Browsing by Subject "INHIBITION"

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  • Haapaniemi, Emma; Botla, Sandeep; Persson, Jenna; Schmierer, Bernhard; Taipale, Jussi (2018)
    Here, we report that genome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 induces a p53-mediated DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest in immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial cells, leading to a selection against cells with a functional p53 pathway. Inhibition of p53 prevents the damage response and increases the rate of homologous recombination from a donor template. These results suggest that p53 inhibition may improve the efficiency of genome editing of untransformed cells and that p53 function should be monitored when developing cell-based therapies utilizing CRISPR-Cas9.
  • Tossavainen, Marika; Nykänen, Anne; Valkonen, Kalle Santeri; Ojala, Anne; Silja, Kostia; Romantschuk, Martin (2017)
    Growth and fatty acid production of microalga Selenastrum sp. with associated bacteria was studied in lab-scale experiments in three composting leachate liquids. Nutrient reduction in cultures was measured at different initial substrate strengths. A small, pilot-scale photobioreactor (PBR) was used to verify labscale results. Similar growth conditions supported growth of both Selenastrum and bacteria. CO2 feed enhanced the production of biomass and lipids in PBR (2.4 g L-1 and 17% DW) compared to lab-scale (0.1-1.6 g L-1 and 4.0-6.5% DW) experiments. Also prolonged cultivation time increased lipid content in PBR. At both scales, NH4-N with an initial concentration of ca. 40 mg L-1 was completely removed from the biowaste leachate. In lab-scale, maximal COD reduction was over 2000 mg L-1, indicating mixotrophic growth of Selenastrum. Co-cultures are efficient in composting leachate liquid treatment, and conversion of waste to biomass is a promising approach to improve the bioeconomy of composting plants. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Roselli, Marianna; Finamore, Alberto; Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi; Mengheri, Elena (2016)
    Background: The role of Lactobacillus cell wall components in the protection against pathogen infection in the gut is still largely unexplored. We have previously shown that L. amylovorus DSM 16698(T) is able to reduce the enterotoxigenic F4(+)Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion and prevent the pathogen-induced membrane barrier disruption through the regulation of IL-10 and IL-8 expression in intestinal cells. We have also demonstrated that L. amylovorus DSM 16698T protects host cells through the inhibition of NF-kB signaling. In the present study, we investigated the role of L. amylovorus DSM 16698(T) cell wall components in the protection against F4(+)ETEC infection using the intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Methods: Purified cell wall fragments (CWF) from L. amylovorus DSM 16698T were used either as such (uncoated, U-CWF) or coated with S-layer proteins (S-CWF). Differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells on Transwell filters were infected with F4(+)ETEC, treated with S-CWF or U-CWF, co-treated with S-CWF or U-CWF and F4(+)ETEC for 2.5 h, or pre-treated with S-CWF or U-CWF for 1 h before F4(+)ETEC addition. Tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Membrane permeability was determined by phenol red passage. Phosphorylated p65-NF-kB was measured by Western blot. Results: We showed that both the pre-treatment with S-CWF and the co- treatment of S-CWF with the pathogen protected the cells from F4(+)ETEC induced TJ and AJ injury, increased membrane permeability and activation of NF-kB expression. Moreover, the U-CWF pre-treatment, but not the co- treatment with F4(+)ETEC, inhibited membrane damage and prevented NF-kB activation. Conclusions: The results indicate that the various components of L. amylovorus DSM 16698(T) cell wall may counteract the damage caused by F4(+)ETEC through different mechanisms. S-layer proteins are essential for maintaining membrane barrier function and for mounting an anti-inflammatory response against F4(+)ETEC infection. U-CWF are not able to defend the cells when they are infected with F4(+)ETEC but may activate protective mechanisms before pathogen infection.
