Browsing by Subject "HYPOXIA"

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  • Ronkainen, Justiina; Heiskala, Anni; Vehmeijer, Florianne O. L.; Lowry, Estelle; Caramaschi, Doretta; Estrada Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Heiss, Jonathan A.; Hummel, Nadine; Keikkala, Elina; Kvist, Tuomas; Kupsco, Allison; Melton, Phillip E.; Pesce, Giancarlo; Soomro, Munawar H.; Vives-Usano, Marta; Baiz, Nour; Binder, Elisabeth; Czamara, Darina; Guxens, Monica; Mustaniemi, Sanna; London, Stephanie J.; Rauschert, Sebastian; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Vrijheid, Martine; Ziegler, Anette-G.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Bustamante, Mariona; Huang, Rae-Chi; Hummel, Sandra; Just, Allan C.; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Lawlor, Deborah; Räikkönen, Katri; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Felix, Janine F.; Sebert, Sylvain (2022)
    Altered maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy are associated with pre-clinical and clinical conditions affecting the fetus. Evidence from animal models suggests that these associations may be partially explained by differential DNA methylation in the newborn with possible long-term consequences. To test this in humans, we meta-analyzed the epigenome-wide associations of maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy with offspring DNA methylation in 3,967 newborn cord blood and 1,534 children and 1,962 adolescent whole-blood samples derived from 10 cohorts. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina Infinium Methylation 450K or MethylationEPIC arrays covering 450,000 and 850,000 methylation sites, respectively. There was no statistical support for the association of maternal haemoglobin levels with offspring DNA methylation either at individual methylation sites or clustered in regions. For most participants, maternal haemoglobin levels were within the normal range in the current study, whereas adverse perinatal outcomes often arise at the extremes. Thus, this study does not rule out the possibility that associations with offspring DNA methylation might be seen in studies with more extreme maternal haemoglobin levels.
  • van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B. (2015)
    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite) and protein-protein associations (STRING). This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome). The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300) and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.
  • Shah, Disheet; Virtanen, Laura; Prajapati, Chandra; Kiamehr, Mostafa; Gullmets, Josef; West, Gun; Kreutzer, Joose; Pekkanen-Mattila, Mari; Heliö, Tiina; Kallio, Pasi; Taimen, Pekka; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina (2019)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the leading causes of heart failure and heart transplantation. A portion of familial DCM is due to mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear lamina proteins lamin A and C and without adequate treatment these patients have a poor prognosis. To get better insights into pathobiology behind this disease, we focused on modeling LMNA-related DCM using human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM). Primary skin fibroblasts from DCM patients carrying the most prevalent Finnish founder mutation (p.S143P) in LMNA were reprogrammed into hiPSCs and further differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs). The cellular structure, functionality as well as gene and protein expression were assessed in detail. While mutant hiPSC-CMs presented virtually normal sarcomere structure under normoxia, dramatic sarcomere damage and an increased sensitivity to cellular stress was observed after hypoxia. A detailed electrophysiological evaluation revealed bradyarrhythmia and increased occurrence of arrhythmias in mutant hiPSC-CMs on beta -adrenergic stimulation. Mutant hiPSC-CMs also showed increased sensitivity to hypoxia on microelectrode array and altered Ca2+ dynamics. Taken together, p.S143P hiPSC-CM model mimics hallmarks of LMNA-related DCM and provides a useful tool to study the underlying cellular mechanisms of accelerated cardiac degeneration in this disease.
