Browsing by Subject "INFANTS"

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  • Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra (2017)
    This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at
  • Malmberg, Leo Pekka; Malmström, Kristiina; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Lohi, Jouko; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Sarna, Seppo; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2020)
  • Suikkanen, Julia; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Hovi, Petteri (2018)
    Objectives Adults born preterm at very low birthweight (VLBW; Study design The Helsinki Study of VLBW Adults includes 166 VLBW and preterm infants born between 1978 and 1985. We collected postnatal nutrition data among 125 unimpaired subjects, who attended two study visits at the mean ages of 22.5 and 25.1 years. We evaluated the effects of energy and macronutrient intakes during the first three 3-week periods of life on key cardiometabolic risk factors with multiple linear regression models. We also report results adjusted for prenatal, postnatal and adult characteristics. Results Macronutrient and energy intakes were not associated with blood pressure, heart rate, or lipid levels in adulthood. Intakes were neither associated with fasting glucose or most other markers of glucose metabolism. An exception was that the first-three-weeks-of-life intakes predicted higher fasting insulin levels: 1 g/kg/day higher protein intake by 37.6% (95% CI: 8.0%, 75.2%), and 10 kcal/kg/day higher energy intake by 8.6% (2.6%, 14.9%), when adjusted for sex and age. These early intakes similarly predicted the adult homeostasis model assessment index. Further adjustments strengthened these findings. Conclusions Among VLBW infants with relatively low early energy intake, early macronutrient and energy intakes were unrelated to blood pressure, lipid levels and intravenous glucose tolerance test results. Contrary to our hypothesis, a higher macronutrient intake during the first three weeks of life predicted higher fasting insulin concentration in young adulthood.
  • Shaw, Vanessa; Polderman, Nonnie; Renken-Terhaerdt, Jose; Paglialonga, Fabio; Oosterveld, Michiel; Tuokkola, Jetta; Anderson, Caroline; Desloovere, An; Greenbaum, Laurence; Haffner, Dieter; Nelms, Christina; Qizalbash, Leila; Vande Walle, Johan; Warady, Bradley; Shroff, Rukshana; Rees, Lesley (2020)
    Dietary management in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an area fraught with uncertainties and wide variations in practice. Even in tertiary pediatric nephrology centers, expert dietetic input is often lacking. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT), an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, was established to develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) to address these challenges and to serve as a resource for nutritional care. We present CPRs for energy and protein requirements for children with CKD stages 2-5 and those on dialysis (CKD2-5D). We address energy requirements in the context of poor growth, obesity, and different levels of physical activity, together with the additional protein needs to compensate for dialysate losses. We describe how to achieve the dietary prescription for energy and protein using breastmilk, formulas, food, and dietary supplements, which can be incorporated into everyday practice. Statements with a low grade of evidence, or based on opinion, must be considered and adapted for the individual patient by the treating physician and dietitian according to their clinical judgment. Research recommendations have been suggested. The CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.
  • Nevalainen, Päivi; Marchi, Viviana; Metsäranta, Marjo; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Lauronen, Leena (2017)
    Objective: To evaluate the added value of somatosensory (SEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded simultaneously with routine EEG in early outcome prediction of newborns with hypoxicischemic encephalopathy under modern intensive care. Methods: We simultaneously recorded multichannel EEG, median nerve SEPs, and flash VEPs during the first few postnatal days in 50 term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. EEG background was scored into five grades and the worst two grades were considered to indicate poor cerebral recovery. Evoked potentials were classified as absent or present. Clinical outcome was determined from the medical records at a median age of 21 months. Unfavorable outcome included cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, severe epilepsy, or death. Results: The accuracy of outcome prediction was 98% with SEPs compared to 90% with EEG. EEG alone always predicted unfavorable outcome when it was inactive (n = 9), and favorable outcome when it was normal or only mildly abnormal (n = 17). However, newborns with moderate or severe EEG background abnormality could have either favorable or unfavorable outcome, which was correctly predicted by SEP in all but one newborn (accuracy in this subgroup 96%). Absent VEPs were always associated with an inactive EEG, and an unfavorable outcome. However, presence of VEPs did not guarantee a favorable outcome. Conclusions: SEPs accurately predict clinical outcomes in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and improve the EEG-based prediction particularly in those newborns with severely or moderately abnormal EEG findings. Significance: SEPs should be added to routine EEG recordings for early bedside assessment of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (C) 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nyman, Anna; Munck, Petriina; Koivisto, Mari; Hagelstam, Camilla; Korhonen, Tapio; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena (2019)
    Objective: Executive function (EF) problems of children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; = 70 had clinically significant problems in the Working Memory subscale at school. Although they had clinically significant problems at home in the Behavioral Regulation Index, the difference disappeared when adjusted for paternal education. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight z-score, surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, low paternal and maternal education, and lower full-scale IQ were identified to be risk factors for higher scores in ecological assessment of EF. Conclusion: VLBW or VLGA children in this cohort exhibit fewer EF problems in ecological assessment of EF compared to previous literature. EF problems of this study population vary by home and school setting and are emphasized in working memory at school. Screening for EF problems in school environment is recommended to target the support.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Perakyla, Anssi (2015)
    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people's inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.