  • Malinen, Melina M.; Kanninen, Liisa K.; Corlu, Anne; Isoniemi, Helena M.; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo L.; Urtti, Arto O. (2014)
  • Andersen, Petter I.; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Lysvand, Hilde; Oksenych, Valentyn; Bjørås, Magnar; Telling, Kaidi; Lutsar, Irja; Dampis, Uga; Irie, Yasuhiko; Tenson, Tanel; Kantele, Anu; Kainov, Denis (2020)
    Viral diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Virus-specific vaccines and antiviral drugs are the most powerful tools to combat viral diseases. However, broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs, i.e. compounds targeting viruses belonging to two or more viral families) could provide additional protection of the general population from emerging and re-emerging viral diseases, reinforcing the arsenal of available antiviral options. Here, we review discovery and development of BSAAs and summarize the information on 120 safe-in-man agents in a freely accessible database (https://drugvirus.info/). Future and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical studies will increase the number of BSAAs, expand the spectrum of their indications, and identify drug combinations for treatment of emerging and re-emerging viral infections as well as co-infections. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.
  • Lissina, Anna; McLaren, James E.; Ilander, Mette; Andersson, Emma I.; Lewis, Catherine S.; Clement, Mathew; Herman, Andrew; Ladell, Kristin; Llewellyn-Lacey, Sian; Miners, Kelly L.; Gostick, Emma; Melenhorst, J. Joseph; Barrett, A. John; Price, David A.; Mustjoki, Satu; Wooldridge, Linda (2018)
    CD8(+) T-cell expansions are the primary manifestation of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGLL), which is frequently accompanied by neutropenia and rheumatoid arthritis, and also occur as a secondary phenomenon in leukemia patients treated with dasatinib, notably in association with various drug-induced side-effects. However, the mechanisms that underlie the genesis and maintenance of expanded CD8(+) T-cell receptor (TCR)-V beta(+) populations in these patient groups have yet to be fully defined. In this study, we performed a comprehensive phenotypic and clonotypic assessment of expanded (TCR-V beta(+)) and residual (TCR-V beta(-)) CD8(+) T-cell populations in T-LGLL and dasatinib-treated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. The dominant CD8(+) TCR-V beta(+) expansions in T-LGLL patients were largely monoclonal and highly differentiated, whereas the dominant CD8(+) TCR-V beta(+) expansions in dasatinib-treated CML patients were oligoclonal or polyclonal, and displayed a broad range of memory phenotypes. These contrasting features suggest divergent roles for antigenic drive in the immunopathogenesis of primary versus dasatinib-associated CD8(+) TCR-V beta(+) expansions.
  • Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Lie, Elisabeth; Nasonov, Evgeny; Lukina, Galina; Hetland, Merete Lund; Tarp, Ulrik; Ancuta, Ioan; Pavelka, Karel; Nordstrom, Dan C.; Gabay, Cem; Canhao, Helene; Tomsic, Matija; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Kvien, Tore K.; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Rheumatic Dis Portuguese Register (2016)
    Background: The approved dose of rituximab (RTX) in rheumatoid arthritis is 1000 mg x 2, but some data have suggested similar clinical efficacy with 500 mg x 2. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the regular and low doses given as first treatment course. Methods: Twelve European registries participating in the CERERRA collaboration (The European Collaborative Registries for the Evaluation of Rituximab in Rheumatoid Arthritis) submitted anonymized datasets with demographic, efficacy and treatment data for patients who had started RTX. Treatment effectiveness was assessed by DAS28 reductions and EULAR responses after 6 months. Results: Data on RTX dose were available for 2,873 patients, of whom 2,625 (91.4 %) and 248 (8.6 %) received 1000 mg x 2 and 500 mg x 2, respectively. Patients treated with 500 mg x 2 were significantly older, had longer disease duration, higher number of prior DMARDs, but lower number of prior biologics and lower baseline DAS28 than those treated with 1000 mg x 2. Fewer patients in the low-dose group received concomitant DMARDs but more frequently received concomitant corticosteroids. Both doses led to significant clinical improvements at 6 months. DAS28 reductions at 6 months were comparable in the 2 dose regimens [mean DeltaDAS28 +/- SD -2.0 +/- 1.3 (high dose) vs. -1.7 +/- 1.4 (low dose), p = 0.23 adjusted for baseline differences]. Similar percentages of patients achieved EULAR good response in the two dose groups, 18.4 % vs. 17.3 %, respectively (p = 0.36). Conclusions: In this large observational cohort initial treatment with RTX at 500 mg x 2 and 1000 mg x 2 led to comparable clinical outcomes at 6 months.
  • Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Pertovaara, Antti; You, Hao-Jun (2020)
    Here we investigated effects of intramuscular (i.m.) heating-needle stimulation on persistent muscle nociception evoked by i.m. injection of different doses (50-200 mu l) of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Paw withdrawal reflexes evoked by noxious mechanical and heat stimulation as well as hind limb swelling were determined prior to and two weeks after the CFA injection. The unilateral injection of CFA induced a dose-related and long-lasting (5-14 d), bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and heat hypoalgesia associated with long-term limb swelling. A period of 30-45 min 43 degrees C heating-needle stimulation significantly enhanced the i.m. CFA-induced bilateral heat hypoalgesia and alleviated hind limb swelling. In contrast, 30-45 min 46 degrees C heatingneedle stimulation markedly enhanced both mechanical hyperalgesia and heat hypoalgesia, but failed to influence the CFA-induced hind limb swelling. Microinjection of P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491 (0.5-4.5 nmol/0.5 mu l) into the thalamic ventromedial (VM) nucleus dose-dependently inhibited the 43 degrees C and 46 degrees C heating-needle stimulation-induced heat hypoalgesia, whereas the 46 degrees C heating-needle stimulation-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly prevented by microinjection of A-317491 into the thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus. In contrast, the hind limb swelling was not affected by the microinjection of A-317491 into the thalamic VM or MD nucleus. The present study indicates that in the CFA-induced persistent muscle nociception condition, 43 degrees C heating-needle stimulation selectively increases descending inhibition, which effect is modulated by the thalamic VM nucleus. In addition to the antinociceptive role of P2X3 receptors in the thalamic VM nucleus, P2X3 receptors within the thalamic MD nucleus participate in the descending facilitation evoked by i.m. 46 degrees C heating-needle stimulation. (C) 2020 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Konig, Walter; Konig, Emilia; Elo, Kari; Vanhatalo, Aila; Jaakkola, Seija (2019)
    Legumes are particularly susceptible to clostridial fermentation when ensiled because of their high buffering capacity and water-soluble carbohydrate contents. The aim of the study was to investigate if a sodium nitrite treatment (900 g t(-1) herbage in fresh matter [FM]) impairs butyric acid fermentation of red clover-timothy-meadow fescue silage compared with formic acid-treated (4 l t(-1) FM) and untreated silage. The sward was harvested after wilting at low dry matter (DM) (LDM, 194 g kg(-1)) and high DM (HDM, 314 g kg(-1)) concentrations and half of the herbage batches were inoculated with Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores before additive treatments. No butyric acid fermentation was observed in HDM silages probably because of the relatively high DM and nitrate contents of the herbage mixture. In LDM silage butyric acid was detected only in formic acid-treated silage, and the number of clostridia copies was higher in formic acid-treated than in sodium nitrite treated silage. Sodium nitrite treatment was superior to FA treatment in suppressing clostridial fermentation in the LDM silages.