  • Zions, Michael; Meehan, Edward F.; Kress, Michael E.; Thevalingam, Donald; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kaila, Kai; Puskarjov, Martin; McCloskey, Dan P. (2020)
    African naked mole-rats were likely the first mammals to evolve eusociality, and thus required adaptations to conserve energy and tolerate the low oxygen (O-2) and high carbon dioxide (CO2) of a densely populated fossorial nest. As hypercapnia is known to suppress neuronal activity, we studied whether naked mole-rats might demonstrate energy savings in GABAergic inhibition. Using whole-colony behavioral monitoring of captive naked mole-rats, we found a durable nest, characterized by high CO2 levels, where all colony members spent the majority of their time. Analysis of the naked mole-rat genome revealed, uniquely among mammals, a histidine point variation in the neuronal potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2). A histidine missense substitution mutation at this locus in the human ortholog of KCC2, found previously in patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy, has been demonstrated to diminish neuronal Cl- extrusion capacity, and thus impairs GABAergic inhibition. Seizures were observed, without pharmacological intervention, in adult naked mole-rats exposed to a simulated hyperthermic surface environment, causing systemic hypocapnic alkalosis. Consistent with the diminished function of KCC2, adult naked mole-rats demonstrate a reduced efficacy of inhibition that manifests as triggering of seizures at room temperature by the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) positive allosteric modulator diazepam. These seizures are blocked in the presence of nest-like levels of CO2 and likely to be mediated through GABA(A)R activity, based on in vitro recordings. Thus, altered GABAergic inhibition adds to a growing list of adaptations in the naked mole-rat and provides a plausible proximate mechanism for nesting behavior, where a return to the colony nest restores GABA-mediated inhibition.
  • McCrackin, Michelle L.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W.; Humborg, Christoph; Savchuk, Oleg P.; Svanback, Annika; Swaney, Dennis P. (2018)
    While progress has been made in reducing external nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea, further actions are needed to meet the goals of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), especially for the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga sub-basins. We used the net anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs (NANI and NAPI, respectively) nutrient accounting approach to construct three scenarios of reduced NANI-NAPI. Reductions assumed that manure nutrients were redistributed from areas with intense animal production to areas that focus on crop production and would otherwise import synthetic and mineral fertilizers. We also used the Simple as Necessary Baltic Long Term Large Scale (SANBALTS) model to compare eutrophication conditions for the scenarios to current and BSAP-target conditions. The scenarios suggest that reducing NANI-NAPI by redistributing manure nutrients, together with improving agronomic practices, could meet 54-82% of the N reductions targets (28-43 kt N reduction) and 38-64% P reduction targets (4-6.6 kt P reduction), depending on scenario. SANBALTS output showed that even partial fulfillment of nutrient reduction targets could have ameliorating effects on eutrophication conditions. Meeting BSAP targets will require addressing additional sources, such as sewage. A common approach to apportioning sources to external nutrients loads could enable further assessment of the feasibility of eutrophication management targets.
  • Sihvo, H. -K.; Airas, N.; Linden, J.; Puolanne, E. (2018)
    In wooden breast myopathy (WBM) of broiler chickens, the pectoralis major muscles show abnormally hard consistency and microscopical myodegeneration of unknown aetiology. To date, previous studies have focused primarily on chronic WBM and ultrastructural descriptions of early WBM are lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of WBM by light microscopical morphometry of vessel density and the ultra structural description of early WBM changes with transmission electron microscopy. The pectoral vessel density was compared between unaffected chickens (n = 14) and two areas of focal WBM in affected chickens (n = 14). The transverse myofibre area per vessel was highest in the unaffected area of muscle from cases of focal WBM, significantly higher (P = 0.01) than in macroscopically unaffected tissue, indicating that relatively decreased blood supply may trigger the development of WBM. The