  • Adults Born Preterm Int Collaborat; Doyle, Lex W.; Andersson, Sture; Bush, Andy; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Clemm, Hege; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Gough, Aisling; Halvorsen, Thomas; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero; Lee, Katherine J.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Narang, Indra; Näsänen-Gilmore, Pieta; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Vollsaeter, Maria; Vrijlandt, Elianne J. L. E. (2019)
    Background Maximal expiratory airflow peaks early in the third decade of life, then gradually declines with age. The pattern of airflow through adulthood for individuals born very preterm (at 2499 g) or at term. Methods We did a meta-analysis of individual participant data from cohort studies, mostly from the pre-surfactant era. Studies were identified through the Adults born Preterm International Collaboration and by searching PubMed and Embase (search date May 25, 2016). Studies were eligible if they reported on expiratory flow rates beyond 16 years of age in individuals born very preterm or with very low birthweight, as well as controls born at term or with normal birthweight. Studies with highly selected cohorts (eg, only participants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia) or in which few participants were born very preterm or with very low birthweight were excluded. De-identified individual participant data from each cohort were provided by the holders of the original data to a central site, where all the data were pooled into one data file. Any data inconsistencies were resolved by discussion with the individual sites concerned. Individual participant data on expiratory flow variables (FEV1, forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75%]) were converted to Z scores and analysed with use of generalised linear mixed models in a one-step approach. Findings Of the 381 studies identified, 11 studies, comprising a total of 935 participants born very preterm or with very low birthweight and 722 controls, were eligible and included in the analysis. Mean age at testing was 21 years (SD 3.4; range 16-33). Mean Z scores were close to zero (as expected) in the control group, but were reduced in the very preterm or very low birthweight group for FEV1 (-0.06 [SD 1.03] vs -0.81 [1.33], mean difference -0.78 [95% CI -0.96 to -0.61], p Interpretation Individuals born very preterm or with very low birthweight are at risk of not reaching their full airway growth potential in adolescence and early adulthood, suggesting an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in later adulthood. Copyright (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Teramo, Kari; Piñeiro-Ramos, José David (2019)
    Oxidative stress is responsible for microvascular complications (hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy) of diabetes, which during pregnancy increase both maternal and fetal complications. Chronic hypoxia and hyperglycemia result in increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity. However, oxidative stress induces also anti-oxidative reactions both in pregnant diabetes patients and in their fetuses. Not all type 1 diabetes patients with long-lasting disease develop microvascular complications, which suggests that some of these patients have protective mechanisms against these complications. Fetal erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of red cell production in the mother and in the fetus, but it has also protective effects in various maternal and fetal tissues. This dual effect of EPO is based on EPO receptor (EPO-R) isoforms, which differ structurally and functionally from the hematopoietic EPO-R isoform. The tissue protective effects of EPO are based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cell proliferative and angiogenic properties. Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that EPO has also positive metabolic effects on hyperglycemia and diabetes, although these have not yet been fully delineated. Whether the tissue protective and metabolic effects of EPO could have clinical benefits, are important topics for future research in diabetic pregnancies.