  • Utami, Kagistia Hana; Yusof, Nur Amirah Binte Mohammad; Kwa, Jing Eugene; Peteri, Ulla-Kaisa; Castrén, Maija L.; Pouladi, Mahmoud A. (2020)
    FXS is the most common genetic cause of intellectual (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). FXS is caused by loss of FMRP, an RNA-binding protein involved in the translational regulation of a large number of neuronal mRNAs. Absence of FMRP has been shown to lead to elevated protein synthesis and is thought to be a major cause of the synaptic plasticity and behavioural deficits in FXS. The increase in protein synthesis results in part from abnormal activation of key protein translation pathways downstream of ERK1/2 and mTOR signalling. Pharmacological and genetic interventions that attenuate hyperactivation of these pathways can normalize levels of protein synthesis and improve phenotypic outcomes in animal models of FXS. Several efforts are currently underway to trial this strategy in patients with FXS. To date, elevated global protein synthesis as a result of FMRP loss has not been validated in the context of human neurons. Here, using an isogenic human stem cell-based model, we show that de novo protein synthesis is elevated in FMRP-deficient neural cells. We further show that this increase is associated with elevated ERK1/2 and Akt signalling and can be rescued by metformin treatment. Finally, we examined the effect of normalizing protein synthesis on phenotypic abnormalities in FMRP-deficient neural cells. We find that treatment with metformin attenuates the increase in proliferation of FMRP-deficient neural progenitor cells but not the neuronal deficits in neurite outgrowth. The elevated level of protein synthesis and the normalization of neural progenitor proliferation by metformin treatment were validated in additional control and FXS patient-derived hiPSC lines. Overall, our results validate that loss of FMRP results in elevated de novo protein synthesis in human neurons and suggest that approaches targeting this abnormality are likely to be of partial therapeutic benefit in FXS.
  • Poelman, Randy; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Josset, Laurence; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Lina, Bruno; Vuorinen, Tytti; ESCV-ECDC EV-D68 Study Grp; Lappalainen, Maija; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Smura, Teemu (2015)
    Background: In August and September 2014, unexpected clusters of enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) infections associated with severe respiratory disease emerged from North-America. In September, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) asked European countries to strengthen respiratory sample screening for enterovirus detection and typing in cases with severe respiratory presentations. Objectives: To provide a detailed picture of EV-D68 epidemiology in Europe by conducting a retrospective and prospective laboratory analysis of clinical specimens. Study design: An initiative supported by the European Society for Clinical Virology (ESCV) and ECDC was launched to screen for EV-D68 in respiratory specimens between July 1st and December 1st 2014 in Europe and to sequence the VP1 region of detected viruses for phylogenetic analytic purposes. Results: Forty-two institutes, representing 51 laboratories from 17 European countries, analyzed 17,248 specimens yielding 389 EV-D68 positive samples (2.26%) in 14 countries. The proportion of positive samples ranged between 0 and 25% per country. These infections resulted primarily in mild respiratory disease, mainly detected in young children presenting with wheezing and in immuno-compromised adults. The viruses detected in Europe are genetically very similar to those of the North-American epidemic and the majority (83%) could be assigned to clade B. Except for 3 acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, one death and limited ICU admissions, no severe cases were reported. Conclusions: The European study showed that EV-D68 circulated in Europe during summer and fall of 2014 with a moderate disease burden and different pathogenic profile compared to the North-American epidemic. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Turunen, S. Pauliina; von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Öhman, Tiina; Gucciardo, Erika; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Martins, Beatriz; Rantanen, Ville; Li, Huini; Höpfner, Katrin; Östling, Päivi; Varjosalo, Markku; Lehti, Kaisa (2019)
    Cancer cells balance with the equilibrium of cell death and growth to expand and metastasize. The activity of mammalian sterile20-like kinases (MST1/2) has been linked to apoptosis and tumor suppression via YAP/Hippo pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms. Using a kinase substrate screen, we identified here MST1 and MST2 among the top substrates for fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). In COS-1 cells, MST1 was phosphorylated at Y433 residue in an FGFR4 kinase activity-dependent manner, as assessed by mass spectrometry. Blockade of this phosphorylation by Y433F mutation induced MST1 activation, as indicated by increased threonine phosphorylation of MST1/2, and the downstream substrate MOB1, in FGFR4-overexpressing T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Importantly, the specific knockdown or short-term inhibition of FGFR4 in endogenous models of human HER2(+) breast cancer cells likewise led to increased MST1/2 activation, in conjunction with enhanced MST1 nuclear localization and generation of N-terminal cleaved and autophosphorylated MST1. Unexpectedly, MST2 was also essential for this MST1/N activation and coincident apoptosis induction, although these two kinases, as well as YAP, were differentially regulated in the breast cancer models analyzed. Moreover, pharmacological FGFR4 inhibition specifically sensitized the HER2(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, not only to HER2/EGFR and AKT/mTOR inhibitors, but also to clinically relevant apoptosis modulators. In TCGA cohort, FGFR4 overexpression correlated with abysmal HER2(+) breast carcinoma patient outcome. Therefore, our results uncover a clinically relevant, targetable mechanism of FGFR4 oncogenic activity via suppression of the stress-associated MST1/2-induced apoptosis machinery in tumor cells with prominent HER/ERBB and FGFR4 signaling-driven proliferation.