ultrastructural study included unaffected chickens (n = 3), two areas offocal WBM from affected chickens (n = 3) and areas of diffuse WBM from affected chickens (n = 3). The morphologically least affected myofibres within the WBM lesion areas in light microscopy exhibited ultrastructural changes of increased sarcoplasmic reticulum diameter and mitochondrial hyperplasia. Such changes originate typically from osmotic imbalance, for which the most likely aetiologies in WBM include tissue hypoxia or myodegencration of the surrounding myofibres. The findings suggest that a relative reduction of blood supply in the major pectoral muscle occurs in the early phase of WBM, which may be linked to the ultrastructural changes of osmotic imbalance. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Laursen, Jens Christian; Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Hansen, Christian Stevns; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Bordino, Marco; Groop, Per-Henrik; Frimodt-Moller, Marie; Bernardi, Luciano; Rossing, Peter (2021)
    Introduction Blood oxygen saturation is low compared with healthy controls (CONS) in the supine body position in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has been associated with complications. Since most of daily life occurs in the upright position, it is of interest if this also applies in the standing body position. In addition, tissue oxygenation in other anatomical sites could show different patterns in T1D. Therefore, we investigated blood, arm and forehead oxygen levels in the supine and standing body positions in individuals with T1D (n=129) and CONs (n=55). Research design and methods Blood oxygen saturation was measured with pulse oximetry. Arm and forehead mixed tissue oxygen levels were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy sensors applied on the skin. Results Data are presented as least squares means +/- SEM and differences (95% Cls). Overall blood oxygen saturation was lower in T1D (CON: 97.6%+/- 0.2%; T1D: 97.0%+/--0.1 degrees/0; difference: -0.5% (95% CI -0.9% to -0.0%); p=0.034). In all participants, blood oxygen saturation increased after standing up (supine: 97.1%-+/- 0.1%; standing: 97.6%+/- 0.2%; difference: +0.6% (95% Cl 0.4% to 0.8%); p Conclusion Compared with CON, individuals with T1D exhibit possible detrimental patterns of tissue oxygen adaptation to standing, with preserved adaptation of forehead oxygenation. Further studies are needed to explore the consequences of these differences.
  • Johne, Marie; Roemermann, Kerstin; Hampel, Philip; Gailus, Bjoern; Theilmann, Wiebke; Ala-Kurikka, Tommi; Kaila, Kai; Loescher, Wolfgang (2021)
    Objective: Neonatal seizures are the most frequent type of neurological emergency in newborn infants, often being a consequence of prolonged perinatal asphyxia. Phenobarbital is currently the most widely used antiseizure drug for treatment of neonatal seizures, but fails to stop them in similar to 50% of cases. In a neonatal hypoxia-only model based on 11-day-old (P11) rats, the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide was reported to potentiate the antiseizure activity of phenobarbital, whereas it was ineffective in a human trial in neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinically relevant doses of bumetanide as add-on to phenobarbital on neonatal seizures in a noninvasive model of birth asphyxia in P11 rats, designed for better translation to the human term neonate. Methods: Intermittent asphyxia was induced for 30 minutes by exposing the rat pups to three 7 + 3-minute cycles of 9% and 5% O-2 at constant 20% CO2. Drug treatments were administered intraperitoneally either before or immediately after asphyxia. Results: All untreated rat pups had seizures within 10 minutes after termination of asphyxia. Phenobarbital significantly blocked seizures when applied before asphyxia at 30 mg/kg but not 15 mg/kg. Administration of phenobarbital after asphyxia was ineffective, whereas midazolam (0.3 or 1 mg/kg) exerted significant antiseizure effects when administered before or after asphyxia. In general, focal seizures were more resistant to treatment than generalized convulsive seizures. Bumetanide (0.3 mg/kg) alone or in combination with phenobarbital (15 or 30 mg/kg) exerted no significant effect on seizure occurrence. Significance: The data demonstrate that bumetanide does not increase the efficacy of phenobarbital in a model of birth asphyxia, which is consistent with the negative data of the recent human trial. The translational data obtained with the novel rat model of birth asphyxia indicate that it is a useful tool to evaluate novel treatments for neonatal seizures.