  • Ruuska, Satu Maria; Laaperi, Mitja Tapani; Hukkinen, Maria; Jalanko, Hannu; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    We addressed growth of biliary atresia (BA) patients living with native livers between ages 0-6 and effects of post-surgical corticosteroid treatment on growth. Growth charts of 28 BA patients born in Finland between 1987 and 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Dosage and length of corticosteroid treatment and hydrocortisone substitution were reviewed. At birth, BA patients were shorter (median height -0.6 (interquartile range (IQR) -1.3 to -0.1) SDS, n=28, P
  • Vesikari, Timo; Virta, Miia; Heinonen, Seppo; Eymin, Cécile; Lavis, Nathalie; Chabanon, Anne Laure; Gresset-Bourgeois, Viviane (2019)
    ABSTRACTVaccination against influenza during pregnancy provides direct protection to pregnant women and indirect protection to their infants. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) are safe and effective during pregnancy, but quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4s) have not been evaluated in pregnant women and their infants. Here, we report the results of a randomized phase IV study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 vs. IIV3 in pregnant women. Participants aged ≥18 years at weeks 20 to 32 of gestation were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive a single dose of IIV4 (n = 230) or IIV3 (n = 116). Between baseline and 21 days after vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers increased in both groups by similar magnitudes for the two influenza A strains and single B strain common to IIV4 and IIV3. For the additional B strain in IIV4, HAI titers were higher in IIV4 recipients than IIV3 recipients (post-/pre-vaccination geometric mean titer ratio, 6.3 [95% CI: 5.1 ? 7.7] vs. 3.4 [95% CI: 2.7 ? 4.3]). At delivery, in both groups, HAI antibody titers for all strains were 1.5 ? 1.9-fold higher in umbilical cord blood than in maternal blood, confirming active transplacental antibody transfer. Rates of solicited and unsolicited vaccine-related adverse events in mothers were similar between the two groups. Live births were reported for all participants and there were no vaccine-related adverse events in newborns. These results suggest IIV4 is as safe and immunogenic as IIV3 in pregnant women, and that maternal immunization with IIV4 should protect newborns against influenza via passively acquired antibodies.
  • Karila, Kristiina; Anttila, Annaleena; Iber, Tarja; Pakarinen, Mikko; Koivusalo, Antti (2019)
    Background: Surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is often complicated by intestinal failure (IF) and intestinal failure associated cholestasis (IFAC). Objective: Assessment of incidence, predictors, and mortality associated with IFAC in surgically treated NEC and SIP. Methods: A retrospective observational study based on hospital records during 1986-2014 in the two largest Finnish neonatal intensive care units was performed. IFAC was defined as conjugated bilirubin >34 mu mo1/1 (2.0 mg/dl) for >= two postoperative weeks while receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Results: In total 225 patients underwent surgery for NEC (n 142; 63%) or SIP (n = 83; 37%). Included were 57 survivors with >= two weeks PN. Sixty-five (42%) patients developed IFAC. Two-year survival with IFAC was 80% and without IFAC 89% (p = 0.13). Of the 65 patients with IFAC, all eight with unresolved IFAC died in comparison to six of 57 (11%) whose IFAC resolved (p <0.0001), while IFAC resolved in all survivors. Survival among patients with resolved IFAC was 89% and with unresolved IFAC (n = 8) 0%, (p <0.0001).IFAC lasted for median 83 (IQR 45-120) days and correlated with the duration of PN (R2 = 0.16, p = 0.03), delay of starting enteral feeds (R2 = 0.12, p = 0.05) and PN lipid emulsion (RR = 1.0 (95% CI = 1.0-1.1) (p = 0.02). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IFAC development associated with septicemias and reoperations. Conclusions: 42% of pre matures who underwent surgery for NEC or SIP developed IFAC. Reoperations and septicemias increased the risk of IFAC. None of the patients with unresolved IFAC survived, but IFAC did not increase overall mortality. Type of study: Retrospective prognosis study. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Korpela, Katri; Blakstad, Elin W.; Moltu, Sissel J.; Strommen, Kenneth; Nakstad, Britt; Ronnestad, Arild E.; Braekke, Kristin; Iversen, Per O.; Drevon, Christian A.; de Vos, Willem (2018)
    The intestinal microbiota is an important contributor to the health of preterm infants, and may be destabilized by a number of environmental factors and treatment modalities. How to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in preterm infants is largely unknown. We collected fecal samples from 45 breastfed preterm very low birth weight (birth weight <1500 g) infants from birth until 60 days postnatal age to characterize the intestinal microbiota development during the first weeks of life in preterm infants. Fecal microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The main driver of microbiota development was gestational age; antibiotic use had strong but temporary effects and birth mode had little influence. Microbiota development proceeded in four phases indicated by the dominance of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, and finally Bifidobacterium. The Enterococcus phase was only observed among the extremely premature infants and appeared to delay the microbiota succession. The results indicate that hospitalized preterm infants receiving breast milk may develop a normal microbiota resembling that of term infants.