  • Steinzeig, Anna; Cannarozzo, Cecilia; Castren, Eero (2019)
    Heightened neuronal plasticity expressed during early postnatal life has been thought to permanently decline once critical periods have ended. For example, monocular deprivation is able to shift ocular dominance in the mouse visual cortex during the first months of life, but this effect is lost later in life. However, various treatments, such as the antidepressant fluoxetine, can reactivate a critical period-like plasticity in the adult brain. When monocular deprivation is supplemented with chronic fluoxetine administration, a major shift in ocular dominance is produced after the critical period has ended. In the current study, we characterized the temporal patterns of fluoxetine-induced plasticity in the adult mouse visual cortex, using in vivo optical imaging. We found that artificially induced plasticity in ocular dominance extended beyond the duration of the naturally occurring critical period and continued as long as fluoxetine was administered. However, this fluoxetine-induced plasticity period ended as soon as the drug was not given. These features of antidepressant-induced plasticity may be useful when designing treatment strategies involving long-term antidepressant treatment in humans.
  • Inamdar, Kaushik; Tsai, Feng-Ching; Dibsy, Rayane; de Poret, Aurore; Manzi, John; Merida, Peggy; Muller, Remi; Lappalainen, Pekka; Roingeard, Philippe; Mak, Johnson; Bassereau, Patricia; Favard, Cyril; Muriaux, Delphine (2021)
    During HIV-1 particle formation, the requisite plasma membrane curvature is thought to be solely driven by the retroviral Gag protein. Here, we reveal that the cellular I-BAR protein IRSp53 is required for the progression of HIV-1 membrane curvature to complete particle assembly. siRNA-mediated knockdown of IRSp53 gene expression induces a decrease in viral particle production and a viral bud arrest at half completion. Single-molecule localization microscopy at the cell plasma membrane shows a preferential localization of IRSp53 around HIV-1 Gag assembly sites. In addition, we observe the presence of IRSp53 in purified HIV-1 particles. Finally, HIV-1 Gag protein preferentially localizes to curved membranes induced by IRSp53 I-BAR domain on giant unilamellar vesicles. Overall, our data reveal a strong interplay between IRSp53 I-BAR and Gag at membranes during virus assembly. This highlights IRSp53 as a crucial host factor in HIV-1 membrane curvature and its requirement for full HIV-1 particle assembly.
  • Rehan, Shahid; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka (2017)
    The human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) is important for the entry of anti-cancer and antiviral nucleoside analog therapeutics into the cell, and thus for their efficacy. Understanding of hENT1 structure -function relationship could assist with development of nucleoside analogs with better cellular uptake properties. However, structural and biophysical studies of hENT1 remain challenging as the hydrophobic nature of the protein leads to complete aggregation upon detergent-based membrane isolation. Here we report detergent-free reconstitution of the hENT1 transporter into styrene maleic acid co-polymer lipid particles (SMALPs) that form a native lipid disc. SMALP-purified hENT1, expressed in Sf9 insect cells binds a variety of ligands with a similar affinity as the protein in native membrane, and exhibits increased thermal stability compared to detergent-solubilized hENT1. hENT1-SMALPs purified using FLAG affinity M2 resin yielded similar to 0.4 mg of active and homogenous protein per liter of culture as demonstrated by ligand binding, size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE analyses. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis showed that each hENT1 lipid disc contains 16 phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 2 phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid molecules. Polyunsaturated lipids are specifically excluded from the hENT1 lipid discs, possibly reflecting a functional requirement for a dynamic lipid environment. Our work demonstrates that human nucleoside transporters can be extracted and purified without removal from their native lipid environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for their biophysical and structural studies. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Binder, Martin; Chmielarz, Piotr; Mckinnon, Peter J.; Biggs, Leah C.; Thesleff, Irma; Balic, Anamaria (2019)