  • Siltari, Aino; Riikonen, Jarno; Koskimäki, Juha; Pakarainen, Tomi; Ettala, Otto; Boström, Peter; Seikkula, Heikki; Kotsar, Andres; Tammela, Teuvo; Helminen, Mika; Raittinen, Paavo V.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Fode, Mikkel; Ostergren, Peter; Borre, Michael; Rannikko, Antti; Marttila, Timo; Salonen, Arto; Ronkainen, Hanna; Löffeler, Sven; Murtola, Teemu J. (2022)
    Introduction Blood cholesterol is likely a risk factor for prostate cancer prognosis and use of statins is associated with lowered risk of prostate cancer recurrence and progression. Furthermore, use of statins has been associated with prolonged time before development of castration resistance (CR) during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. However, the efficacy of statins on delaying castration-resistance has not been tested in a randomised placebo-controlled setting. This study aims to test statins' efficacy compared to placebo in delaying development of CR during ADT treatment for primary metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer. Secondary aim is to explore effect of statin intervention on prostate cancer mortality and lipid metabolism during ADT. Methods and analysis In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, a total of 400 men with de novo metastatic prostate cancer or recurrent disease after primary treatment and starting ADT will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to use daily 80 mg of atorvastatin or placebo. All researchers, study nurses and patients will be blinded throughout the trial. Patients are followed until disease recurrence or death. Primary outcome is time to formation of CR after initiation of ADT. Serum lipid levels (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and trigyserides) are analysed to test whether changes in serum cholesterol parameters during ADT predict length of treatment response. Furthermore, the trial will compare quality of life, cardiovascular morbidity, changes in blood glucose and circulating cell-free DNA, and urine lipidome during trial. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Regional ethics committees of the Pirkanrnaa Hospital District, Science centre, Tampere, Finland (R18065M) and Tarto University Hospital, Tarto, Estonia (319/T-6). All participants read and sign informed consent form before study entry. After publication of results for the primary endpoints, anonymised summary metadata and statistical code will be made openly available. The data will not include any information that could make it possible to identify a given participant.
  • Svedäng, Henrik; Savchuk, Oleg P; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Alf; Gustafsson, Bo; Wikström, Sofia A.; Humborg, Christoph (2022)
    Hypoxia is presently seen as the principal driver behind the decline of the former dominating Eastern Baltic cod stock (EBC; Gadus morhua). It has been proposed that both worsening conditions for reproduction and lower individual growth, condition, and survival are linked to hypoxia. Here, we elucidate the ecological envelope of EBC in terms of salinity stratification, oxygen content, and benthic animal biomasses, and how it has affected EBC productivity over time. The spawning conditions started deteriorating in the Gotland Deep in the 1950s due to oxygen depletion. In contrast, in the Bornholm Basin, hydrographic conditions have remained unchanged over the last 60 years. Indeed, the current extent of both well-oxygenated areas and the frequency of hypoxia events do not differ substantially from periods with high EBC productivity in the 1970s–1980s. Furthermore, oxygenated and therefore potentially suitable feeding areas are abundant in all parts of the Baltic Sea, and our novel analysis provides no evidence of a reduction in benthic food sources for EBC over the last 30 years. We find that while reproduction failure is intricately linked to hydrographic dynamics, a relationship between the spread of hypoxia and the decline in EBC productivity during the last decades cannot be substantiated.
  • Ozgumus, Turkuler; Sulaieva, Oksana; Jessen, Leon Eyrich; Jain, Ruchi; Falhammar, Henrik; Nystrom, Thomas; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Jorneskog, Gun; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Mats; Eliasson, Bjorn; Brismar, Kerstin; Stokowy, Tomasz; Nilsson, Peter M.; Lyssenko, Valeriya (2021)
    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease requiring insulin treatment for survival. Prolonged duration of type 1 diabetes is associated with increased risk of microvascular complications. Although chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes duration have been considered as the major risk factors for vascular complications, this is not universally seen among all patients. Persons with long-term type 1 diabetes who have remained largely free from vascular complications constitute an ideal group for investigation of natural defense mechanisms against prolonged exposure of diabetes. Transcriptomic signatures obtained from RNA sequencing of the peripheral blood cells were analyzed in non-progressors with more than 30 years of diabetes duration and compared to the patients who progressed to microvascular complications within a shorter duration of diabetes. Analyses revealed that non-progressors demonstrated a reduction in expression of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes, which were positively correlated with the expression of DNA repair enzymes, namely genes involved in base excision repair (BER) machinery. Reduced expression of OXPHOS and BER genes was linked to decrease in expression of inflammation-related genes, higher glucose disposal rate and reduced measures of hepatic fatty liver. Results from the present study indicate that at transcriptomic level reduction in OXPHOS, DNA repair and inflammation-related genes is linked to better insulin sensitivity and protection against microvascular complications in persons with long-term type 1 diabetes.