  • Heliövaara, Arja; Leikola, Junnu; Koljonen, Virve; Vuola, Pia; Koivikko, Mika (2018)
    The aim of this study is to compare the length of synostosis and segmented intracranial volume (SIV) with age in children with non-syndromic sagittal synostosis. Thirty-three consecutive patients (22 boys) who had been operated by cranial vault remodeling because of sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively from 3D-CT imaging data sets obtained from volumetric CT. The mean age of the patients at preoperative CT imaging was 0.49 (range 0.13-1.3) years and at 1-year postoperative imaging 1.8 (range 1.3-3) years. The mean interval between preoperative CT imaging and surgery was 0.25 (range 0-0.8) years. Pearson's correlation and Student's t test were used in the statistical analyses. Length of sagittal synostosis correlated positively with age at preoperative CT (r = 0.688, p <0.01). Children with total synostosis (n = 9) were significantly older (mean age 0.74 vs. 0.4 years, p <0.01) than those with partial synostosis. Of partial synostoses, 9 were located anteriorly, 3 in the middle, and 12 posteriorly. The mean synostosis ratio (synostosis length/total sagittal suture length x 100) was 83%. Preoperative SIV correlated positively with age at preoperative CT (r = 0.788, p <0.01), whereas the 1-year postoperative SIV did not correlate with age at operation. The older the child at the time of the operation, the less the percentage SIV increased. Length of sagittal synostosis and SIV increased with age.
  • Thorlacius, Elin M.; Wåhlander, Håkan; Ojala, Tiina; Ylänen, Kaisa; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Synnergren, Mats; Romlin, Birgitta S.; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Castellheim, Albert (2020)
    Objective : We aimed to determine the differential effects of intra-operative administration of milrinone versus levosimendan on myocardial function after pediatric cardiac surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography was employed for myocardial function evaluation, utilizing biventricular longitudinal strain with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to conventional echocardiographic variables. Design : A secondary analysis of a randomized, prospective, double-blinded clinical drug trial Setting : Two pediatric tertiary university hospitals Participants : Infants between 1-12 months of age diagnosed with ventricular septal defect, complete atrioventricular septal defect, or tetralogy of Fallot who were scheduled for corrective surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions : The patients were randomized to receive an infusion of milrinone or levosimendan at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass and for 26 consecutive hours. Measurements and main results : Biventricular longitudinal strain and conventional echocardiographic variables were measured preoperatively, on the first postoperative morning and prior to hospital discharge. The association between perioperative parameters and postoperative myocardial function was also investigated. Images were analyzed for left ventricular (n=67) and right ventricular (n=44) function. The day after surgery, left ventricular longitudinal strain was deteriorated in both the milrinone and levosimendan groups; 33% and 39%, respectively. The difference was not significant. The corresponding deterioration in right ventricular longitudinal strain was 42% and 50% (non-significant difference). For both groups, biventricular longitudinal strain approached their preoperative values at hospital discharge. Preoperative N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide could predict the left ventricular strain on postoperative day one (p=0.014). Conclusions : Levosimendan was comparable to milrinone for left and right ventricular inotropic support in pediatric cardiac surgery.
  • Näsänen-Gilmore, Pieta; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero (2018)
    Very preterm birth, before the gestational age (GA) of 32 weeks, increases the risk of obstructed airflow in adulthood. We examined whether all preterm births (GA= 37 weeks). Preterm birth was associated with poorer lung function. Mean differences between individuals born early preterm versus full-term were -0.23 standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.40, -0.05)) for forced vital capacity z-score (zFVC), -0.44 SD (95% CI -0.64, -0.25) for forced expiratory volume z-score (zFEV1), and -0.29 SD (95% CI -0.47, -0.10) for zFEV1/FVC. For late preterm, mean differences with full-term controls were -0.02 SD (95% CI -0.17, 0.13), -0.12 SD (95% CI -0.29, 0.04) and -0.13 SD (95% CI -0.29, 0.02) for zFVC, zFEV1, and zFEV1/FVC, respectively. Examination of finer GA subgroups suggested an inverse non-linear association between lung function and GA, with the greatest impact on zFEV1 for those born extremely preterm. The subgroup means were GA= 37weeks): 0.02 SD. Corresponding means for zFEV1/FVC were -1.79, -0.44, -0.47, -0.48, -0.29, and -0.02. Adjustment for maternal pregnancy conditions and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors had no major impact on the relationship. Preterm birth is associated with airflow limitation in adult life. The association appears to be attributable predominantly to those born most immature, with only a modest decrease among those born preterm at later gestational ages.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Orden, Maija-Riitta; Heinonen, Seppo Tapani; Voutilainen, Raimo (2016)
    AimMaternal alcohol abuse is poorly recognised and causes developmental problems. This study explored the foetal central nervous systems (CNS), head circumference and psychomotor development of children exposed to drugs or alcohol during pregnancy up to 2.5years of age. MethodsWe recruited 23 pregnant women referred to Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, by their family doctor because of drug or alcohol abuse, and 22 control mothers. Foetal CNS parameters were measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography at the mean gestational age of 20weeks and the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS), and anthropometric measurements were carried out at the mean ages of one and 2.5years. ResultsThe exposed foetuses had decreased biparietal and occipito-frontal distances and head circumferences, but unchanged cerebellar volume at 20weeks, and decreased head circumferences and length and height at birth, one and 2.5years of age. They scored lower than the controls on the GMDS general quotient and the hearing, language and locomotor subscales at 2.5years of age. ConclusionMaternal alcohol or drug exposure was associated with decreased head size from mid-pregnancy to childhood and reduced development at 2.5years. Foetal head circumference at mid-pregnancy was a useful indicator of substance abuse affecting theCNS.