    Continuous growth of the mouse incisor teeth is due to the life-long maintenance of epithelial stem cells (SCs) in their niche called cervical loop (CL). Several signaling factors regulate SC maintenance and/or their differentiation to achieve organ homeostasis. Previous studies indicated that Hedgehog signaling is crucial for both the maintenance of the SCs in the niche, as well as for their differentiation. How Hedgehog signaling regulates these two opposing cellular behaviors within the confinement of the CL remains elusive. In this study, we used in vitro organ and cell cultures to pharmacologically attenuate Hedgehog signaling. We analyzed expression of various genes expressed in the SC niche to determine the effect of altered Hedgehog signaling on the cellular hierarchy within the niche. These genes include markers of SCs (Sox2 and Lgr5) and transit-amplifying cells (P-cadherin, Sonic Hedgehog, and Yap). Our results show that Hedgehog signaling is a critical survival factor for SCs in the niche, and that the architecture and the diversity of the SC niche are regulated by multiple Hedgehog ligands. We demonstrated the presence of an additional Hedgehog ligand, nerve-derived Desert Hedgehog, secreted in the proximity of the CL. In addition, we provide evidence that Hedgehog receptors Ptch1 and Ptch2 elicit independent responses, which enable multimodal Hedgehog signaling to simultaneously regulate SC maintenance and differentiation. Our study indicates that the cellular hierarchy in the continuously growing incisor is a result of complex interplay of two Hedgehog ligands with functionally distinct Ptch receptors. Stem Cells 2019;37:1238-1248
  • Agarwal, Rahul; Narayan, Jitendra; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Saraswat, Mayank; Tomar, Anil Kumar (2017)
    A very low 5-year survival rate among hepatocelluHar carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to lack of early stage diagnosis, distant metastasis and high risk of postoperative recurrence. Hence ascertaining novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient specific therapeutics is crucial and urgent. Here, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression data of 423 HCC patients (373 tumors and 50 controls) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TOGA) followed by pathway enrichment by gene ontology annotations, subtype classification and overall survival analysis. The differential gene expression analysis using non-parametric Wilcoxon test revealed a total of 479 up-regulated and 91 down-regulated genes in HCC compared to controls. The list of top differentially expressed genes mainly consists of tumor/cancer associated genes, such as AFP, THBS4, LCN2, GPC3, NUF2, etc. The genes over-expressed in HCC were mainly associated with cell cycle pathways. In total, 59 kinases associated genes were found over expressed in HCC, including TTK, MELK, BUB1, NEK2, BUB1B, AURKB, PLK1, CDK1, PKMYT1, PBK, etc. Overall four distinct HCC subtypes were predicted using consensus clustering method. Each subtype was unique in terms of gene expression, pathway enrichment and median survival. Conclusively, this study has exposed a number of interesting genes which can be exploited in future as potential markers of HCC, diagnostic as well as prognostic and subtype classification may guide for improved and specific therapy.
