non-hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a common genetic disorder associated with premature cardiovascular disease, is yet to be reliably ascertained using similar approaches. The European Atherosclerosis Society FH Studies Collaboration (EAS FHSC) is a new initiative of international stakeholders which will help establish a global FH registry to generate large-scale, robust data on the burden of FH worldwide. Methods: The EAS FHSC will maximise the potential exploitation of currently available and future FH data (retrospective and prospective) by bringing together regional/national/international data sources with access to individuals with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of heterozygous or homozygous FH. A novel bespoke electronic platform and FH Data Warehouse will be developed to allow secure data sharing, validation, cleaning, pooling, harmonisation and analysis irrespective of the source or format. Standard statistical procedures will allow us to investigate cross-sectional associations, patterns of real-world practice, trends over time, and analyse risk and outcomes (e.g. cardiovascular outcomes, all-cause death), accounting for potential confounders and subgroup effects. Conclusions: The EAS FHSC represents an excellent opportunity to integrate individual efforts across the world to tackle the global burden of FH. The information garnered from the registry will help reduce gaps in knowledge, inform best practices, assist in clinical trials design, support clinical guidelines and policies development, and ultimately improve the care of FH patients. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Tanskanen, Maarit; Mäkelä, Mira; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Myllykangas, Liisa; Rastas, Sari; Oinas, Minna; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders (2017)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze brain pathologies which cause dementia in the oldest old population. Methods: All 601 persons aged >= 85 years living in the city of Vantaa (Finland), on April 1st, 1991 formed the study population of the Vantaa85 + study, 300 of whom were autopsied during follow-up (79.5% females, mean age-at-death 92 +/- 3.7 years). Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (tau and beta-amyloid [Ab]), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Lewy-related pathologies were analyzed. Brain infarcts were categorized by size (<2 mm, 2-15 mm, > 15 mm) and by location. Brain hemorrhages were classified as microscopic (<2 mm) and macroscopic. Results: 195/300 (65%) were demented. 194/195 (99%) of the demented had at least one neuropathology. Three independent contributors to dementia were identified: AD-type tau-pathology (Braak stage V-VI), neocortical Lewy-related pathology, and cortical anterior 2-15 mm infarcts. These were found in 34%, 21%, and 21% of the demented, respectively, with the multivariate odds ratios (OR) for dementia 5.5, 4.5, and 3.4. Factor analysis investigating the relationships between different pathologies identified three separate factors: (1) AD-spectrum, which included neurofibrillary tau, Ab plaque, and neocortical Lewy-related pathologies and CAA (2) > 2 mm cortical and subcortical infarcts, and (3) <2 mm cortical microinfarcts and microhemorrhages. Multipathology was common and increased the risk of dementia significantly. Interpretation: These results indicate that AD-type neurodegenerative processes play the most prominent role in twilight cognitive decline. The high prevalence of both neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies indicates that multiple preventive and therapeutic approaches are needed to protect the brains of the oldest old.