  • Lavonius, Maria; Railo, Henry; Karlsson, Linnea; Wikström, Valtteri; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Scheinin, Noora M.; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Polo-Kantola, Paivi; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna (2020)
    Poor maternal sleep quality during pregnancy may act as a prenatal stress factor for the fetus and associate with neonate neurocognition, for example via fetal programming. The impacts of worsened maternal sleep on neonatal development and, more specifically on neonatal auditory brain responses, have not been studied. A total of 155 mother-neonate dyads drawn from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study participated in our study including maternal self-report questionnaires on sleep at gestational week 24 and an event-related potential (ERP) measurement among 1-2-day-old neonates. For sleep quality assessment, the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) was used and calculated scores for (1) insomnia, (2) subjective sleep loss and (3) sleepiness were formed and applied in the analyses. In the auditory ERP protocol, three emotionally uttered pseudo words (in happy, angry and sad valence) were presented among neutrally uttered pseudo words. To study the relations between prenatal maternal sleep quality and auditory emotion-related ERP responses, mixed-effects regression models were computed for early (100-200 ms) and late (300-500 ms) ERP response time-windows. All of the selected BNSQ scores were associated with neonatal ERP responses for happy and angry emotion stimuli (sleep loss and sleepiness in the early, and insomnia, sleep loss and sleepiness in the late time-window). For sad stimuli, only maternal sleep loss predicted the neonatal ERP response in the late time-window, likely because the overall ERP was weakest in the sad condition. We conclude that maternal sleep quality during pregnancy is associated with changes in neonatal auditory ERP responses.
  • Marchi, Viviana; Stevenson, Nathan; Koolen, Ninah; Mazziotti, Raffaele; Moscuzza, Francesca; Salvadori, Stefano; Pieri, Rossella; Ghirri, Paolo; Guzzetta, Andrea; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2020)
    Early nutritional compromise after preterm birth is shown to affect long-term neurodevelopment, however, there has been a lack of early functional measures of nutritional effects. Recent progress in computational electroencephalography (EEG) analysis has provided means to measure the early maturation of cortical activity. Our study aimed to explore whether computational metrics of early sequential EEG recordings could reflect early nutritional care measured by energy and macronutrient intake in the first week of life. A higher energy or macronutrient intake was assumed to associate with improved development of the cortical activity. We analyzed multichannel EEG recorded at 32 weeks (32.4 ± 0.7) and 36 weeks (36.6 ± 0.9) of postmenstrual age in a cohort of 28 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of postmenstrual age (range: 24.3–32 weeks). We computed several quantitative EEG measures from epochs of quiet sleep (QS): (i) spectral power; (ii) continuity; (iii) interhemispheric synchrony, as well as (iv) the recently developed estimate of maturational age. Parenteral nutritional intake from day 1 to day 7 was monitored and clinical factors collected. Lower calories and carbohydrates were found to correlate with a higher reduction of spectral amplitude in the delta band. Lower protein amount associated with higher discontinuity. Both higher proteins and lipids intake correlated with a more developmental increase in interhemispheric synchrony as well as with better progress in the estimate of EEG maturational age (EMA). Our study shows that early nutritional balance after preterm birth may influence subsequent maturation of brain activity in a way that can be observed with several intuitively reasoned and transparent computational EEG metrics. Such measures could become early functional biomarkers that hold promise for benchmarking in the future development of therapeutic interventions.
  • Robinson, Rachel; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Schnitzlein, Daniel; Voit, Falk; Girchenko, Polina; Wolke, Dieter; Lemola, Sakari; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri (2020)
    Preterm birth research is poised to explore the mental health of adults born very preterm(VP;1970) included VP/VLBW individuals with controls born at term(≥37+0 weeks) or with normal birth weight(NBW; ≥2500g). Thirteen studies were included. Studies consistently showed an increased risk for psychotropic medication use for VP/VLBW adults in comparison to NBW/term controls, but whether VP/VLBW adults have an increased risk for mental health disorders or symptoms appearing in adulthood remains uncertain. The quality of the evidence was moderate (65.8%) to high (34.2%). Further research in larger samples is needed.