  • Mateos, Marion K.; Tulstrup, Morten; Quinn, Michael C. J.; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Marshall, Glenn M.; Gupta, Ramneek; Mayoh, Chelsea; Wolthers, Benjamin O.; Barbaro, Pasquale M.; Ruud, Ellen; Sutton, Rosemary; Huttunen, Pasi; Revesz, Tamas; Trakymiene, Sonata S.; Barbaric, Draga; Tedgard, Ulf; Giles, Jodie E.; Alvaro, Frank; Jonsson, Olafur G.; Mechinaud, Francoise; Saks, Kadri; Catchpoole, Daniel; Kotecha, Rishi S.; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Trahair, Toby N.; MacGregor, Stuart; Schmiegelow, Kjeld (2020)
    Symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs in five percent of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but whether a genetic predisposition exists across different ALL treatment regimens has not been well studied. Methods: We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis for VTE in consecutively treated children in the Nordic/Baltic acute lymphoblastic leukemia 2008 (ALL2008) cohort and the Australian Evaluation of Risk of ALL Treatment-Related Side-Effects (ERASE) cohort. A total of 92 cases and 1481 controls of European ancestry were included. Results: No SNPs reached genome-wide significance (p <5 x 10(-8)) in either cohort. Among the top 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p <1 x 10(-6)), two loci had concordant effects in both cohorts: ALOX15B (rs1804772) (MAF: 1%; p = 3.95 x 10(-7)) that influences arachidonic acid metabolism and thus platelet aggregation, and KALRN (rs570684) (MAF: 1%; p = 4.34 x 10(-7)) that has been previously associated with risk of ischemic stroke, atherosclerosis, and early-onset coronary artery disease. Conclusion: This represents the largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted to date associating SNPs to VTE in children and adolescents treated on childhood ALL protocols. Validation of these findings is needed and may then lead to patient stratification for VTE preventive interventions. As VTE hemostasis involves multiple pathways, a more powerful GWAS is needed to detect combination of variants associated with VTE.
  • Ali, Mehreen; Khan, Suleiman A.; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2018)
    Motivation: Proteomics profiling is increasingly being used for molecular stratification of cancer patients and cell-line panels. However, systematic assessment of the predictive power of large-scale proteomic technologies across various drug classes and cancer types is currently lacking. To that end, we carried out the first pan-cancer, multi-omics comparative analysis of the relative performance of two proteomic technologies, targeted reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and global mass spectrometry (MS), in terms of their accuracy for predicting the sensitivity of cancer cells to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and molecularly targeted anticancer compounds. Results: Our results in two cell-line panels demonstrate how MS profiling improves drug response predictions beyond that of the RPPA or the other omics profiles when used alone. However, frequent missing MS data values complicate its use in predictive modeling and required additional filtering, such as focusing on completely measured or known oncoproteins, to obtain maximal predictive performance. Rather strikingly, the two proteomics profiles provided complementary predictive signal both for the cytotoxic and targeted compounds. Further, information about the cellular-abundance of primary target proteins was found critical for predicting the response of targeted compounds, although the non-target features also contributed significantly to the predictive power. The clinical relevance of the selected protein markers was confirmed in cancer patient data. These results provide novel insights into the relative performance and optimal use of the widely applied proteomic technologies, MS and RPPA, which should prove useful in translational applications, such as defining the best combination of omics technologies and marker panels for understanding and predicting drug sensitivities in cancer patients.
  • Obradovic, Milan M. S.; Hamelin, Baptiste; Manevski, Nenad; Couto, Joana Pinto; Sethi, Atul; Coissieux, Marie-May; Munst, Simone; Okamoto, Ryoko; Kohler, Hubertus; Schmidt, Alexander; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed (2019)
    Diversity within or between tumours and metastases (known as intra-patient tumour heterogeneity) that develops during disease progression is a serious hurdle for therapy(1-3). Metastasis is the fatal hallmark of cancer and the mechanisms of colonization, the most complex step in the metastatic cascade(4), remain poorly defined. A clearer understanding of the cellular and molecular processes that underlie both intra-patient tumour heterogeneity and metastasis is crucial for the success of personalized cancer therapy. Here, using transcriptional profiling of tumours and matched metastases in patient-derived xenograft models in mice, we show cancer-site-specific phenotypes and increased glucocorticoid receptor activity in distant metastases. The glucocorticoid receptor mediates the effects of stress hormones, and of synthetic derivatives of these hormones that are used widely in the clinic as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. We show that the increase in stress hormones during breast cancer progression results in the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor at distant metastatic sites, increased colonization and reduced survival. Our transcriptomics, proteomics and phospho-proteomics studies implicate the glucocorticoid receptor in the activation of multiple processes in metastasis and in the increased expression of kinase ROR1, both of which correlate with reduced survival. The ablation of ROR1 reduced metastatic outgrowth and prolonged survival in preclinical models. Our results indicate that the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor increases heterogeneity and metastasis, which suggests that caution is needed when using glucocorticoids to treat patients with breast cancer who have developed cancer-related complications.