  • Nordström, Tommy; Andersson, Leif C.; Åkerman, Karl E. O. (2019)
    A stroke causes a hypoxic brain microenvironment that alters neural cell metabolism resulting in cell membrane hyperpolarization and intracellular acidosis. We studied how intracellular pH (pH(i)) is regulated in differentiated mouse neural progenitor cells during hyperpolarizing conditions, induced by prompt reduction of the extra cellular K+ concentration. We found that the radial glia-like population in differentiating embryonic neural progenitor cells, but not neuronal cells, was rapidly acidified under these conditions. However, when extra cellular calcium was removed, an instant depolarization and recovery of the pH(i), back to normal levels, took place. The rapid recovery phase seen in the absence of calcium, was dependent on extracellular bicarbonate and could be inhibited by 50859, a potent Na/HCO3 cotransporter inhibitor. Immunostaining and PCR data, showed that NBCe1 (SLC4A4) and NBCn1 (SLC4A7) were expressed in the cell population and that the pH(i) recovery in the radial glial-like cells after calcium removal was mediated mainly by the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate transporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4). Our results indicate that extracellular calcium might hamper pH(i) regulation and Na/HCO3 cotransporter activity in a brain injury microenvironment. Our findings show that the NBC-type transporters are the main pH(i) regulating systems prevailing in glia-like progenitor cells and that these calcium sensitive transporters are important for neuronal progenitor cell proliferation, survival and neural stem cell differentiation.
  • Pritchard, Victoria L.; Viitaniemi, Heidi M.; McCairns, R. J. Scott; Merila, Juha; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R.; Leder, Erica H. (2017)
    Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), an important model in the study of adaptive evolution. We collected transcriptomic and genomic data from 60 half-sib families using an expression microarray and genotyping-by-sequencing, and located expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) underlying the variation in gene expression in liver tissue using an interval mapping approach. We identified eQTL for several thousand expression traits. Expression was influenced by polymorphism in both cis- and trans-regulatory regions. Transe-QTL clustered into hotspots. We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. One observed hotspot colocated with a QTL recently found to underlie salinity tolerance in the threespine stickleback. However, most other observed hotspots did not colocate with regions of the genome known to be involved in adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater habitats.
  • Summanen, Milla; Back, Susanne; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai (2018)
    Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O-2 levels) and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels). Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), has been extensively studied in humans. Here we show for the first time that normal rat birth is also accompanied by an AVP surge, and that the fetal AVP surge is further enhanced in a model of birth asphyxia, based on exposing 6-day old rat pups to a gas mixture containing 4% O-2 and 20% CO2 for 45 min. Instead of AVP, which is highly unstable with a short plasma half-life, we measured the levels of copeptin, the C-terminal part of prepro-AVP that is biochemically much more stable. In our animal model, the bulk of AVP/copeptin release occurred at the beginning of asphyxia (mean 7.8 nM after 15 min of asphyxia), but some release was still ongoing even 90 min after the end of the 45 min experimental asphyxia (mean 1.2 nM). Notably, the highest copeptin levels were measured after hypoxia alone (mean 14.1 nM at 45 min), whereas copeptin levels were low during hypercapnia alone (mean 2.7 nM at 45 min), indicating that the hypoxia component of asphyxia is responsible for the increase in AVP/copeptin release. Alternating the O-2 level between 5 and 9% (CO2 at 20%) with 5 min intervals to mimic intermittent asphyxia during prolonged labor resulted in a slower but quantitatively similar rise in copeptin (peak of 8.3 nM at 30 min). Finally, we demonstrate that our rat model satisfies the standard acid-base criteria for birth asphyxia diagnosis, namely a drop in blood pH below 7.0 and the formation of a negative base excess exceeding -11.2 mmol/l. The mechanistic insights from our work validate the use of the present rodent model in preclinical work on birth asphyxia.
  • Ehrnsten, Eva; Norkko, Alf; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G. (2020)
    Nutrient loading and climate change affect coastal ecosystems worldwide. Unravelling the combined effects of these pressures on benthic macrofauna is essential for understanding the future functioning of coastal ecosystems, as it is an important component linking the benthic and pelagic realms. In this study, we extended an existing model of benthic macrofauna coupled with a physical-biogeochemical model of the Baltic Sea to study the combined effects of changing nutrient loads and climate on biomass and metabolism of benthic macrofauna historically and in scenarios for the future. Based on a statistical comparison with a large validation dataset of measured biomasses, the model showed good or reasonable performance across the different basins and depth strata in the model area. In scenarios with decreasing nutrient loads according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan but also with continued recent loads (mean loads 2012-2014), overall macrofaunal biomass and carbon processing were projected to decrease significantly by the end of the century despite improved oxygen conditions at the seafloor. Climate change led to intensified pelagic recycling of primary production and reduced export of particulate organic carbon to the seafloor with negative effects on macrofaunal biomass. In the high nutrient load scenario, representing the highest recorded historical loads, climate change counteracted the effects of increased productivity leading to a hyperbolic response: biomass and carbon processing increased up to mid-21st century but then decreased, giving almost no net change by the end of the 21st century compared to present. The study shows that benthic responses to environmental change are nonlinear and partly decoupled from pelagic responses and indicates that benthic-pelagic coupling might be weaker in a warmer and less eutrophic sea.
  • Nordfors, Kristiina; Haapasalo, Joonas; Korja, Miikka; Niemela, Anssi; Laine, Jukka; Parkkila, Anna-Kaisa; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S.; Parkkila, Seppo; Haapasalo, Hannu (2010)
  • Fuglsang, Cecilia H.; Johansen, Troels; Kaila, Kai; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming W. (2018)
    Background Impaired brain oxygen delivery can trigger and exacerbate migraine attacks. Normoxic hypercapnia increases brain oxygen delivery markedly by vasodilation of the cerebral vasculature, and hypercapnia has been shown to abort migraine attacks. Stable normoxic hypercapnia can be induced by a compact partial rebreathing device. This pilot study aimed to provide initial data on the device's efficacy and safety. Methods Using a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study design, adult migraine-with-aura patients self-administered the partial rebreathing device or a sham device for 20 minutes at the onset of aura symptoms. Results Eleven participants (mean age 35.5, three men) self-treated 41 migraine attacks (20 with the partial rebreathing device, 21 with sham). The partial rebreathing device increased mean End Tidal CO2 by 24%, while retaining mean oxygen saturation above 97%. The primary end point (headache intensity difference between first aura symptoms and two hours after treatment (0-3 scale) - active/sham difference) did not reach statistical significance (-0.55 (95% CI: -1.13-0.04), p=0.096), whereas the difference in percentage of attacks with pain relief at two hours was significant (p=0.043), as was user satisfaction (p=0.022). A marked efficacy increase was seen from first to second time use of the partial rebreathing device. No adverse events occurred, and side effects were absent or mild. Conclusion Normoxic hypercapnia shows promise as an adjunctive/alternative migraine treatment, meriting further investigation in a larger population. Clinical study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT03472417
  • Jager, Henriette I; Novello, Rebecca; Dale, Virginia; Villnäs, Anna; Rose, Kenneth (2018)
    Coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide in response to human‐caused changes in global climate and biogeochemical cycles. In this paper, we view anthropogenic trends in coastal hypoxia through the lens of disturbance ecology and complexity theory. Complexity theory provides a framework for describing how estuaries and other coastal aquatic ecosystems respond to hypoxia by understanding feedback loops. Can it also be valuable in understanding how these ecosystems behave under shifting (i.e., unnatural) disturbance regimes? When viewed as a disturbance regime, shifts in the spatial (areal extent and fragmentation) and temporal (frequency and duration of events) characteristics of coastal hypoxia can be used to track changes into a non‐stationary future. Here, we consider options for increasing the resilience of coastal aquatic ecosystems to future, unnatural hypoxic regimes. To start, we define desirable states as ecosystems with long trophic chains and slow nutrient and carbon dynamics that produce many ecosystem services. We then work backward to describe circumstances dominated by positive feedbacks that can lead ecosystems toward an undesirable state (i.e., depauperate communities and chemically reduced sediments). Processes of degradation and recovery can be understood in the context of island biogeography whereby species diversity in habitats fragmented by hypoxia is determined by the balance between rapid local extinction, slow recolonization from the edges of hypoxic patches, and opportunities for ecological succession during between disturbance events. We review potential future changes associated with changing global climate and highlight ways to enhance coastal resilience. In addition to efforts to slow climate change, potential interventions include reduced nutrient and carbon loadings from rivers, restoration of aquatic vegetation, and managing for key species, including those that promote sediment oxygenation, that enhance water clarity, or that promote grazing on epiphytic algae through top‐down control.
  • Uimari, Outi; Ahtikoski, Anne; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Butzow, Ralf; Järvelä, Ilkka Y.; Ryynänen, Markku; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Vahteristo, Pia; Kuismin, Outi (2021)
    Introduction Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) constitute a tumor susceptibility syndrome caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. The most common features are leiomyomas of the uterus and the skin. The syndrome includes a predisposition to early-onset, aggressive renal cell cancer. It is important to identify women with HLRCC among other uterine leiomyoma patients in order to direct them to genetic counseling and to identify other affected family members. Material and methods We conducted a nationwide historical study to identify typical clinical characteristics, uterine leiomyoma morphology, and immunohistochemistry for diagnosing HLRCC. The study included 20 women with a known FH germline mutation and 77 women with sporadic uterine leiomyomas. The patient records of all women were reviewed to obtain clinical details regarding their leiomyomas. Uterine leiomyoma tissue specimens from 43 HLRCC-related leiomyomas and 42 sporadic leiomyomas were collected and prepared for histology analysis. A morphologic description was performed on hematoxylin & eosin-stained tissue slides, and immunohistochemical analysis was carried out for CD34, Bcl-2, and p53 stainings. Results The women with HLRCC were diagnosed with uterine leiomyomas at a young age compared with the sporadic leiomyoma group (mean 33.8 years vs. 45.4 years, P < 0.0001), and their leiomyomas occurred as multiples compared with the sporadic leiomyoma group (more than four tumors 88.9% vs. 30.8%, P < 0.0001). Congruently, these women underwent surgical treatment at younger age compared with the sporadic leiomyoma group (mean 37.3 years vs. 48.3 years, P < 0.0001). HLRCC leiomyomas had denser microvasculature highlighted by CD34 immunostaining when compared with the sporadic leiomyoma group (112.6 mean count/high-power field, SD 20.8 vs. 37.4 mean count/high-power field, SD 21.0 P < 0.0001) and stronger anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 immunostaining when compared with the sporadic leiomyoma group (weak 4.7%, moderate 44.2%, strong 51.2% vs. 26.2%, 52.4%, 21.4%, respectively, P = 0.003). No differences were observed in p53 staining. Conclusions Women with HLRCC may be identified through the distinct clinical characteristics: symptomatic and numerous leioymyomas at young age, and morphologic features of FH-mutant leiomyomas, aided by Bcl-2 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Further, distinguishing individuals with a germline FH mutation enables proper genetic counseling and regular renal monitoring.